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THE TARIFF QUESTION.
THE imposition of a Tariff, or schedule of [ral and intolerable distress. The old 'Contivarying duties on articles imported into the nental' paper had fallen into utter discredit United States from foreign countries, was one and worthlessness; the Specie had been Sof the earliest acts of the first Congress which drained away to pay for Foreign fabrics, assembled under the Federal Constitution. while scarcely anything produced in our (In the preamble to that act, it is asserted that country would justify the expense of its transthe Protection of Domestic Manufactures is mission to a foreign market, and general de(one of its objects, and to this no objection ap-solation and despair prevailed. The evils so pears to have been made from any quarter. keenly felt on all sides overruled the dread The mechanics and tradesmen of New-York, and dislike of a more powerful central GovBoston, Baltimore and other portions of the ernment cherished by a majority of the leadUnion had urgently and with apparent una-ing minds of that day, especially evinced by Snimity petitioned Congress to levy duties for Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson and George
this purpose, and so arrest the tide of exces- Clinton. An adequate and beneficent Na-
collection of taxes. The inability of the Con- Protection to Home Industry was proudly
forcibly set forth by Mr. Jefferson in his Re--and found our Industry as ill prepared as Sport on the subject as Secretary of State in our Arms for the deadly encounter. We had 1793. The general necessity of Protection to scarcely any Manufactures-we had hitherto Home Industry, apart from all consideration purchased the better part of our Clothing from Sof the policy of foreign powers, is distinctly the very nation which we now grappled in maintained in the Letters and Messages of phrenzied hostility, and whose cruisers were Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, J. about to seal our coast against the approach Q. Adams and Jackson, [for which see Slade's of any other vessels from abroad except at Speech, Ho. of Reps. Dec. 20, 1841, Am. La- their utmost peril. Although possessing the Sborer, p. 6 to 22, or Whig Almanac, of 1843;] finest and amplest Cotton-growing soil in the in the Speeches, &c. of John C. Calhoun, Dr. world, with unsurpassed facilities for the proThomas Cooper, and other ultra-Southern duction of Wool, Flax, Hemp and Silk, we Statesmen who have more recently appeared were producing none of them but the two as champions of Free Trade; and in the former, and of these our Wool at least was Messages of George Clinton, D. D. Tompkins, inadequate in quantity and inferior in quality. De Witt Clinton, W. L. Marcy, Wm. H. A state of war is necessarily of uncertain duSeward and other eminent Governors of the ration and most unfavorable to the commenceState of New-York. [For citations, see Ame- ment of new industrial enterprises requiring a rican Laborer, pages 149-151.] large outlay before any return can be realBut the breaking out of the great European ized. Labor and materials are then expenwars consequent on the French Revolution sive, and the able-bodied men of the country diverted, to a great extent, the attention of are wanted in the fleets and the armies, in our people from the building up of a self-sus-building ships, forts, &c. or in the production taining and symmetrical system of Home In- of the means of sustenance for those or of dedustry and Home Markets. Our Maritime struction for their foes. Yet so great was the population found a lucrative though precari-scarcity of materials for Clothing in 1811-12) ous employment in the carrying trade be- and subsequently, that our Government, it is tween the hostile nations, while our Agricul- stated, was compelled to send clandestinely ture was stimulated by the high prices readily to England for the means of clothing the paid in Europe for food for the vast arma- troops they were about to raise with the inments constantly maintained. In the excite-tent of fighting that country, obtaining the Sment created by the prospect of immediate needed supplies under the pretence of purand large gains, the idea of laying broad and chasing 'Indian blankets' to fulfil treaty stipCloths deep the foundations of permanent and as-ulations with our Western savages. sured prosperity was overlaid and practically now commanded such exorbitant prices that discarded. The frequent and ruinous inter- if the People had really been compelled by a ruptions of our profitable foreign pursuits by stringent Protection to pay more for them Orders in Council, Berlin and Milan Decrees, during the twenty preceding years, as the unjustifiable Embargoes, illegal confiscations, Free-Traders contend, they would have reand the various resorts of powers unscrupu-ceived it all back again in the far lower prices Slous in their hostility to each other and in their during the War which their Home Producenvy of our fortune, were treated as disagree-tion under seasonable encouragement would Sable accidents, and failed to make their legit-have inevitably secured. Now the business imate impression on the public mind. At of Manufacturing was hastily rushed into un(length, the tempest of War burst upon our der the temptation held out by the high prices) own shores-a war which would never have of Cloths, without experience, without prooccurred had our pursuits and our policy been per machinery or artisans, for the War would as little dependent on Foreign interests, ne-not allow us to obtain them. Some made cessities or caprices as they should have been money, or thought they did, in the business;
but far more had but just completed the in- Strenuous efforts were made at the long)
