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THE PAST AND THE FUTURE.

The year 1844, just ended, has witnessed over to the opposite party; thousands were one of the most extraordinary Political contests Naturalized expressly to oppose Nativism, that ever occurred. So nice and equal a bal- and voted the Polk tickets mainly to that end ance of parties, so universal and intense an in- thousands more, we have good reason to beşterest

, so desperate and protracted a struggle, lieve, voted that way without being naturalare entirely without parallel. The result, ized at all. Mr. Polk on this single question though showing a large preponderance of gained more than enough votes in the State of Electoral Votes for the victorious party, exhib- New-York to elect him. its no corresponding disparity of moral or nu But all the losses sustained by the Whigs merical strength. James K. Polk is chosen through Fraudulent Voting, with the diverPresident by less than an absolute majority of sions from their ranks by Abolition and repugthe People's Votes. Allow him Fifty Thou-nance to Nativism, would have been unavail. sand more than Clay, in a Voté of Three Mil-ing, had the People been permitted to know lions, and there are still to be considered the what were the main questions in difference

Sixty-odd Thousand votes thrown away on between the two great parties, and so to dethe Birey or Abolition ticket—every one op- cide intelligently upon them. But this Locoposed to Polk's views on the Texas Question, Focoism resisted and prevented. It could

and nine-tenths of them in favor of the Protec- not do otherwisa and not be beaten. Theretion of Home Industry, and Whigs in every fore, while its public meetings, its speakers, thing but their Political hostility to Slavery. its journals, in the South, were open, bold and So that, while one party has secured the Of-ardent in their advocacy of the Immediate fices and the Executive power, there is a clear Annexation of Texas to this Country, regardpopular majority for the Principles and Mea- less of consequences, this question was widesures of its antagonist.

ly declared at the North to be by no means But this is only an item. James K. Polk distinctly or decisively in issue. The EveSowes his election to the Birney or Liberty ning Post, the most respectable and influential

Party. Had there been no such party, draw. Polk paper in this City, repudiated the issue Sing its votes nine-tenths from the Whig ranks, and opposed Annexation. Silas Wright, who Mr. Clay would have received at least the had powerfully opposed the Texas Treaty in votes of New York and Michigan, in addition the Senate, was made the Polk candidate for to those actually cast for him, giving him 146 Governor of New-York, by which nomination votes to Polk's 129. To Birney and Co. there- the Van Buren anti-Texas men were drawn fore, is the Country indebted for the election into the support of Polk, New-York carried of Polk, and an Annexation, anti-Tariff ascen- for him, and his election secured. Thus while dency in the Federal Government. Texas gained for Polk the votes of Georgia

Yet Abolition alone could not have made a and Louisiana, the game was so played as not sufficient diversion in favor of Loco-Focoism to lose him a single Northern vote. to defeat Mr. Clay. Native Americanism, or On the Tariff question the fraud planned the apprehension studiously inculcated by and perpetrated to prevent a clear popular Mr. Polk's partisans that the Whigs, if suc- verdict was still more glaring. In the first cessful, would abolish or greatly restrict the place, a resolution, which might be interpreted privilege of becoming citizens now accorded to mean any thing or nothing, was passed at to Immigrants from Foreign countries, struck the Convention by which Polk and Dallas us a hard blow. Thousands of Adopted Citi- were nominated. The Free Traders interzens, heretofore Whigs, were impelled to go preted it as declaring hostility to all Protective

Legislation. The Tariff men in the party re- up to the Nation as a gambler, a profane garded it as meaning practically just nothing swearer, and a general profligate in morals at all. Thus both were satisfied. Coming and life, while those who had through twenty before the People, those of the Cotton States years supported and idolized Crawford and were assured that Mr. Polk was a genuine Jackson, each of whom had killed his man in Free Trader, and his votes and speeches in personal encounter, while Jackson had tried Congress and on the stump were cited to hard to kill the two Bentons without even the prove it. At the same time, Pennsylvania formalities of a combat, were horrified at Mr. and other Tariff States were assured that Polk Clay's bloodless and regretted duels! The was for moderate and reasonable Protection contest was widely represented as one beto Home Industry, and a letter from him to tween a dueling and an anti-dueling candidate, John K. Kane of Philadelphia (the only avow-and thousands were on this ground induced al of principle he made ‘for the public eye' to vote against their own views of National after his nomination) was produced to prove Policy and practical beneficence. If an unit. This letter was written after the pattern just seizure of foreign territory, resulting in of the Baltimore Resolution aforesaid, and, war and ten thousand deaths, shall be the rewhile it looked toward a Protective Tariff, sult of this squeamishness, on whom will rest was cautiously worded so as not to give um- the responsibility ? brage to the Free Traders. Thus Georgia

But Calumny and Fraud have done their and Alabama supported Mr. Polk as the con

work, and Mr. Clay is defeated. That is the sistent, uncompromising enemy of the Protec

extent of the verdict. Would that its consetive Policy, while Pennsylvania and the

quences might extend no farther than their Wool-growing or Manufacturing sections of

authors intended! The People have not in. New-York and other Free States were assu

tended to decide against a Protective Tariff red that he was as favorable to Protection as

nor in favor of the Annexation of Texas ; and Mr. Clay! In Pittsburgh and vicinity, he

yet both these are among the probable results was even commended as more favorable to

of Polk's election. The Sub-Treasury proProtection than his great competitor! No ex

ject, if there be any sincerity and consistency penditure of sophistry or falsehood was deem

in the victors, must also be revived and pressed too great to cover this weak point of their

ed upon the Country. Mr. Polk stands exline of defence. The success was such as ill

pressly and publicly committed to it; his chief deserving often meets in the outset. The ap- advisers are Calhoun, Van Buren, Woodbury, prehensions of the Tariff section of the party &c. Pride of opinion and the taunts of the were entirely lulled to rest, and Mr. Polk re.

