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scattered records of the fur traders, the history of Montana before 1860 is occupied mainly with the missionary labors of Father De Smet and his associates among the Flathead Indians, beginning in 1840.

About 1855, however, rumors of gold in Montana began to be whispered about.

These were followed by rich discoveries in 1861 and since then the development of its mines has fixed upon Montana the name of The Bonanza State. Gold dust to the amount of $25,000,000 was taken from Alder Gulch within a few months. Last Chance Gulch, where Helena now stands, produced great fortunes. The placer claims of the Silver Bow district were worked with great success for a few


and then the boom collapsed, until the introduction of modern machinery made available the extensive leads of gold and silver and copper that produce the permanent prosperity of Butte.

Indian Troubles.-Until 1877 continual troubles existed with the Indians during which, besides the petty raids and constant peril of life, some considerable bat. tles were fought. In 1866 a disastrous engagement occurred near Fort Philip Kearney on the Big Horn river. In June, 1876, the most direful calamity in the history of the state occurred when the force of General Custer was annihilated in the battle of the Little Big Horn. Within a year, however, a series of victories under the direction of General Miles had destroyed the power of the Indians. Perhaps the most decisive of these victories was the battle of the Big Hole, where General Gibbons was in immediate command.

Rapid Increase of Population. - Meanwhile the story of the wealth obtainable in Montana spread abroad and the population rapidly increased. The most conspicuous industry was mining, but agriculture and sheep raising found also many followers. The population doubled between 1870 and 1880. The increase was even greater between 1880 and 1890. Vast streams of wealth flowed out of the country.

Until 1864 the region now known as Montana was included in the jurisdiction of other territories, but in that year it was separated with nearly its present boundaries. It is worthy of note that Montana was the first territory created after the emancipation of the slaves, and hence the first commonwealth where the constitution recognized the black man as having the same political rights as the white.

State Government.- For nearly twenty years the new territory rested content. But increase of population and wealth resulted in a desire that Montana should take its proper place in the sisterhood of states. In January, 1884, a convention met at Helena, which adopted a State Constitution. This was approved by vote of the people in November of the same year. But the time was not yet. Congress refused the needed sanction and another half decade of waiting was required. The goal of statehood was finally reached in 1889. On the 22d of February the Enabling Act was signed by the President of the United States. The Constitutional Convention met at Helena July 4th, and concluded its labors August 19th. The Constitution then framed was approved by the people at a special election in October, and on the 8th of November was issued the proclamation recognizing Montana as one of the galaxy of states.

Organization of State Government.—Since then the work of completing the organization has gone steadily forward. Four legislative assemblies have been chosen and have wrestled with the problems before them. The four codes have been adopted. Provision for the various educational and other state institutions has been made. The location of the permanent seat of government has been determined after a prolonged contest of exceptional intensity.

Perhaps after all the most significant teaching of the election, which settled the question respecting the permanent capital of the state, was the revelation respecting the rapid increase of population. At this election over 52,000 votes were polled. Even more to be remarked was the distribution of the vote. While most varied occupations had been followed by the people, mining had always been the predominant industry. But at this election it appeared that the greatest growth in population was in the agricultural regions of the state. While mining industries are constantly growing they no longer overshadow other avocations, but every indication goes to show that there will be that symmetrical development which is most helpful to our permanent prosperity.

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Indian Troubles.

51. Big Horn.

52. Big Hole.

6. Population.

The geographical features of the state should enter largely into the discussion of this chapter. Maps of the state and of the various counties should be freely used.

The attention of the pupils should be called to the remarkable increase in population from the settlement to the admission of the state.

The magnitude and variety of the resources of the state should be discussed at length.




Counties and Townships.—The State of Montana is divided into twenty-three counties. The counties are subdivided into townships. 1 The organization of a township occurs when a population of 100 or more desires a justice's court. In such a case, on petition to the county commissioners, an election is ordered and two Justices of the Peace and two Constables are chosen for a term of two years. The duties of these officers are discussed in the chapter which treats of the judiciary.

Cities and Towns.--The municipalities proper, consisting of towns and cities, are not subdivisions of the county, nor do they conform to township boundaries. Their general privileges, duties and the conditions which characterize them are set forth in the political code. 3 They are political corporations, consisting of all the inhabitants of any part of a county, created and

1 The township here mentioned has no connection with the survey township, which is a district six miles square, laid off by United States surveyors.

2 Political Code, 34,231.
3 Political Code, 24,700, et seq.

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