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such properties, together with any funds which may accumulate in the treasury and for the disbursement.of which no other legal provision is made, are added to the school fund, and the income only expended.

State Indebtedness.—The debt of the state may not at any time exceed $100,000, except in case of war, to repel invasion or suppress insurrection, or unless the proposition creating the same shall have been legally approved by a majority vote at a general elec

tion. 1

County Indebtedness. A county may not incur a debt of more than $10,000, except with the approval of a majority of the electors of the county. This approval may be obtained at either a regular or a special election, but the total indebtedness of any county may not exceed 5 per cent. of the valuation of the county.?

Municipal, Township and School District Indebtedness.—The total indebtedness of any township or school district may not exceed 3 per cent. of the taxable value of property in the township or school district. And should a larger debt be contracted, the excess is void. The indebtedness which may be con. tracted by a city or town is subject to the same limitation as that of the township or school district, except that the Legislative Assembly may authorize the municipalities to submit to the voters a proposition to increase the indebtedness in order to construct a sewerage system, or to obtain control of a water supply for the said city or town.

1 Const. Mont., Art. XIII. 2 Const. Mont., Art. XIII.

But in case of the creation of a debt for the latter purpose, the revenues therefrom must be applied to the payment of the debt. I

General Provisions Respecting Debts.— When a debt is contracted a tax must at the same time be levied sufficient in amount to pay the interest on the bonds issued, and to extinguish the principal when the time for which the bonds are issued shall have expired. The proceeds of the accumulation of such a tax is known as a sinking fund.

Any county or municipal indebtedness may not be assumed by the state, nor may the state of any political division incur indebtedness in behalf of any individual, association or corporation, or guarantee indebtness incurred by such individual, association or corporation.

'Const. Mont., Art. XIII.

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CHAPTER XI.

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE STATE AND UNITED STATES

GOVERNMENTS.

Republican Form of Government. The nation guarantees to all the states of the Union a republican form of government in local affairs and furnishes them with such a form in National affairs. As a condition of being received into the sisterhood of states each new state is required to adopt such a republican form of government.

Analogy Between State and United States Constitutions. In the formation of the state constitution, the United States Constitution is the ever present model. This is true of all the states, the instruments existing at the time of the declaration of independence having been abrogated, and new ones substituted more in harmony with the common ideal. All the states have adopted a constitution embodying the common features, the last to change from the colonial charter being Rhode Island and this did not occur till 1842. But to a certain extent in the older states and quite frequently in the newer ones, new constitutions have been adopted and the framework of the National government has always suggested that of the state.

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Up to the time when Montana, Washington and the two Dakotas received their recognition as states, one hundred and five district constitutions had been adopted by the various states, nearly twice as many constitutional conventions had been held, and two hundred and fourteen partial amendments had been made to state constitutions. In all these changes the common thought was authoritative. 1

The analogy between the national and state governments is first apparent in the three-fold division of the powers of government into the executive, the legislative and the judicial, the provision for the independence of each and the checks to prevent any one overshadowing the others. The analogy extends to the officers who represent the people in the exercise of the government and is conspicuous in their duties, their prerogatives and their forms of proceeding.

The same analogy is apparent in the administration of the corporate political divisions of the state.

A marked resemblance is evident, in the duties assigned and forms observed, between the President of the United States, the Governor of a state, and the Mayor of a city. The Vice-President is represented in functions in the state government by the LieutenantGovernor, and in the city by the President of the Council.

The transaction of business in the legislative department by means of committees instead of the initiative of

1 Hitchcock's Am. State Constitutions.

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