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Land Offices. Besides the above offices within the state of Montana, the United States has a force

a employed to look after its interests respecting the public lands. These are granted to actual settlers under the laws respecting homestead and pre-emption locations, and some revenue is derived from direct sale.

Appointments to United States Employ.—Roughly speaking, about two-thirds of the employes of the United States civil service are appointed by the President or some appointing officer, and if there are examinations they are not competitive in nature. The appointing officer is in this case responsible for the results of the work intrusted to him, and is supposed to select those persons who will give the best satisfaction in the positions to which they are appointed. As a general rule the term of office of such employes is four years, at the end of which time their service ceases unless reappointed.

About one-third of the employes of the government, belonging to what is known as the classified list are appointed after a partly competitive examination, and after a certain trial period, receive a permanent appointment. In the classified list both appointments and promotions are made in accordance with examinations under the supervision of the Civil Service Commission. The Commissioners draw up a set of questions applicable to each position in the classified list. Contestants are ranked by the examining boards and when a vacancy occurs the three highest on the list are reported to the appointing officer and he selects any one of the three. When another vacancy occurs for the same position the names of the two not selected are reported with that of the applicant who stands fourth, and so on. But no name may be reported more than three times. In the state of Montana the positions open in the classified list are in the post-office (including railway mail) and in the Indian department, and for positions in the departmental offices in Washington.

CHAPTER XII.

CITIZENSHIP.

Objects of Government.—The preamble to the Constitution of the United States indicates that government exists in order to secure the following results:

The establishment of justice.
The preservation of domestic tranquillity.
The provision for the common defence.
The promotion of the general welfare.
The maintenance of the blessings of liberty.

This is another way of stating in accordance with the preamble of the Declaration of Independence that governments are instituted among men in order to se. cure the inalienable rights of Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness.

Thus our nation is fully committed to the principle of government for the good of the people. The full theory of the constitution is aptly summarized in the world renowned Gettysburg address of the Martyr President as the “government of the people, by the people and for the people.”

The Duty of Government to the People. We consider first the government for the people.”

Establishment of Justice. A true government must establish and maintain a judicial and administrative system which must recognize the right of every individual within its borders to security of life and limb, of property and civil equality. It must provide penalties and processes calculated to protect the law abiding from the lawless, the weak from the strong, the poor from the rich and the rich from the poor. It must in every way encourage virtue and discourage vice.

Preservation of Domestic Tranquillity.- For the apprehension of evil-doers, the suppression of riots and the general preservation of the peace of the community all modern governments maintain police and military forces, well officered, disciplined and equipped.

Provision for the Common Defence.—To keep the country safe from foreign aggression, it is essential that the military force be sufficiently numerous and well provided, that defences be of proper nature and condition, that the navy be large enough and efficient enough to meet all the demands of modern conditions.

Maintenance of Liberty.—Every inhabitant of a free country has a right to the fullest liberty of speech and action. This liberty may be personal, political or religious.

In his personal relations every citizen is permitted to say or do what he wishes, subject only to due responsibility and a reasonable recognition of the rights of others.

In his political relations every citizen is permitted to form his own opinions and to exercise his prerogatives free from dictation by others. Special attention is given to political safeguards in the civil government of the state and country.

In his religious relations the individual must be entirely free. Neither the government nor any other citizen must dictate respecting the religious theories or exercises of any person.

Promotion of the General Welfare.—The promotion of the general welfare, may be said from one point of view to include all the above mentioned propositions. But it has been well to mention them separately. In addition to all these principles, however, it is now generally agreed that government should in every way—short of direct paternalism—attend to the interests of the people. It is the duty of all patriotic citizens, either through their representatives or by their power of initiative and referendum in the amending of the constitution to see that the government is in reality a government of the people.

Duties to the Government. We consider secondly the government of the people.

Establishment of Justice.-Good laws are of very little effect unless they have the support of the people for whom they are designed. Every true citizen must cheerfully recognize the authority of laws framed by his representatives. He must submit to them under all conditions. Even should he not consider them wise he must recognize them as long as in force, though he should in the regular way strive to have them corrected to meet his ideas. It has been said that the best way to get rid of a bad law is to enforce it. And

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