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Seventeen Lieutenants Com'ing, at $1,873..$31,841 | Va., Adjutant; G. W. Walker, D. C., Paymaster;
154 do. in Sea service, $1,573...
242,242 A. A. Nicholson, S. C., Quartermaster; S. Miller,
91,500 Ms., Lieut. Col.-4 Majors, 17 Captains, 24 First
Lieutenants, 23 Second Lieutenants. Natives of
the United States, 72; Ireland, 1.

61 do. in Navy-yards, &c., $1,500..
93 do. waiting orders or on leave of absence
(that is, ashore and unemployed,) $1,200..111,600
$477,183
Now that the quarrel with Mexico is settled, the
number of idle Lieutenants, at $1,200 a-year, will
have greatly increased.

...

The pay of the Colonel is $75 per month, with 19 rations and allowances; and the sums paid under the name of rations vary. Ex. Doc. 1, Dec. 1847, has the estimate for 1848-9; 75 commissioned officers, pay and allowances, $66,746; 324 sergeants, corporals, drummers and fifers, $40,296;

SURGEONS-Oct. 1847.

Surgeons 69; Passed Assistant do. 33; Assist-2,000 privates, at $7 per month, $168,000; 81 officers' servants, at $8 50 per month, food and clothing, $8,262; extra rations to officers five years in army, $13,724. The income of the 75 commissioned officers in this corps, for a year, exceeds the income of 1,000 of the privates by $7,732.

ant do. 40.

Of whom 134 are natives of the U.S., 4 of Ire., 2 W.I., 1 Scot., 1 Spain.

There are some 20 rates of income, from $650 a-year up to $2,700, with $73 for a ration, if on sea service. Suppose the average of the 142 to be $1,600, and we have $227,200 a-year of pay. Of the surgeons 14, and of the assistant do. 14, were unemployed, waiting orders' or absent on leave. This was in war times. Some were sick.

NAVAL PENSIONS.

Amount for 1846-7, $123,232. In Ex. Doc. 1. Dec. 1847, these allowances are given in full detail. A seaman's widow gets $6 a month; a Commander's widow, $30; a Lieutenant's widow, $25; a Captain's widow, $50; a Marine's widow, $3 50. Invalid seamen, $1 50 to $8 50 per month; a Commander, $30; a Lieutenant, $25. It is just .$3,500 3,500 to uphold those who are maimed and broken down in the naval or military service. 3,000 3,000

3,000

TWENTY-FOUR CHAPLAINS.

18 at $1,200, on duty; 6 at $800, ashore, &c.
SIXTY-FOUR PURSERS-Oct. 1847.
Samuel Forrest, D.C., Ohio, 74 guns.
Edw. T. Dunn, D C., Columbus, 74..
Wm. Sinclair, Ms, Cumberland, frigate..
Joseph H. Terry, N.Y., Brandywine, fr..
Dudley Walker, Ms., Columbia, fr...
Wm. Speiden, D.C., Congress, fr.
Horatio Bridge, Me, United States, fr....
Edw. Fitzgerald, Pa., Pennsylvania, 120 gs.
B. J. Cahoone, R.I., North Carolina, 74.....
T. P. McBlair, Md, Franklin. 74......
Sterrett Ramsay, Pa., Navy-yd., Pensacola.. 2,500
H. W. Greene, N.H., Razee Independence 3,000
Other Pursers-16 at $2,000-$32,000. 14 at $1,-
500-$21,000. On shore, unemployed, 18, at $1,-
000 to $1,800 each.
Natives of U. S. 63; of Ireland 1. (Erie, 8 guns.)
216 PASSED MIDSHIPMEN-Oct. 1847.
176 at Sea, at $823.

12 various duties, at $750..
28 unemployed or sick, at $600.......

NAVAL EXPENDITURE.

3,000
3,000 From pages 314 to 321, of Ex. Doc. 7, Dec. 1847,
2,500
2,500 we select the following particulars of payments
2,500 made in 1846-7:

"Pay and subsistence of the Navy;" both are blended in one item, and all we can learn is, that $2,847,445 were paid out, through certain pursers and navy agents, and that $1,523,253 remained in the hands of, we know not who, unexpended.How the public can judge of accounts thus presented we see not. Pay of Superintendents, $67,131, is next; then $746,329 for provisions; $144,848 $62,599 for clothing; Surgeons' necessaries $49,9,000 772;" increase, repair, armament and equipment 16,800 of the navy," $1,601,325; fuel for steam vessels, $170,648 $12,955. Navy Yards $727,278, of which $325,000 [Madison were laid out in New-York Contingent expenses of the Navy, $541,000 (no particulars); books and maps, $34,811; relief bills, $113,881; Mexican hostilities, expended $2,450,095; pay, provisions,

Natives of the U. S. 214; of Eng. 1, Rush]; of S. A. 1.

