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Tables showing the amount overpaid by Java to Holland from 1838 to 1857, inclusive, after deducting the yearly interest on the Dutch East India debt.
Comparative and relative table of the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India for ten years, from 1847 to 1857.
The culture system of Java deserves examination, and we add a synopsis. Upon examination seven-tenths of the soil of Java was found to belong to government, which is the general landlord, claimed one-fifth of the produce and one-fifth of the labor or time, and in order to develop the resources of the country and the revenues, General Von den Bush introduced his celebrated culture system in 1830, which has proved so eminently successful and beneficial to the peasant, the island, and the home government. The following are the principles upon which the success of this system is founded, and commends itself to us, in connexion with emancipation scheme and Indian agencies of the United States:
1. Profit to the peasant, so as to make it acceptable.
2. Profit to the contractor, so as to induce its extension by private enterprise. 3. A percentage to the official, so as to secure their actual support.
4. Personal interest in the village community in its success so as to secure careful cultivation.
5. Improvement in the tax-payers means, so as to increase the revenue and facilitate its payment. The plan was organized by furnishing an advance by government for building purposes, and starting manufactories for twelve years, without interest, and also of furnishing an amount of gratuitous labor for two years; also the gratuitous use of government post horses, and aiding the contractor in procuring suitable machinery from Europe, together with the best information and directions required for success, thus inspiring the contractor by a mutual interest, while the government held the option of taking the produce at fixed or contract rates to repay the yearly advance, the one-tenth of the original building advance made, by which system by receiving about two-thirds of the produce the government was repaid, leaving the contractor one-third of his manufacture for his profit.
This system has its divisions:
1. The producing the raw material.
2. The manufacture of it; and
3. To tea, tobacco, and cochineal, combining the native and European relations so as to secure confidence, co-operation, and assistance, so as to obtain the largest results by way of mutual protection and interest.
Then the articles to be produced were classified with a view to relations between native and European labor and profits.
Thus originated the different culture contracts, as sugar, coffee, indigo, rice, cochineal, pepper, and cinnamon, &c., from which arose the relative profits. Thus one bouw of land, say one and a half acre, was estimated to yield about twenty-five per bouw, or say $12 50 to thirty acres sugar.
The cultivated rice fields of the Java crown lands in 1854 were about 2,568,468 acres of land, of which one twenty-sixth was cultivated by government, the balance by the peasants, on which government received land rent to the amount of 617,920 florins. In 1857 the areas of rice fields cultivated in Java was 2,844,266 acres, showing an increase of 150,000 acres per annum; and the land rent was 9,659.44 florins. Thirty per cent. of one hundred and thirty-six pounds each, or 4,080 pounds of sugar, is the average per acre. The sugar culture in Java has been highly profitable to all, and in 1857 the sugar produce of the Java crown, lands amounted to near three-quarters of a million of piculs.
The indigo culture and contracts are conducted in the same manner, and the produce on crown lands is delivered to government. Aside of government contracts there are many independent planters who own large estates, or lease them from government. Wild crown lands lease for about $2 40 per bouw, of one
and a half acre per annum, on a lease of from twenty to forty years. Waste crown lands are also leased upon contracts, and are well adapted to the wants of the people, and the benefit of the contractor and the government.
Then again, they have a culture system by village labor without a contractor for the cheaper raising of such articles as coffee, pepper, cinnamon, grown for government on crown lands, simply by a general supervision of an European official.
These coffee contracts are carried on by native regents and other tenants, and the coffee is delivered in the husk to the European contractor's mills for cleaning and sorting. The coffee culture is conducted mainly upon the following principles:
1. To give the villagers large profits instead of small.
2. To save the villagers the transport, and equalize all.
3. To get the whole coffee crop grown on the crown lands into the hands of the government so as to have it all properly treated and made a first rate quality to enhance its reputation and sale; two-fifths of the product is delivered to government free, the balance for a nominal price. In 1854 the government realized $15,000 gross, and $12,000 net. The coffee culture of N. I. is estimated at
72,000 tons per annum, or 1,200,000 piculs.
Tobacco culture.-Tobacco for commerce and home consumption is raised mostly on crown lands, or by planters on leases. It is as easily grown here as cabbage, but requires more intelligent supervision for exportation and commerce. The increased sales and demands for tobacco has caused much to be planted lately, and thus become a profitable business. By reference to table C government raised from July, 1861, to July, 1862, 1,766,103 pounds, and private planters in the same time raised 9,960,500 pounds, and it is increasing enormously to planters and government.
