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He fears that the slumbering faculties of Eu-shall be short-lived? Was it not ordained of rope have not been able to ascertain that old that truth only shall abide forever?there are twenty millions of Anglo-Saxons Whatever we may say to-day, or whatever here-making railroads and canals, and speed- we may write in our books, the stern tribunal ing all the arts of Peace to the utmost accom- of History will review it all, detect falsehood. plishment of the most refined civilization!-and bring us to judgment before that posteriThey do not know it! And what is the won-ty which shall bless or curse us as we may derful expedient which this Democratic act now, wisely or otherwise. We may hide method of making history would adopt in or- in the grave, (which awaits us all,) in vain; der to make us known? Storming cities, we may hope there, like the foolish bird that desolating peaceful, happy homes, shooting hides its head in the sand, in the vain belief men-ay, Sir such is war-and shooting that its body is not seen, yet even there this preposterous excuse of want of" room," shall Sir, I have read in some account of your be laid bare, and the quick-coming future battle of Monterey, of a lovely Mexican girl, wiil decide that it was a hypocritical prewho, with the benevolence of an angel in her tence, under which we sought to conceal the bosom, and the robust courage of a hero in avarice which prompted us to covet and to her heart, was busily engaged during the seize by force that which was not ours. bloody conflict, amid the crash of falling Mr. President, this uneasy desire to aug. houses, the groans of the dying and the wild ment our territory has depraved the moral shriek of battle, in carrying water to slake sense, and blunted the otherwise keen sagacithe burning thirst of the wounded of either ty of our people. What has been the fate of host. While bending over a wounded Amer-all nations who have acted upon the idea that ican soldier, a cannon ball struck her and they must advance! Our young orators cherblew her to atoms! Sir, I do not charge my ish this notion with a fervid, but fatally misbrave, generous-hearted countrymen who taken zeal. They call it by the mysterious fought that fight with this. No, no-we who name of "destiny." "Our destiny," they say, send them, we who know that scenes like is "onward," and hence they argue, with this, which might send tears of sorrow "down ready sophistry, the propriety of seizing upPluto's iron cheek," are the invariable, inev- on any territory and any people that may lay itable attendants on War, we are accountable in the way of our "fated" advance. Recentfor this; and this is the way we are to be ly these Progressives have grown classical made known to Europe. This-this is to be some assiduous student of antiquities has the undying renown of free Republican helped them to a patron saint. They have America! "She has stormed a city-killed wandered back into the desolated Pantheon, many of its inhabitants of both sexes-she has and there, among the Polytheistic relics of room." So it will read. Sir, if this were our that "pale mother of dead empires." they only history, then may God of his mercy grant have found a god whom these Romans, centhat its volume may speedily come to a close. turies gone by, baptized "Terminus.”
Why is it, sir, that we of the United States, Sir, I have heard much, and read somewhat a people of yesterday, compared with the of this gentleman Terminus. Alexander, of older nations of the world, should be waging whom I have spoken, was a devotee of this war for territory, for "room?" Look at your divinity. We have seen the end of him and country, extending from the Alleghany his empire. It was said to be an attribute of Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, capable it this god that he must always advance, and self of sustaining in comfort a larger popula-never recede. So both republican and impetion than will be in the whole Union for one rial Rome believed. It was, as they said, their hundred years to come. Over this vast ex- destiny. And for a while it did seem to be panse of territory your population is now so even so. Roman Terminus did advance. Unsparse that I believe we provided at the last der the eagles of Rome he was carried from session a regiment of mounted men to guard his home on the Tiber, to the farthest East on the mail, from the frontier of Missouri to the one hand, and to the far West, among the mouth of the Columbia, and yet you persist in barbarous tribes of western Europe, on the the ridiculous assertion, "I want room!"-other. But at length the time came when One would imagine, from the frequent reiter retributive justice had become "a destiny." ation of the complaint, that you had a burst- The despised Gaul calls out to the contemned jing, teeming population, whose energy was Goth, and Attila. with his Huns, answers back paralyzed, whose enterprise was crushed for the battle shout to both. The "blue-eyed Nawant of space. Why should we be so weaktions of the North," in succession, or united, or wicked as to offer this idle apology for pour forth their countless hosts of warriors ravaging a neighboring republic? It will im- upon Rome and Rome's always-advancing pose on no one at home or abroad. god Terminus. And now the battle-ax of Do we not know, Mr. President, that it is a the barbarian strikes down the conquering law, never to be repealed, that falsehood eagle of Rome. Terminus at last recedes,