a large majority in each House. By its adop-|for good reasons shown. Of course, amid tion, a civil war was prevented and the evil such a multiplicity of items it is not presumed Sday for our National Industry postponed. that every one is fixed precisely as it should But that day came at last. The extensive be, but that the Tariff as a whole is a good inflation following a severe compression of one, that its provisions generally are carefully Sour Paper Currency consequent on the arbi- elaborated and wisely adjusted, is proved by trary Removal of the Deposites from the Uni- the history of its formation, and by the condi-) Sted States Bank and their distribution among tion of the Country. The three years of low some four-score local Banks, combined with duties, as in the two former periods of relathe diminution of the duties on imports to tive Free Trade, had been years of general stimulate enormous importations in 1836, and depression, of numerous bankruptcies, of (again in 1838-9. The Business of the Coun-Labor widely destitute of employment, of) try was deranged, its Industry prostrated, and enormous and harassing commercial indebteven its Revenue at length fell off so as to be edness abroad, and of stagnation or feeble wholly inadequate to the wants of the Gov-progress in improvement and wealth at home. ernment. The receipts from the Customs in The three years' existence of the present) the three years of lowest Revenue duties-Tariff have been years of reviving energy and 1840, '41 and '42-averaged less than Seven-confidence, of increasing and prosperous In(teen Millions per annum, and from all sources dustry, of extensive and varied Improvement) Sexcept Loans and the issue of Treasury Notes, by building, establishing new branches of fell short Nineteen Millions. The Government productive labor, &c. and of healthful Trade) was reduced to the necessity of borrowing to The aggregate number of employed and re meet its ordinary expenses, and, like other munerated laborers in this year 1845 must be borrowers, found that the very fact of its need- far greater, and that of unemployed, unwiling money afforded an excellent reason to lingly idle persons relatively less than in either lenders for declining to trust it. Its loans of the three low-duty years. The Revenue) were hawked about the capitals of Europe also has largely increased, reaching nearly without finding a purchaser, and were taken Thirty-two Millions in 1844, and far overbalat all but partially and grudgingly on terms ancing the current expenses of that year. It which must have made fortunes for the takers will be somewhat less in 1845,-say Twentyas soon as confidence in its solvency returned five Millions-but still abundant for all legitiby the enactment and operation of the Tariff mate and economical wants of the Governof 1842. ment. The prosperity of the Country under) In the formation of this Tariff, the utmost this Tariff has been steadily, palpably procare was used to make it a good one. The gressive and nearly universal. If New-Englabors to this end of WALTER FORWARD, land first felt its impulse, owing to her large Secretary of the Treasury, MILLARD FILL-investments in Manufactures, it has by no MORE, Chairman of the House Committee of means been confined to her borders. In every Ways and Means, LEVERETT SALTONSTALL, State of the Union manufacturing establishdo. of Manufactures, and JAMES F. SIMMONS, ments are springing up, giving value to Chairman of the Senate Committee on Manu- water-power, timber, stone, brick-clay, &c. factures, in taking immense masses of testi- comparatively worthless before, furnishing) mony from experienced, intelligent and pa- employment for the carpenter, mason, brickStriotic men, weighing conflicting evidence, maker, &c. and giving an additional develop&c. were arduous and unremitted. The ses- ment to the Industry of the vicinity. The) Ssions of the Committees above named were earnings of those permanently employed in protracted and laborious. No article was the factories are mainly so much added to the Scharged more or less than the general rate of wealth of the community. The farmer's famithirty per cent. on the value (abroad) unlessly of whom one or two choose some manu
Sfacturing vocation draw nearly as much from ruthless hands on this great measure of Natheir farm as formerly, and find a ready cash tional independence and progress, and des(market for their butter, poultry, fruit, &c. &c. troy its Protective vitality. Whether these at prices which could not be obtained with apprehensions shall be fulfilled or dissipated, Jour workshops in Europe, and which render a few months must determine. We hope the lighter labors of husbandry far more pro- that the bickerings, cabals and jealousies of fitable than the growing of grain and other the motley host which succeeded, by the most staples. That this Tariff has not abolished all palpable frauds and deceptions, in rallying evils and inequalities of condition, and sup- Pennsylvania with South-Carolina, New-York Splied every man with work at what he may with Arkansas, in support of the election of consider fair wages, is freely conceded. No Polk and Dallas, will defeat every effort to enlightened advocate of Protection, if any, overthrow or essentially alter the Tariff. But Sever represented or claimed that the best pos- in this hope we may be disappointed, and we sible Tariff would produce a Millennium. know that the country can never realize all No one measure can reach and correct all the legitimate advantages of Protection while Political evils, even; much less the thousand its enemies bear rule in the land, and their (wrongs which are beyond the reach of Legis- drawn sword is suspended over the head of Slation and Government. But that it has work- the Tariff, and only withheld from descended well and proved beneficent, not to one ing by the casualty of their intrigues and class or section merely, but to the American rivalries. But whatever may be their course People, we cannot doubt, for the evidence is or its results, let the friends of Protection and Soverwhelming. a wisely diversified, well compacted Home) The beneficent change insured by this Ta- Industry, stand vigilant, determined and hope(riff is yet in its infancy. It has been checked ful. The day of the Nation's deliverance but not wholly arrested by the fear that the from the hands of their opposers cannot be far (new Congress now about to assemble will lay distant. For that day, let us BE READY.
THE POSTAGE REFORM.
Ar the last Session of Congress a bill was Each additional half ounce or fraction, double
(framed, amended and passed, in accordance
Drop Letters (delivered from the office
printed and mailed, or under 100 miles if carried
3. Magazines, Pamphlets and other printed works, 2 cents for the first ounce, 1 cent for each additional ounce or fraction above half an ounce, ...5 cents. for any distance whatever. In all cases, any writing on or within a package, other than the
Each letter or letter package weighing less
than half an ounce, if carried less than 300 miles
Do. over 300 miles..