223 MIDSHIPMEN-Oct. 1847.

If in sea service $473 a-year; land do. $350; on subsistence, clothing, stores, "for the Marine shore unemployed $300. There were 65 at a corps," $294,052. Fuel, transportation, recruiting, Inaval school; 24 were "waiting preparatory ex-barracks, and contingencies, marine corps, $44, In all $9,832,883 were paid out, and $3,amination." On an average, probably, 223 were 572 receiving $380 each, including one ration to those 409,052 remained on hand, to another year's credit. at sea. $84,740. In Ex. Doc. 1, Dec. 1847, Secretary Mason adverts to the Act of 1846, increasing the navy to

Natives of the U.S. 221; S. A. 1; Fr. 1.

The Act of Aug. 1848, provides for the appoint- 10,000 men, and says its numbers in 1847 did not exment of 464 midshipmen, who are to be taken as ceed 8,000. We nowhere find an official stateequally as possible from each Congressional Dis-ment of the men on board each ship, but a trict, [many of which are far inland!] Whether clear account is given of the Marines and their this is the best mode to encourage and reward capable young seamen, wherever born, is a matter of opinion. More than 180 passed-midshipmen may receive pay, under a suspension of the Act of March 3, 1845.

pay.

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Votes in Congress, August 3, 1848, for year 1848-9.-Improvements and repairs at Navy-yard, Portsmouth, Va., $55,551; do. at Boston, $97,351; do. at New-York, $106,000; Brooklyn Dry Dock, $350,000; for land to be bought near the Brooklyn Navy-yard and the Wallabout, $285,000; repairs, &c., Philadelphia, $14,500; do. at Norfolk, Va, $144,136; do. at Pensacola. $209,625; do. at Memphis, $174,038; at Sacket's Harbor, $2,000; $477,826 to uphold the Marine corps, on the peace establishment, which had it been 915, as in 1817, officers included, would make the cost $522 per man; improvements to naval school, Annapolis, $17,500; towards erecting floating dry docks at Philadelphia, Pensacola, and Kittery in Maine, $400,000.

NAVAL RANK AND SERVICE.

would be umpires. But the hardy sailor, to whom Secretary Upshur, in his report of Dec. 4, 1844, all hope of promotion is denied, is tried by a jury, not of his equals, but of his officers, who monopo

says:

"Additional ranks in the Navy would be eminently use-lize power, preferment, large incomes and high ful as an instrument of discipline. The post-captain of honors. This sort of trial, occasionally subjects to-day is precisely equal in rank to the oldest post-captain seamen, the citizens of this Republic, to be publicly in the service. He feels bis equality from the first moment flogged like a disobedient hound, but no commissioned or warrant officer is ever flogged for any offence.

that be attains it, and at the same moment the disinclination to be commanded aud controlled by lus equal rises with him. He will not willingly submit to learn as a scholar, what his own position authorizes him to teach. He looks to a separate command for himself; he begins to lay down systems of his own, and turns a deaf ear to the lessons of experience imparted by older heads, because they cannot claim any higher rank."

The New-York Courier & Enquirer proposed one Admiral, four Vice-Admirals, and eight Rear Admirals, in 1842, to begin with, at an average increase of pay, each, of $2,000, or $26,000 additional, yearly. Are $6,500 a-year, in addition to higher rank, essential as means of securing respect, or of supporting the incumbent and his family! Soon after Congress declared our independence of Europe they resolved (Nov. 15, 1776) that the higher grades of rank of the naval officers be Admiral, Vice-Admiral, Rear-Admiral, and Commodore, equal to those of General, Lieutenant-General, Major-General, and Brigadier-General, in the land service; but they never appointed an Admiral.

In 1842, Mr. Sprigg, in House of Rep. said, that "The case, as he had learned from officers of experience, was this: A niidshipman, after receiving his appointment, went to sea for two or three years, and then had to wait on shore five or six years before he was made a Lieutenant. The consequence was, that when he went to sea again, he had nearly forgotten what little he had learned. There were upward of 250 officers waiting orders' in 1841, and at that very time, when there was not enough to do for those already in commission, 140 more were appointed."