slowly at first, but finally he is driven to protect him now? Far from it. Blood, slaugh Rome, and from Rome to Byzantium. Who-ter, desolation spread abroad over the land ever would know the farther fate this Ro- and finally the conflagration of the old com man Deity, so recently taken under the pa-mercial metropolis of Russia closes the retri tronage of American Democracy, may find bution; she must pay for her share in the dis ample gratification of his curiosity in the lu- memberment of her weak and impoten minous pages of Gibbon's "Decline and Fall." neighbor. Mr. President, a mind more prone Such will find that Rome thought as you now to look for the judgments of Heaven in the think, that it was her destiny to conquer prov- doings of men than mine, cannot fail in this inces and nations, and no doubt she sometimes to see the Providence of God. When Mos said as you say, "I will conquer a peace." And cow burned it seemed as if the earth was where now is she; the Mistress of the World? lighted up, that the Nations might behold the The spider weaves his web in her palaces, scene. As that mighty sea of fire gathered the owl sings his watch-song in her towers. and heaved and rolled upward, and yet highTeutonic power now lords it over the servile er. till its flames licked the stars, and fired remnant, the miserable memento of old and the whole Heavens, it did seem as though the once omnipotent Rome. Sad, very sad, are God of Nations was writing in characters of the lessons which Time has written for us.-flame on the front of His throne, that doom Through and in them all I see nothing but that shall fall upon the strong nation which the inflexible execution of that old law which tramples in scorn upon the weak. And what Jordains as eternal that cardinal rule, "Thou fortune awaits him, the appointed executor of shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods, nor any this work, when it was all done? He, too thing which is his." Since I have lately heard conceived the notion that his destiny pointed so much about the dismemberment of Mexi- onward to universal dominion. France was co, I have looked back to see how, in the too small-Europe, he thought should bow course of events, which some call "Provi- down before him. But as soon as this idea dence," it has fared with other nations who took possession of his soul, he too becomes engaged in this work of dismemberment. I powerless. His Terminus must recede too see that in the latter half of the Eighteenth Right there, while he witnessed the humili Century, three powerful nations, Russia. Aus- ation, and doubtless meditated the subjuga tria and Prussia, united in the dismember- tion of Russia, He who holds the winds in his ment of Poland. They said, too, as you say, fist, gathered the snows of the north and blew it is our destiny." They "wanted room." them upon his six hundred thousand men; Doubtless each of these thought, with his they fled-they froze-they perished. And share of Poland, his power was too strong now the mighty Napoleon, who had resolved ever to fear invasion, or even insult. One had on universal dominion, he too is summoned his California, another his New-Mexico, and to answer for the violation of that ancient the third his Vera Cruz, Did they remain law, "Thou shalt not covet any thing which is untouched and incapable of harm? Alas! thy neighbors." How is the mighty fallen.No-far, very far from it. Retributive jus- He, beneath whose proud footstep Europe tice must fulfill its destiny too. A very few trembled, he is now an exile at Elba, and now years pass off, and we hear of a new man, a finally a prisoner on the rock of St. Helena, Corsican lieutenant, the self-named "armed and there on a barren island, in an untre soldier of Democracy," Napoleon. He rav-quented sea, in the crater of an extinguished ages Austria. covers her land with blood, volcano, there is the death-bed of the mighty drives the Northern Cæsar from his capital, conqueror. All his annexations have come and sleeps in his palace. Austria may now to that! His last hour is now come, and he, remember how her power trampled upon the man of destiny, he who had rocked the Poland. Did she not pay dear, very dear, for world as with the throes of an earthquake, is her California? now powerless, still-even as the beggar, so
