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enforcing a good law is bound to strengthen it. In his capacity as a citizen one must recognize the authority of those appointed to carry out the laws, and himself aid in their enforcement, whether as an official, a juryman, a member of a sheriff's posse, or in other ways that may occur.

Preservation of Domestic Tranquillity.-In general all male citizens of the state of Montana are considered as members of the state militia, and may be called on for active duty whenever the need arises. In cases of riot or the apprehension of criminals, any citizen may be called upon by suitable process to assist the proper officer of justice. Formal membership in the National Guard and regular drill is, however, in time of peace, left to voluntary action.

Provision for the Common Defence.- United in a common spirit of patriotism the citizens of the various states are also citizens of the United States, and in every way are bound to support and co-operate in the maintenance of the National power.

Maintenance of Liberty. It is the duty of every citizen to recognize that every other citizen has the same right to liberty of speech and action which he himself possesses.

He should in a spirit of tolerance regard as natural any differences of personal, political or religious opinion in which others may differ from him. While all citizens should sink in their pride in the common country all minor disagreements.

Promotion of the General Welfare.—No government is perfect and faults are bound to exist.

But no

American citizen can fail to be proud of his heritage. It was once said that “ To be a Roman was greater than to be a king." This was a mere figure of speech to

' those who claimed protection from a country far less praiseworthy than our own. With all its faults, and we do not say faults are lacking, the Cnited States is the best nation on the face of the globe. Every patriotic citizen, while frankly recognizing what is wrong, should also strive to remedy the imperfections. He should also work with might and main to extend the prestige of the nation and to make it the more an agency for good to all who recognize the authority of its laws.

Who Are American Citizens.—Lastly we have a few words to say on government by the people.' The term citizen with all that the term involves respecting rights, privileges and duties is applied to all persons born in the United States except such persons as, born of foreign parents, voluntarily elect to be considered citizens of the country of their parents. It also includes children born of American parents in foreign countries, unless such children voluntarily choose to be considered citizens of the country of their birth.

Besides these native citizens any Caucasian or Negro may become a naturalized citizen after a residence of five years in the United States. In order to become such a naturalized citizen he must make application at least two years before he receives his final papers, and must make oath or affirmation voluntarily renouncing all allegiance to the government of which he had been a citizen.

In the state of Montana every male citizen over 21 years of age is a voter and in this capacity participates with every other voter in the government of the land. The enforcement of the laws, the selection of the right men for public offices, the maintenance of the dignity and efficiency of the government, depend in the last analysis on the intelligence and character of the people.

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2. Who Are Citizens.

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First visited by white men..

1742 Ceded to Spain by France.

1763 Ceded to France by Spain .

1801 Acquired by United States as part of the Louisiana purchase 1804 Part of Territory of Louisiana....

1805 First trading post on the Yellowstone..

1809 Part of Territory of Missouri...

1812 First settled at Fort Union, by fur traders.

1829 Fort Benton founded...

1846 Part of Missouri Territory and Oregon Territory..

1848 Part of Missouri Territory and Washington Territory.. 1853 Part of Nebraska Territory and Washington Territory.. 1854 Part of Dakota Territory and Washington Territory.. 1861 Part of Idaho Territory...

1863 Territory of Montana established..

1864 Present boundaries fixed...

1873 Admitted into the Union..


Population in 1860..
Population in 1870,
Population in 1880..
Population in 1890..

288 20,595 39,159 132,159

These statistics have been compiled from the various Reports of the United States Census and the United States Director of the Mint; the publications of the Montana Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Industry; The Engineering and Mining Journal; MacCoun's Historical Geography of the U.S., and from various other authorities. Where dates are not given, the figures are the latest obtainable.

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