Mr. Elihu Burritt states, that from 1815 to 1823, EIGHT YEARS, there were 23 Captains whose average term of service was less than two years; 30 Commanders, a little over two; 172 Lieutenants less than three and a half. In 1845, three hundred and sixty-nine naval officers were on shore, unemployed, waiting orders.

On Dec. 22, 1835, Judge Vanderpoel, in the House of Representatives, said, that

Our commerce would be none the worse protected, were merit made the passport to naval promotion, and the sons and other relatives of persons in office allowed to take their chance as naval apprentices, instead of being nearly the only class allowed to rise in the service.

find part of a note, written on board the North In the N. Y. Evening Star of July 16, 1840, we Carolina, 74:

NAVAL, PUNISHMENTS AND REWARDS-COURTS
MARTIAL-FLOGGING.

"Respecting that man who was flogged here yesterday, he was seized up in the gangway and took 120 lashes with the cats, used by three boatswain's mates, without a flinch, and afterwards vowed revenge upon the authors of it, clenching his fists at the time and laughing as if nothing had taken place, and I think he is a very likely person to fulfil his promise. He has had, altogether, since his six years in the service, 1020 lashes."

From sentences by Courts Martial, or proceedings like these on board the Somers, even if un"Commissions in the Army, in the time of peace, were, just, the U. S. District Court at New-York decidcomparatively, sinecures. Barring the toilsome and honed, in 1843, that parties aggrieved had no remedy orable expedition against Black Hawk, and an occasional by an appeal to the Civil Tribunals, and refused chase after a few retreating and predatory savages, what to "arraign the parties accused on a matter has your arıny done, or rather, what has it had to do, touching their lives;" nor did Congress interfere. since the peace of 1815? It had done all that had been Our naval system copies British usages not in acrequired of it, but it could, in the nature of things, have cordance with our Republican Institutions. but little or nothing to do. Not so with the Navy-ur in the division of prize money, the whole of the vast and growing commerce must be protected, the pirate seamen, ordinary seamen, marines and boys," divide $65,000 where the prize taken is $100,000. get but $35,000 among them, while the officers

Even

must be driven from the ocean."

A few years since, a commander in the Navy, now a post-captain, and in the receipt of $3,500 a-year, was tried on charges of oppression and cruelty, for striking the men with his fists, knocking them down and stamping upon them, and inflicting illegal punishments with the cat and other instruments of torture. There were eight specifications, and ample proof, through the evidence of officers of undoubted reputation. His brother captains, of the Naval Court, sentenced him to three years' suspension without rank, which the Executive reduced to a year, through the influence of some members of the Court that found him guilty. Is this just and equitable?

When Mr. Calhoun was Secretary of War, Congress caused some inquiry to be made relative to cases of wanton cruelty in the Army, and the publication of their Report produced for a time the best effects. Mr. C. greatly improved the practice in that Department. The case of the Somers is still fresh in the public mind, although the principal actors in that tragedy are no longer numbered with the living, and the floggings there proved, as well as in other trials of great interest, ought to have produced a change from a partial system to one that would duly check both officers and men.

The Act of April 21, 1806, reduced the Navy to a lieutenants, 150 midshipmen, with enough of surmere handful-13 captains, 9 commanders, 72 geons, pursers, &c.; no officer to get more than half pay unless on actual service; also 925 seamen and boys. The Navy now bears a far larger proportion to the whole population, and requires the utmost attention from Congress.

The law allows a citizen-sailor to receive 100 lashes for an offence not capital, and any number less unequal in the Army Were rewards more plentiful and punishment more lashes for a capital offence, on the verdict latter, both services would be gainers in efficiennd Navy, especially the of a Court composed of 5 to 13 officers, without a jury; and although the Court happen to be divid-cy. Von Müller, in vol. 1 of his Universal Hised into 7 ayes and 6 noes. The Act of Aug. 1848, tory, tells us, that in ancient Romerequires an annual Report of the number of sailors "The soldier who had saved the life of a citizen, who flogged in each ship, stating the offence and how had killed his enemy, or maintained his post as long as the many lashes were inflicted. There would be It was intended that each man should exert himself as much contest continued, obtained as his reward the civic rown. more equity in such sentences were MERIT the for his comrade as for the highest officer, and therefore the only passport to naval promotion; for, in that same crown was the only reward for saving the life of the case, officers who had once been common sailors, Genera. This badge was worn during life, and when a suffered their privations, and felt as they feel, plebeian entered the theatre with it on his head, the sena