But has Prussia no atonement to make?-he died. On the wings of a tempest that You see this same Napoleon, the blind in raged with unwonted fury, up to the throne strument of Providence, at work there. The of the only Power that controlled him while thunders of his cannon at Jena proclaim the he lived, went the fiery soul of that wonderful work of retribution for Poland's wrongs; and warrior, another witness to the existence of the successors of the Great Frederick, the that eternal decree, that they who do not rule drill-sergeant of Europe, are seen flying in righteousness, shall perish from the earth.across the sandy plain that surrounds their He has found "room at last. And France. capitol, right glad if they may escape captiv-she too has found "room." Her "eagles" ity or death. But how fares it with the Au-now no longer scream along the banks of the tocrat of Russia? Is he secure in his share Danube, the Po, and the Boristhenes. They of the spoils of Poland? No. Suddenly we have returned home to their old eyrie, be see, sir, six hundred thousand armed men tween the Alps, the Rhine, and the Pyren marching to Moscow. Does his Vera Cruzlees; so shall it be with yours. You may car
ry them to the loftiest peaks of the Cordil-hazards of internal commotion at home, leras, they may wave with insolent triumph in which last I fear may come if another provhe Halls of the Montezumas, the armed men ince is to be added to our territory. There is of Mexico may quail before them, but the one topic connected with this subject which weakest hand in Mexico uplifted in prayer I tremble when I approach, and yet I cannot to the God of Justice, may call down against forbear to notice it. It meets you in every you a Power, in the presence of which the step you take. It threatens you which way iron hearts of your warriors shall be turned soever you go in the prosecution of this war into ashes. I allude to the question of slavery. Opposi Mr. President, if the history of our race has tion to its farther extension, it must be obvi established any truth, it is but a confirmation ous to every one, is a deeply-rooted deterof what is written, "the way of the trans-mination with men of all parties in what we gressor is hard." Inordinate ambition, wan-call the non-slaveholding States. New-York, toning in power, and spurning the humble Pennsylvania and Ohio, three of the most maxims of justice has ever has--and ever powerful, have already sent their legislative shall end in ruin. Strength cannot always instructions here--so it will be, I doubt not, trample upon weakness-the humble shall be in all the rest. It is vain now to speculate about exalted-the bowed down will at length be the reasons for this. Gentlemen of the South lifted up. It is by faith in the law of strict may call it prejudice, passion, hypocrisy, fajustice, and the practice of its precepts, that naticism. I shall not dispute with them now nations alone can be saved. All the annals of on that point. The great fact that it is so, and the human race, sacred and profane, are not otherwise, is what it concerns us to know. written over with this great truth, in charac You nor I cannot alter or change this opinion ters of living light. It is my fear, my fixed if we would. These people only say, we will belief, that in this invasion, this war with not. cannot consent that you shall carry slave Mexico, we have forgotten this vital truth-ry where it does not already exist. They do Why is it that we have been drawn into this not seek to disturb you in that institution, as whirlpool of war? How clear and strong it exists in your States. Enjoy it if you will, was the light that shone upon the path of du and as you will. This is their language, this ty a year ago! The last disturbing question their determination. How is it in the South? with England was settled-our power ex- Can it be expected that they should expend tended its peaceful sway from the Atlantic to in common, their blood and treasure in the the Pacific; from the Alleghanies we looked acquisition of immense territory, and then out upon Europe, and from the tops of the willingly forego the right to carry thither their Stony Mountains we could descry the shores slaves, and inhabit the conquered territory if of Asia; a rich commerce with all the nations they please to do so? Sir, I know the feelof Europe poured wealth and abundance into ings and opinions of the South too well to calour lap on the Atlantic side, while an unocculate on this. Nay, I believe they would cupied commerce of three hundred mi even contend to any extremity for the mere of Asiatics waited on the Pacific for our en right, had they no wish to exert it. I believe terprise to come and possess it. One hun (and I confess I tremble when the conviction dred millions of dollars will be wasted in this presses upon me) that there is equal obstinafruitless