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the more or less highly wrought description of the exports are deserving of particular attention.
This trade will be considerably altered this year, in consequence of the absence of the usual supplies of cotton and tobacco. This change very greatly lessens the cotton trade, and gives a corresponding increase to that of linen and jute. The large importation of sugar at this port is for refining, as very extensive sugar refineries are located at Greenock. The amount of duties collected upon these importations in 1861 was $6,617,151, or nearly fifteen per cent.
The following table, carefully compiled from the records of the consulate and other authentic sources, will convey an accurate impression of the character and value of the American trade with this port.
EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES.
Trade between the United States and the ports of the Clyde, from October 1, 1861, to October 1, 1862.
Quantities in Total value.
in American foreign ships.
in American foreign ships ships.
The export of pig iron hence to the United States seems to be gradually declining. The quantity in 1859 was 85,187 tons; in 1860, 77,632 tons; in 1861, 34,482 tons; in 1862, 18,240 tons, for nine months.
Last year the price was from 48 to 49 shillings per ton. This year it has ranged from five to seven shillings higher, and is now worth 55s. 6d., with stock on hand to the amount of 273,000 tons.
The export of cotton sewing thread is large, but it also seems to be declining, as will be seen by the following figures:
Value for the first quarter, 1862....
$221, 222 88
175, 771 60 122,712 42
The total value of the inward cargoes of American ships arriving at this port for the year last past, from October 1, 1861, to October 1, 1862, is $4,953,618, or nearly five millions, while the outward cargoes have amounted only to $1, 150, 079. This difference between the values of the inward and outward cargoes of the same ships is explained when it is understood that the chief import trade is in American sailing ships, while the export of all, or nearly all, of the lighter and finer goods is made in British steamships; as the United States have no such steamers to British ports, they cannot participate in this growing business.
The demand for breadstuffs and provisions for the last two years has been very large, and must continue so for the next year, although there is but little probability that the price will be high. The crops here are only moderately good, while that of wheat is considerably less than an average one. The potato crop has almost wholly escaped the rot, but the quantity produced is not so great as usual.. Wheat is now worth 25 to 27 shillings for red, (United States,) and 28 to 30, for white per 240 pounds; Indian corn, 18 to 20 shillings per 250 pounds; flour, 25 to 28 shillings per barrel; tallow, 48 shillings per ewt. These prices for grain will probably decline as the new crop of this country comes into the market. The effect of the American war upon the trade of the port has not been so great as was anticipated, and neither the imports nor exports have fallen off to any great extent, except in that of cotton and cotton goods and tobacco. The cotton mills have continued to run for a large portion of the time upon the stock already in hand, and the importation from other countries than the United States, until quite recently. Within the past two months many of them have been closed, and all others put upon short time. While this trade must therefore be declining, the linen trade is in unusual prosperous condition.
The textile manufactories run 30,000 power looms, with 1,700,000 spindles, employing steam-power equal to 75,000 horses, and laborers to the number of 45,000. The annual consumption of cotton has been 130,000 bales, and the product 220,000,000 yards, worth $14,000,000.
The manufacture of cotton thread in Glasgow and Paisley is very large, amounting to $3,000,000 annually, about one fourth of which finds its market in the United States. The establishment of the Messrs. Coats is known almost the world over, as it has been one of the chief producers of this article for twenty-five years or more. Besides this, there are some half dozen other firms engaged in this product, and all of them are large exporters to our markets. You will see in another part of this report that they have in the last year sent to the United States $655,917 worth. Paisley is also the chief seat of the shawl manufacture in Scotland, and, I believe, also in Great Britain. These are of Thibet cloth, broché, chenille, crape, and tarleton, and are largely sold in the markets of the world. Silk, as well as wool and cotton, enters largely into the
manufacture of these goods, as it does also into that of many of the mixed dress fabrics and embroideries.
The sewed muslins and hand-loom weaving, resulting in a large production of fine muslins, curtains, jaconets, cambrics, embroideries, laces, &c., &c., are largely engaged in. Most of the finer mixed dress fabrics are produced by the handloom weavers. Much of this work on sewed muslins or embroideries is performed by the poor country women of Scotland and Ireland at their homes. The goods to be embroidered are sent out by the manufacturers, through agents, to all parts of these countries, where the peasant women do the tedious work by their own cabin firesides and return the goods to the agent from whom they receive them and receive their pay. An industrious woman at this labor earns from four to eight pence per day. Thousands of the poorer classes thus earn their bread.
But coal and iron are the great sources of the wealth and prosperity of this city. The annual production of coal in Scotland, nearly all of which is in the valley of the Clyde, is about 12,000,000 tons, of which there is consumed in the manufacture of
The following statement will show the whole number of furnaces in blast in Scotland, of which Glasgow is the general mart, since 1806.
PIG IRON AND FURNACES IN SCOTLAND.
1806. Furnaces in blast, 18; produce, 22,840 tons.
produce, 30,500 tons.
1823. Furnaces in blast, 22;
These two products, then, in their unwrought state, are worth
Of the pig iron production (1,040,000 tons) there is—
From the enormous extent of the above two branches of Scottish industry has arisen another that has now grown to great importance. I allude to the iron ship building, which is probably conducted here upon a larger scale than
anywhere else in the world. There are twenty-seven ship-building firms on the Clyde, and the contracts for the present year have exceeded that of any other. Few vessels are built of wood anywhere on the river, iron having almost entirely superseded it. A new method of building, but recently introduced, is iron frames with wooden bottoms, and these vessels rate at Lloyds higher than any others. They get A 1 for fifteen years. Some very large and fine sailing ships have recently been completed on this method. Vessels of all kinds and classes, from the light river steamer to the heavy India packet and ocean steamer, are built wholly of iron. The progress and present condition of this branch of industry will be seen at a glance from the following statement.
The value of this business for the present year (1862) will be greater than for the last, as it is now more extensive and prosperous than ever before.
Among the vessels now in course of construction are several large steamers for a French mercantile company, and about one hundred other steamers and sailing ships of various classes, one of which is for the New York "Inman line." Several of the firms engaged in this work give constant employment to 1,500, and, in some instances, to 2,000 men. Altogether, from eighteen to twenty-five thousand able-bodied men are constantly employed.
Besides these leading branches of manufactures, there are a great variety of others, some of which are only of secondary importance when compared with those previously mentioned. Worthy of mention among these is that of chemicals.
The "St. Rollox" chemical works, in this city, are the most extensive in the world. The buildings cover twelve acres of ground, and a thousand men find constant employment in them. 20,000 tons of salt and 75,000 tons of coal are annually consumed, and the chief products are bleaching powder, soda, chlorate of lime, potash in various combinations, vitriol, naptha, pitch, and pitch oil, ammonia in various combinations, pyroligneous acid, nitrio and sulphuric acids, alum, &c., &c. The pitch is used for pavements here, and is largely exported to France and the continent for the same service. Another important production is whiskey, which is annually manufactured to the amount of 2,500,000 gallons. This is largely consumed in the country under a tax of ten shillings (82 42) a gallon; when exported, the tax is remitted. The manufacture of woolen goods, in the form of tweeds, cloths, cassimeres, blankets, flannels, and carpets, is also quite extensive. From this brief reference to the manufacturing