We are too sparing in this way. A brave seaman, who signalized himself on board the Ocean Monarch, has, it is true, obtained special marks of public approbation, but what gold could equal, to a true American, such lasting honors as the civic crown and crown of grass, or their equivalents?

tors arose from their seats, and the parents of the fortunate man obtained an exemption from all taxes. He who had saved the whole Army or the camp, obtained, by the decree of the Senate and the people, the Crown of Grass, When the younger Decius, the Consul who fell heroically in the War of the Samnites, obtained this honor, he offered to the gods a hundred oxen."

POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT.

Postmaster-General, CAVE JOHNSON, Ten., $6,000. | picion is audibly expressed by all classes, from Assistant Postmasters-General, Selah R. Hobbie, the President of the United States, downward, N. Y.; William J. Brown, Ky.; John Marrin, that in many instances public documents are inIreland-$2,500 each. juriously withheld from their owners, and even private correspondence concealed, and personal confidence violated.

Chief Clerk, William H. Dundas, Va., $2,000. Clerks 3 at $1,600 each; 13 at $1,400; 19 at $1,200; 8 at $1,000; also 8 other persons.

Of $167,045, paid in 1846-7, to clerks, &c. &c., (including P. O. Auditor's office,) $59,861 were for the above clerks, &c., and $3,058 for contingencies. Special Agents, &c., J. Holbrook, $1,700; L. G. Alexander, $1,790; D. Toler, $1,821; W. Tanner, $1,511; S. R. Hobbie, $1,185, (besides his salary.) Congress voted, July 10, 1848, for the Post Office service of 1848-9, $2,495,700; for transporting the mails within the Union to and from foreign ports, $455,000; compensation of Postmasters, $1,075,000; advertising, $35,000; mail bags, $25,000; blanks, $18,000; clerks in offices of Postmasters, $230,000, miscellaneous, $113,000. They also voted, Aug. 3, other $874,600, to defray the transportation of the U. S. Mail between New-York and Liverpool, New-York and New-Orleans, Havana and Chagres; and between Panama and Astoria, via San Diego, San Francisco, and Monterey.

What better remedy could be found for such complaints than to enable the qualified electors of every city, village and hamlet in the Union, to choose as their Postmaster the man in whom, from thorough personal knowledge, they had the highest degree of confidence, at the same time empowering the Postmaster-General to take proper sureties for fulfilment of the duties, as at present, and to remove incumbents for cause ?Such a change would lessen the dangerous influence of the federal executive, and the corruption that may be practised through a cordon of interested, selfish officials, whose tenure of power is sometimes limited solely by the extent of their subservience to the electioneering schemes of unprincipled party chiefs. We would fain hope that some member will urge the adoption of the principle involved, upon Congress, and press the question to an early vote.

We intend no personal censure on any indi

CHEAP POSTAGE.

The latest annual report from the PostmasterGeneral shows, that there were, in July, 1847,vidual Postmaster by these remarks. The Postmail routes of 153,818 miles in extent, by land and master-general's remarks relative to "an organwater, and the statutes of last session have added ized corps" of politicians, in our 16,000 post-ofmany thousands of miles additional, in Texas, &c. fices, we will try to find room for. There are 3,659 mail contractors employed, also 186 route and local agents and mail messengers, 15,146 Postmasters, and thousands of clerks in offices, mail carriers, and persons occasionally he only reason known to us for giving the employed, in printing, advertising, &c. &c. The Federal Government the sole control of the expense of carrying the mails in 1846-7 was near-mails, post offices, and newspaper and letter carly two and a-half millions of dollars. Of letters rying, throughout the Union, is, to associate sopassing through the mails at 5 cents each, there ciety for a common beneficial purpose, where its were 36,152,556; at 10 cents, 12,851,532; at 6 cents, agents can perform the service required better, 427,800; at 2 cents, 850,980; dropped 865,308; free quicker, safer, and cheaper, than any individual, (supposed) 5,000,000; dead letters, say 1,800,000.- private company, or single State could. If the The revenue of the department, for 1846-7, was community guarantee to every public servant or $3,945,893; the expenditure $3,979,571. If there is agent employed in, or by, the Post Office Departany detailed, intelligible statement of the revenue ment, a fair and moderate recompense for his or and charges, the compiler has not heard of it. her services, out of the proceeds of the postage Of $311,299 charged to the United States for offi- rates collected, what more is wanted than that cial postages, $195,234 are in the Post Office De- these rates should be equitably proportioned, and partment. high enough to meet the cost of the establishment, when prudently administered? To exact higher rates is either to encourage a profligate expenditure, or to raise a revenue, or rather trying to raise it, by increasing the difficulties of communication between one place and another, restricting the vast INLAND really free trade of the Union,