war. Had this money of the people cy on both sides of this fearful question. If been expended in making a railroad from then we persist in war, which if it terminate your Northern Lakes to the Pacific, as one of in anything short of a mere wanton waste of your citizens has begged of you in vain, you blood as well as money, must end (as this bill would have made a highway for the world proposes) in the acquisition of territory, to between Asia and Europe. Your capitol which at once this controversy must attachthen would be within thirty or forty days this bill would seem to be nothing less than a travel of any and every point on the map of bill to produce internal commotion. Should the civilized world. Through this great ar- we prosecute this war another moment, or tery of trade, you would have carried through expend one dollar in the purchase or conthe great heart of your own country, the teas quest of a single acre of Mexican land, the of China, and the spices of India, to the mar North and the South are brought into collis kets of England and France. Why, why, ion on a point where neither will yield.Mr. President, did we abandon the enter Who can foresee or foretell the result! Who prises of Peace, and betake ourselves to the so bold or reckless as to look such a conflict barbarous achievements of War? Why did in the face unmoved! I do not envy the heart we "forsake this fair and fertile field to batten of him who can realize the possibility of such on that moor." a conflict without emotions too painful to be But, Mr. President, if farther acquisition of endured. Why then shall we, the representa territory is to be the result either of conquest tives of the Sovereign States of this Unionor treaty, then I scarcely know which should the chosen guardians of this confederated Rebe preferred, eternal war with Mexico, or the public, why should we precipitate this fear
ful struggle by continuing a war, the results of true patriotism. Let us abandon all idea of which must be to force us at once upon it? of acquiring farther territory, and by conse Sir, rightly considered, this is treason, trea-quence cease at once to prosecute this war.son to the Union, treason to the dearest inter- Let us call home our armies, and bring them ests, the loftiest aspirations, the most cher- at once within our own acknowledged lim ished hopes of our constituents. It is a crime its. Show Mexico that you are sincere when to risk the possibility of such a contest. It is you say you desire nothing by conquest. She a crime of such infernal hue that every other has learned that she cannot encounter you in in the catalogue of iniquity, when compared war, and if she had not, she is too weak to with it, whitens into virtue. Oh, Mr. Presi- disturb you here. Tender her peace, and my dent, it does seem to me, if Hell itself could life on it, she will then accept it. But yawn and vomit up the fiends that inhabit its whether she shall or not, you will have peace penal abodes, commissioned to disturb the without her consent. It is your invasion that harmony of this world, and dash the fairest has made war, your retreat will restore peace. prospect of happiness that ever allured the Let us then close forever the approaches of hopes of men, the first step in the consumma- internal feud, and so return to the ancient tion of this diabolical purpose would be, to concord and the old ways of national proslight up the fires of internal war, and plunge perity and permanent glory. Let us here, in the sister States of this Union into the bot- this temple consecrated to the Union, per tomless gulf of civil strife. We stand this form a solemn lustration; let us wash Mexiday on the crumbling brink of that gulf-we can blood from our hands, and on these altars. see its bloody eddies wheeling and boiling in the presence of that image of the Father of before us-shall we not pause before it be too his Country that looks down upon us, swear late? How plain again is here the path, Ito preserve honorable peace with all the may add the only way, of duty, of prudence, world, and eternal brotherhood with each other.
TOM CORWIN-PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATION.
Judge H, an old and respectable citi- the dark ages from the statute-book of the zen of Franklin County, related to us, some great republican State of Ohio. He took his years since, the following anecdote of Gov. seat-the House completely electrified with Corwin, which we do not recollect ever to the eloquent powers of the young orator. The have seen in print: old Yankee arose, and replied as follows:
At the time the "Wagon Boy" was first "Mr. Speaker, all the gentleman from Warren
enactment in oar whole criminal code. Cor- "I have often endeavored, Mr. Speaker, to solve
DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES:
By the Whigs of Massachusetts, in Convention at Springfield, Sept. 29, 1847.