Indigo culture has been found unprofitable to government, not very remunerative to contractors, and is mostly conducted by native laborers.
Opium is a government monopoly, and its cultivation, importation, and sale are farmed out for revenue, although its deleterious effects are officially recognized, and so horrid, baneful, wicked, damning is the whole business, that there is nothing to commend it in commerce, while we have sufficient villainous liquors in the United States to destroy our government and people sufficiently fast without recommending or introducing opium into America.
Salt is a government monopoly, and, with the coffee culture, is a source of revenue; the consumption is, say, 555,000 piculs of one hundred and thirty-six pounds, or seven pounds one and a half ounces per head, per annum, at a cost of about eight florins to government.
Pepper culture. Pepper is grown for the Dutch government in the same manner as coffee and cinnamon. Pepper is a shrubby creeper, and is cultivated in rows, over posts or trellis work, and frequently between the rows of coffee trees. The treatment for export merely consists in plucking, drying, and sorting it when it becomes dry and wrinkled.
Cochineal culture.-Cochineal is a bright red dye contained in the body of an insect that lives and reproduces itself in large numbers on the broad fleshy leaves of a species of very large cactus. These are arranged in rows, and, when throughly peopled with the insect, resemble a sprinkling of white flour upon the cactus. The insect is about the size of a grain of barley, snow-white, and covered with fluff. The culture is simple, and consists in merely watering the cactus, and protecting the insects from the rain by mats. They are subsequently swept in trays, placed over an oven and dried, and the red dye in their bodies thus preserved, when they are packed in bags for exportation, but has proved a loss to government.
Quinine culture. This is also an important article of commerce, introduced from South America in the "Chinchona Calisaga." These are planted in the
interior, about 4,680 feet above the sea, and are proving quite a success under scientific and skilful culture, and is becoming an object of commerce.
Tea culture.-Government has large tea contracts, which it raises per contractors and hired labor. Most of these tea lands are taken from uninhabited hill lands and uncultivated regions, which, however, compels the contractor to pay higher wages for his labor, which, however, enables him to secure a sufficient supply. Government established a number of tea plantations from 1835 to 1845, and it contracts to take the whole crop at contract prices, taking all the risk in new cultures.
There are eight kinds of tea raised, four of green and four of black; 50 per cent. delivered must consist of the eight kinds in certain proportion; the balance left to the planter's option. The cost of making and packing was, in 1857, 49 cents per pound, while high-priced teas brought from 80 to 90 cents per pound from government. Planters realized more than government, which became frequently a loser. The yield of Java tea is about 2 millions of pounds, which it is expected to increase in a few years to 20 or 25 millions pounds, namely, by independent planters and leases. Though the soil is not as well adapted to the tea plant as China or India, but still a new industry has been introduced on a large scale, and profitable employment given to thousands. Many contractors made fortunes. The average crop per acre is about 470 to 800 pounds, which has and can be greatly increased by the use of guano and manure, hitherto ignored. Though Java cannot compete with China, its culture has been a government act. The effect of this culture system has not only been a source of great revenue, but has more than doubled.
EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.
The imports for five years, ending 1830, were $6,854,365, and exports for the same period, $6,696,000; whereas the private imports alone are $10,000,000, and the private exports are about $12,500,000; while about two-thirds of the, transport of the produce of Java is monopolized by the Netherlands Trading Society and Dutch shipping for government.
The culture system briefly alluded to has long since paid itself, and largely remunerated government and contractors, as well as improved the condition of that people, blessed the island, and benefited the world, and is worthy of careful consideration by us.
There have been no important or material commercial changes affecting commerce here during the last year; nor have there been any new laws or regulations passed affecting the same; nor have there been any special scientific discoveries or developments, although there are several efficient scientific societies here. "The Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences" devotes most of its research to lingual, archæological, antiquarian, and literary investigation, whilst the "Society of Natural History and Science" devotes its labors more exclusively to that peculiar branch, published copies of which I transmtited to the Smithsonian Institute; both have interesting collections and libraries. The former, especially, has a very valuable and interesting collection of the antiquities of Java and the East Indies. Mostly of relics of ruined temples, idols, images, &c., with which this island once abounded, and government has lately had extensive views and paintings taken of the more valuable and interesting.
There are but few public works demanding special attention, except, perhaps, the laying of a submarine telegraph between here and Singapore, some 400 miles, which, however, after working a while is now out of repair. The city of Batavia is also being illuminated with gas, which is quite an event in the east,