ELECTION OF POSTMASTERS BY THE PEOPLE.

In times past, when a state officer displeased the people, he was often placed in a non-elective office by the party he acted with, or transferred to a post office or other appointment in the gift of the Federal authorities; men whom well-in-burdening the letters of friendship, affection, formed public opinion had proscribed, were thus business, innocent pleasure, and often, very often, provided for, and enabled to act efficiently for of the poorer classes in the Far West with their years against the popular will. The evil is less-friends in the old settlements, by a tax, calculated. ened in this State, because more offices are made as far as its operation extends, to work as inelective Why should Whigs not push forward juriously to the public as steamboats, the teleand carry out their long talked-of reform of giv- graph, and locomotives, have worked for its ing to the people the election of every Postmas- good. Cheap postage benefits commerce, agriter throughout the Union? culture, home manufactures; helps to uphold anIf the people in their localities are capable of cient friendships; brings the distant places of a choosing their Presidents, Governors. Senators, vast empire like ours closer together; gives new Congressmen, Sheriffs, Surrogates, Judges, and power to opinion, additional wings to useful Registrars of property, why not also their Post-knowledge; cheers the new settler in his wildermasters? Very often, indeed, persons are select-ness; aids powerfully in the education of the ed at Washington in whom a majority of their whole people. One of the surest props of Govfellow-citizens have no confidence; the Post ernment by the million, in the best sense of the Office is not seldom made the rendezvous for the term, is a well organized and efficient, yet econpoliticians of the party in power, and the sus- omical Post Office Department. The easier it is

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to obtain tidings of what all public functionaries possessed of delegated powers are doing, the more promptly can public opinion act upon and influence their conduct, for the general welfare in

an elective Government.

A reduction of the rates of postage, to 2 cents for paid and 4 cents for unpaid letters of half an ounce in weight, might not for several years meet the annual expenditure, but it would eventually do so; and in the meantime the advantages to the American people which cheap inland postage would secure, are incalculable. When the 5 and 10 cent postage rates were adopted, very audible fears were expressed that the revenue would be materially injured, and efforts made by Mr. Cave Johnson, and the party about to resign power, to raise the rates once more. They failed, and now admit that the revenue meets the expenditure.So it would, probably, in a few years, at 2 cents unpaid or 4 cents paid.

POST OFFICE REVENUE-MAIL CARRIAGE.

The Northern States defray by far the greater proportion of the cost of transporting the public mails. During the year 1846-7, it cost $256,464 to transport the mails through New-England; the revenue raised from postages was $443,648; the expense of mail transportation in New-York and Pennsylvania, was only $384,719; the revenue raised from postages in these two States, $746,933. In Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas and Georgia, on the other hand, $770,044 were paid for mail transportation, while only $311,569 were raised as revenue at all the Post Offices in these five States. Alabama raises under $50,000 revenue, while over $136,000 are paid to convey the mails through it, and the new State of Texas raises but $8,246 in part of $24,102 expended. Wisconsin pays $56,703 of postage, while its mail conveyance costs but $15,043; Iowa, even, is within $500 of meeting all charges. The United States Senators from South Carolina and other Southern States, were the chief opponents of cheap postage, when the 5 and 10 cent rates were adopted; yet the South, where education is discouraged, and hundreds of thousands of the white people are unable to read and write, throws the heavy burden of mail carriage upon the North and East.

news

square inches, when sent from the offices of publi-
cation, 1 cent per sheet, to any place not over 100
miles distant, or to any place in the State where
published. If sent over 100 miles, and out of the
State, 14 cents. [Letter and newspaper postages
need not be pre-paid, except in such cases as we
have noted.] Circulars, pamphlets and
papers should be so folded as that the Postmaster
can see what they are. If enveloped, they should
be left open at the end. Postmasters are allowed
$50 out of every $100 of newspaper and pamphlet
postage they collect. They are no longer allowed
to frank money-letters to editors from subscribers;
they give receipts for money-the subscriber mails
the receipt in a letter, which the Postmaster,
where the editor lives, pays him the money for.