Resolved, That the Annexation of Texas gave territory, however acquired, shall become a part the first strong impulse to the desire for the ac-of the American Union, unless on the unalterable! quisition of foreign lands, and created a national condition that "there shall be neither Slavery nor appetite, which, if not seasonably corrected, may involuntary servitude therein, otherwise than in lead to the destruction of our most cherished the punishment of crime." rights, and the overthrow of our civil institutions, Resolved, That in making this declaration of her in the ingulfing vortex of military depotism. purpose, Massachusetts announces no new princiResolved, That the war with Mexico,-the pre-ple of action in regard to her sister States, and dicted result, if not the legitimate offspring, of the makes no new application of principles already Annexation of Texas-begun in a palpable vio-jacknowledged. She merely states the great Amerlation of the Constitution, and the usurpation of can principle embodied in our Declaration of Inthe powers of Congress by the President, and car- dependence-the political equality of persons in ried on in reckless indifference and disregard of the civil States; the principle adopted in the the blood and treasure of the Nation, can have no legislation of the States under the Confederation object which can be effected, but the acquisition and sanctioned by the Constitution-in the adof Mexican territory; and the acquisition of Mex-mission of all the new States formed from the ican territory, under the circumstances of the only territory belonging to the Union at the adop country-unless under adequate securities for the tion of the Constitution; it is, in short, the imperprotection of human liberty-can have no other ishable principle set forth in the ever-memora probable result than the ultimate advancement of ble Ordinance of 1787, which has, for more than! the sectional supremacy of the Slave Power. half a century been the fundamental law of huResolved, That the igs of Massachusetts are man liberty in the great of the Lakes, the not prepared for this result: they see, therefore, Ohio and Mississippi-with what brilliant success, no rational or justifiable object in the protracted and with what unparalleled results, let the great prosecution of the war, and rejoice in every man- and growing States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michifestation of the return of peace; for although igan and Wisconsin answer and declare. sanctioned by a portion of the Whigs in its earli Resolved, That the Whigs of Massachusetts, reest movements, as a measure for the preservation gard the great interests of Agriculture, Commerce of the army-then in peril by the unauthorized and Manufactures as so inseparably connected acts of the President-yet the war itself, while that National measures injurious to either are inprosecuted to secure the sectional supremacy of jurious to all; that the increased and rapidlythe Slave Power, or the conquest and dismem- increasing Agricultural products of the great West berment of the Mexican Republic, has never had require great and increasing facilities of commerand never can have, the sanction and approbation cial transport; that the regulation of Commerce, of the Whigs of Massachusetts. both internal and external, is placed by the ConResolved, Therefore, that the great and perma-stitution among the clearly-expressed and unnent interests of the American Union as it is, and doubted powers of Congress; and that the imthe highest and brightest hopes of the liberties provement of the great Lakes and Rivers of the and the rights of our race on the American Con- West, by the construction of harbors on the Lakes tinent, require of the great North American Re- and the removal of obstructions from the Rivers, public to stay her hands, already too deeply stained is among the most obviously just and necessary in the blood shed in this unnatural war between juses of this important power; and would greatly the two great Republics of this Continent, and tend, by the increase of internal trade and con inscribe on her standard, now waving victoriously merce, to the rapid advancement of these great over the Halls of the Montezumas, and deeply on interests of the country.
the hearts of her Rulers--as her well-considered Resolved, Therefore, that the Veto by the Presi and unchangeable purpose-"Peace with Mexico dent of the River and Harbor bill of the last Conwithout dismemberment-No addition of Mexican gress was an act of wanton injury to the grest Territory to the American Union interests not only of the West, but of all interests
Resolved. That, in the judgment of this Conven-connected with them, and of unmitigated wrong tion, this course of policy and action would form and insult to the Congress that passed it, and ought a basis on which the whole patriotism, and intel-never to be forgotten until the Veto is annihilated ligence, and moral worth of the country might by a two-thirds vote, or by the election of a Presihonestly rally and securely stand; while it would dent who will exercise the Constitutional power. place our country eminently in the right, and as it was made to be executed, and as it has been show to the world that we are, as a nation, as in- executed by every President from George Washvincible in moral principle as in military power, ington down to-but not including-James K. Polk. and that we can conquer a peace with Mexico by Resolved, That the great Whig doctrines of Profirst conquering in ourselves the raging thirst of tection to American Industry, Capital and Labor-a military glory and the mad ambition of foreign sound and uniform Currency for the People as well conquest. as the Government-a well-regulated system of InResolved, That if this course of policy shall be ternal Improvement, especially in reference to the rejected, and the war shall be prosecuted to the internal commerce of the great lakes and rivers final subjugation or dismemberment of Mexico, of the West-uncompromising hostility to the Subthe Whigs of Massachusetts now declare, and put Treasury, to Executive usurpations of the powers this declaration of their purpose on record, that of Congress, and to all wars for conquest, and to Massachusetts will never consent that Mexican all acquisitions of territory in any manner what