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These five sources of authority would require voluminous treatment even to partially elucidate. But it is thought best to mention them here as being essential authorities for any student of the subject of this book. . One or two of them will be slightly developed in succeeding chapters. But we shall be unable even to allude further to the others in the space at our command. 1

Graphical Outline. For making clear the relation existing between the varied authorities, we call attention to the following diagram composed of concentric circles. The central circle is occupied by the United States Constitution, being the fundamental expression of the nation. Just outside of this we place the Constitution of Montana, as expressing the conception of our people respecting the state government, this involving the application of the National Constitution to the interests of our commonwealth. The next outer circle indicates the action of the representatives of the people in applying the principles laid down.

The outside circle is devoted to the Common Law, as expressing the general opinion of English-speaking people, respecting otherwise undefined rights, duties and privileges.

While running across the center of all the spheres, the line of Judicial Decisions refers to the importance of the courts in defining and applying the principles expressed by the different authorities :

1 Walker's American Law; Blackstone's Commentaries; The Institutes ; Kent's Commentaries.

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To Teachers.-Do not have children commit words of the book. Have them discuss the subject matter freely. Elicit all that they know upon the subject, then induce them to ask questions and aid them in securing the information. Be sure that they know all about the political affairs at home. This book does not presume to cover all the ground, but is simply a guide to school room work.



Physical Description — The State of Montana is included between 41° 6' and 49° north latitude, and 104° and 116° west longitude, its greatest length being 540 miles and its average width 275 miles.

Its area is 146,080 square miles. It is thus third largest among the United States. The elevation varies from about 2,000 feet to more than 10,000 feet above sea level, and averages 3,400 feet. The surface exhibits a great variety of features from level prairie to rugged mountain. Lakes and rivers in great number furnish an abundant water supply.

Early History.—The country was first known to the whites in 1742, when Chevalier de la Verandrye, sent out by the French governor of Quebec, with his brother and two French-Canadians, accompanied by a large war party of Sioux, ascended the Missouri river. January 1, 1713, they arrived at the Gate of the Mountains, about twenty miles from the present site of Helena. They appear to have remained in Montana and Wyoming for upwards of a year.

Before departing they are reported to have erected a monument and buried beneath it a leaden plate bearing the arms

of France. The location of this monument is not known,

though it is generally thought to be near the great falls of the Missouri. Claims have been made of discovery, but the essential proof—the leaden plate—has not been furnished.

For a space of upwards of fifty years the region, though frequently visited by trappers and Jesuit missionaries, remained unknown to history. The main lines of travel from the Mississippi and the great lakes passed on either side, but Montana's many passes were largely unused.

Lewis and Clarke and Fur Traders. The next historic event was in 1804, when Captains Lewis and Clarke crossed Montana on their famous expedition. A few years later the Missouri Fur Company, the Rocky Mountain Fur Company and the American Fur Company were organized and operated in this region. For many years all the supplies were taken overland, mainly by human labor from St. Louis, a distance of 2,000 miles. But in 1832 the steamboat Yellowstone ascended to Fort Union, which was built by Alex. Culbertson in 1829, being the first fort on the Missouri river above the Yellowstone.

Fort Union was not, however, the first settlement in Montana. In 1809, only a few years after the Lewis and Clarke expedition, a trading post was established on the Yellowstone by Emanuel Lisa, and in 1822 another was built on the same river by General Ashley.

Old Fort Benton was founded in 1846, and became United States property in 1869.

Missionaries and Gold Diggers. — Besides the.

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