No packet can be mailed which weighs more than 2 pounds. Bound books are not mailable matter; private expresses, for the conveyance of letters on post-routes, are prohibited. Exchanges of newspapers between editors pass free.

Members of Congress may frank letters not weighing over 2 ounces.

The rates on oz. letters conveyed between places in Oregon and California and places on the Atlantic, is 40 cents each; and between one Posttown and another in California, 12 cents.

RATES OF FOREIGN POSTAGE.

Letters, per half-ounce, to Bremen, paid or unpaid, mailed at N.Y., 24c.; within 300 miles of N.Y., 29c.; over 300 miles, 34c. per U.S. Mail Packets. If to Prussia, 12 cents additional; to Hamburg, 6c. do. If to Austria, 18; Bavaria, 22; Switzerland, 21; Egypt, 37; each additional, per oz. letter. To Denmark, 22; Sweden, 39; St. Petersburg, Russia, 24; each additional, per oz. The postages payable on oz. letters by the British West India Mail Steamers, are, if for any British West India Island, 25 cents; for Martinique, Havana, Porto Rico, St. Thomas, or other island not British, 50 cents; for Chagres, Panama, Valparaiso, or any port on the Pacific, 75 cents; all letters for Havana, per steamers, are 25 cents. TREATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN.-Postage of a half-ounce letter, mailed at any Post-Office in the United States to any part of England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales, 24 cents-which may be paid by the sender, or by the person to whom it is directed. It will be forwarded though not prepaid. Heavier letters in proportion. Letters may be mailed in Britain or Ireland for the U. S. on same terms, except that on any weight over 1 ounce and under 2 ounces, four rates are charged. Newspapers pay 4 cents each-2 when mailed here, and 2 when received in Britain. On British journals the same rate. Letters to Brit. N. America are charged a rate equal to the US. and Colonial rates combined-prepayment, after the details are arranged, is to be optional. Periodicals under 1 lb. and other pamphlets under lb. each, pay one

RATES OF INLAND POSTAGE.

A letter, not exceeding half an ounce in weight, (avoirdupois,) sent not exceeding 300 miles, five cents-sent over 300 miles, ten cents, every oz. and any excess over every oz. the same rates of postage; and when advertised thrice in one newspaper, two cents per letter additional.

Each drop letter, not to be mailed, two cents. All handbills or circulars, printed or lithographed, not exceeding one sheet, three cents each, and to be pre-paid.

COMPENSATION TO POSTMASTERS.

Each newspaper, not over 1,900 sq. in. when not mailed by the publishers, 3 cents, and to be pre-cent per ounce in the U. S., whether received paid. [This regulation unjustly exacts THREE from or to be sent to Britain or Ireland, beside an cents postage in advance on every newspaper additional charge in Britain. Merchants' printed bought from newsmen, or directed by individuals circulars, if printed as extra newspapers, will to their friends, if only sent from Albany to Troy, paynewspaper postage here and in Britain." or Schenectady, while papers mailed at NewYork by the editors pass 500 miles, to Buffalo or beyond, for ONE cent, and only payable when taken out. The great principle of our Government is the diffusion of knowledge and the enforcement of equity; therefore this proviso should be modified. It bears unequally on the poorer classes of our citizens, whom it is our true interest to cherish, raise up and instruct.]

Any pamphlet or magazine, periodical, or other printed matter, transmittable by mail, having no written communication on it, of one ounce or less, or for a newspaper exceeding 1,900 sq. in of surface, 2 cents-for each additional ounce, or more than half an ounce, 1 cent; newspapers of 1,900-139.-Vermont.-Vergennes, 413-693.

The following statement will show the sums paid over, at the offices named, to the U.S. as net Postmaster for his trouble, during the year endrevenue, and the compensation retained by each ing June 30, 1847:

EXPLANATION.-The name of each Post Office is placed first, as Augusta;' then the amount of the Postmaster's net compensation in Dollars, thus: 993;' and lastly, the net year's revenue, paid over to the U. S., thus; 1969. Clerk-hire is allowed at the offices marked with a (*) star.] Maine.-Augusta, 993-1,969; Bath, 1,001-2,061; Freeport, 251-252; Houlton, 405-300; Machias, 316-387; *Portland, 2,000-3,001; Robbinston, 578

Rhode Island.-Providence, 1,772-14,311; Newport, 1,568-3,141.

New-Hampshire.-Charleston, 235-225; Concord, nearly; Philadelphia, 30 clerks $17,500 nearly; 1,088-2,442; Manchester, 1,270-3,520. Pittsburg $3,800 Portland $3,980; Richmond $3,Massachusetts.*Boston, (Nath. Green,) 827-630; St. Louis $5,606; Washington, 21 clerks, at 77,803.-(Blue-Book, 1847, p. 39;) Danvers, 406- $144 to $1,725 each-$19,300; Wheeling $3,700, 579; Dedham, 431-657; Fall River, 1,278-2,793; and others which we have omitted. Falmouth, 237-239; Fitchburg, 697-1,357; The Blue-Book does not show the gross reveGreenfield, 562-813; Lowell, 1,437-9,660; Lynn, nue at each office, nor the allowances, and for 826-1,790; *New-Bedford, 1,787-6,279; New- what objects. When it pretends to state the comburyport, 1,127-3,166; Pittsfield, 1,010-1,980; pensation it very often deceives. Who will beSalem, 1,1604,128; Springfield, 1,785-4,821; Wor-lieve that the P. M. of Boston, collects, perhaps, cester, 1,893-5,893. $100,000 of revenue for $827, while $1,568 are paid at Newport for remitting $3,141, and $3,678 at Springfield and Worcester for remitting $7,786? The gross revenue at New-York is understood to be nearly $300,000 a-year. What becomes of the difference between that sum, and the $240,000 placed in the Blue-Book? Who supposes that Mr. Morris's income is only $2,000, or Mr. Green's just $827? In Chicago, a large commercial city, $6,822 are retained for salaries. What is the amount actually collected there, including the dues for boxes, (charged at New-York $4 each ?) We have heard the box-rent revenue calculated at $100,000 to $250,000. What part of the $15,000 thus paid in at New-York, finds its way into the public chest, and where does one cent of it appear on the public accounts? The incomes, in many cases, seem very inconsistent with each other, and often with the service performed. Give the people the election of their Postmasters, and that service will be done cheaper and better Why should a man who draws customers to his store, retain $1,000 out of $2,200 collected, or in proportion, while his neighbor transacts tenfold the busiCumber-ness for the same money? Why should P. Ms. who collect $5 or $10 a-year for the public, receive free and frank their own letters?

Marselius, a clerk in the New-York office, re

Virginia.Wheeling, 2,000-28; Alexandria, ceiving $58 per month, was convicted many 1,491-2,951; Boydtown, 276-229; Fredericks- months since, on the clearest evidence, of stealing burgh, 1,156-1983; Lynchburg, 1,531-2,801; letters. We have not heard that he was punished *Norfolk, 1,557-5,875; *Petersburg, 1,349-4,021; perhaps legal quibbles stand in the way. Had *Richmond, 1,306-17,117; Winchester, 1,084-1,979. he not been found out, honest, faithful clerks would have been blamed for his knavery. *In the rates paid to clerks, as wages, we can see no system-merely the caprice of some controlling functionary. Distributing offices require extra clerks. We have thus distinguished them (†).

North Carolina.-Fayetteville, 1,009-1,549; Mulberry, 1-1; Poorford, ; Prosperity, 3-3; Raleigh, 1,493-1,065; Wilmington, 1,586-3,763. S. Carolina-Columbia, 1,736-3,640; *+Charleston, 1,550-25,405; New-Prospect, 1-1; Rice's Mills, 3 qrs, 68 cts- 83 cts.; Saxby, 28 cts.-37 cts. Georgia. Savannah, 1,420-10,313; *†Columbus, 1,976-2,131; Macon, 1,899-4,375; †Augusta. Alabama.-Huntsville, 1,486-592; Montgom-privilege. Why continue to incur the expense of ery, 1,935-1,162; *Mobile, 1,248-15,726. delays, mail-openings, extended routes, circulars,

There are hundreds, perhaps thousands, of post-offices, family concerns, yielding from 7 cents to $1 per quarter, and conferring the franking

Louisiana.-Baton Rouge, 704-990; *†New-Or-reports, accounts, audits, &c., at places where leans, 2,000-53,351. there is no mail.business done? Better it were to give the Union that great boon, a two cents paid and four cents unpaid rate of postage, abolish what is useless, introduce a simple system with real accountability to the public, instead of the ap

Kentucky.-Maysville, 1,883-121; *Lexington, 1,318-4782; *Louisville, 1,995-10,895; Frankfort, 1,131-2,359-Michigan.-Detroit, 2,000-3,417. Ohio.*Cincinnati, 1,825-33,718; *+Columbus, 1,532-3,517; *Cleveland, 1,171-7,809; Dayton, 1,-pearance of it, proportion the compensation 403-3,346: Toledo, 1,930-176; Zanesville, 1,452-equally to the real service done, and forbid those 2,902; Chilicothe, 1,266-2,088. who are entrusted with mail correspondence to busy themselves in electioneering contests. The undue increase of post-office patronage, enjoyed by the Federal Executive, in 1840 and 1848, failed to strengthen the administrations of Van Buren and Polk. One man has an office with too much emolument; ten office-seekers join the opposition in the hope of getting that office. If patronage without principle would have elected Cass, or kept Van Buren in favor, they had the full benefit of it, especially the former. Universal education, the union of example and precept, in sight of the rising generation, this is the cornerstone of elective institutions. What Whig Congressman is ready to introduce a bill to give the choice of our Postmasters to the people in their towns, cities and other localities? Our opponents talked of reform; may Whigs in office prove to be the true democrats.

Connecticut.-*+Hartford, 1,914-8,082; Litchfield, 432-528; N. London, 1,116-2,259; *New-Haven, 1,237-8896; Norwich, 1,184-3,461; Suffield, 298-310. New-York.Albany, 1,709-18,829; Auburn, 1,378-3,891; Bath, 599-818; Brooklyn, 1,834-6,690; Brownville, 306-287; Canandaigua, 1,084-2,079; Catskill, 688-970; Delhi, 421-461; Geneva, 1,460 -3,259; Hudson, 1,086-1,895; Lewiston (frontier,) 1,097-160; Lockport, 1,246-2,937; Newburg, 1,087-2,068;*Buffalo, 2,000-9,877; *New-York, 2,000-207,590; Oswego, 1,491-3,930; Poughkeepsie, 1,411-2,959; *Rochester, 1,071-11,989; Saratoga Springs, 1,019-1,722; Syracuse, 1,720-5,017; *Troy, 913-9,304; *Utica, 1,035-6,127; Watertown, I, 031-2,002; Williamsburgh, 200-470.

Pennsylvania.-Bristol, 329-325; *Harrisburg, 1,243-7,767; Carlisle, 1,033-1,789; Easton, 1,141 2,400; *Erie, 1,842-no revenue; Lancaster, 1,305 3.348; Montrose, 344-310; *Philadelphia, 2,000 -104,384; *Pittsburg, 2,000-19,096; Reading, 1,215-3,041.

Maryland.-*+Baltimore, 2,000-51,817; land, 1,070-2,572.

District of Columbia.-Georgetown, 1,352-2,594; *Washington. 2,000-176,788.

Illinois. *Chicago, 1,723-1,760; Springfield, 1,170-1,994; Avoca, 1-1. Missouri.-Jefferson City, 443-463; *†St. Louis,

1,846-19,139.

POSTMASTERS AND CLERKS' COMPENSATION. Beside the above compensations to Postmasters for their individual services, 600 to 700 clerks are paid to assist them, salaries of $120 to $2000 each, as follows: Albany office, to 17 clerks $8,093; Augusta $3,711; Baltimore, to 17 clerks $9,800; Boston, 41 clerks, at $400 to $1,200-$16,100; Buffalo, 17 clerks, at $200 to $1,248-$7,700; Charleston, 1 at $1,800-7, $3,390; Chicago $5,099; Cincinnati $6,778; Columbus, Ohio, $4,917; Detroit $4,480; Harrisburg $2,200; Louisville $5,000; Mobile $3,900; New-Orleans $11,000: New-York, M. Monson $2,000, J. Benedict $1,500, W. B. Taylor $1,700; 57 others, at $600, $1,200, and under, $25,000

*We desire to direct public attention to the embezzlement case of Richard Keys, Baltimore.

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