more reckless Destructives will probably comceived large majorities in nearly every Iron

pel the party,' however reluctantly, to march County of New York, New-Jersey and Penn

up to the line of its former professions. Those, sylvania. Let us see the end before we con

therefore, who hope for a quiet, peaceful, clude that such iniquity has prospered.

conservative Administration, are doomed to And yet so palpable was the cheat prac. disappointment. Mr. Polk is not the man to ticed upon the Tariff seotion of Mr. Polk's rise superior to the circumstances by which supporters that it seemed hardly possible that he finds himself surrounded. He will submit it should succeed. No intelligent man could to be moulded and governed by them. He be deceived by it, and even the ignorant sus- must carry Proscription dov to low water pected while they yielded to it. But the old mark, for the hungry pack behind him will prejudices, the old hatreds, the old slanders, have it so. He must press the Annexation of against Mr. Clay, were vehemently invoked, Texas, for those who forced his nomination at and new and grosser calumnies were invent- Baltimore regard this as the primary consided for the occasion, to be credited on the eration, and chose him for his known devotion strength of the old ones. Mr. Clay was held to their darling scheme. He must do his best

But they

to undermine and overthrow the Protective hold Plaquemines, an old Parish, not rapidly features of the Tariff, all the time talking increasing its population, lying below Newsmooth generalities and specious clap-trap Orleans, toward the mouth of the Mississippi. about 'equalizing the burthens of the Govern. Here the vote has been swelled after this exment,' 'equal Protection, correcting the extraordinary fashion : cesses of former legislation,' &c. while sapping

1840. 1842. 1843. 1844.

Whig.Loco. Whig.Loco. Whig. Loco. Clay. Polk. the great bulwark of the National well-being. 40 250....93 179....36 310....37 1007 In short, the new Administration will be com The vote for Polk exceeds the whole num. pelled, by the original sin attending its con- ber of white males of all ages in the Parish in ception, to war at once upon the Public Inte- 1840, although Louisiana exacts a Property rests and the Public Faith.

qualification of her voters! And the excessWhat, then, is the duty of the Whigs ?-ive majority for Polk over that given for his Evidently, to stand fast by their Principles party at any former Election has given him and their Country. They should offer no fac- the vote of the State. In other words-if tious opposition to the new dynasty-no op. Plaquemines had given no more than her hon

est vote, the Electoral Vote of Louisiana position for opposition's sake.

would have been cast for Clay. should renew and perfect their organization,

That this vote of Plaquemines was abominabe vigilant in the diffusion of facts and argu-bly fraudulent rests on no inference or calcu ments bearing on the great questions which lation. John Gibney, steward of the steammust continue to divide the Country, maintain from New Orleans with a full load of passen

boat Agnes, swears that the boat went down their ascendency wherever the majority is gers, under the charge of Judge Leonard, (the with them, and strengthen their ranks in Con- great man of Plaquemines ;) that he himself

, gress so far as possible. To these ends no

a minor, not residing in Plaquemines, being

persuaded by the Captain, voted three times noisy or vehement effort is requisite. Let at different Polls in that Parish—every time them but adhere firmly to their principles and for Polk and Dallas. Dr. J. B. Wilkinson, a their measures, discarding all solicitations to voter of Plaquemines, swears that he noticed disband and adopt new names and new pur- bour, and were then surrounded by a crowd

that the Polls were opened before the legal poses. Thus prepared, thus guarded, let of strangers, one of whom he ventured to chal. them patiently, hopefully bide their time.- lenge; but, as the Clerk reached out the book, The punishment of the temporarily successful body should be sworn! After this the foreign

the Sheriff pulled it away, declaring that no frauds and deceptions of 1844 cannot fail to votes went in pell-mell. Alfred Vail, a pasbe signal and certain.

senger, and E. Seymour Austin, pilot of the

Agnes, swear to a state of facts within their Were the Whigs beaten by Fraud 7 knowledge similar to that sworn to by John

Gibney. Albert Savage, Engineer of the If any man doubts that systematie, enor-steamboat Planter, swears that his boat went mous, atrocious frauds were perpetrated in down with one hundred and forty Loco-Focos our late Election, and that James K. Polk is from New-Orleans, who voted after the fashion chosen President by virtue of these frauds, it being a Clay one—it was refused, the

above described; but when he offered a vote we ask his attention to the following facts: Sheriff saying he would swear him! Paul

The total vote of Louisiana in the vehement Cormen testifies that he went with other contest of 1840 was 18,912; in the late Elec-Whigs to vote, but were deterred by seeing tion it was 26.295-an increase of about thirty-room, wounded, bloody, and without his hat,

Charles Bruland driven out of the voting five per cent Accordingly, it will be found having been beaten by the Sheriff for offering by a scrutiny of the Parish returns that the a Whig vote. There being a large Loco-Foco increase averages very nearly that ratio—a threatening, the few Whigs were obliged to

mob around the Polls, excited, swearing and little higher in the new and rapidly growing leave without voting. Parishes; a little lower in those that are old This is the way one State was carried for and stationary ; though the strong Loco-Foco Polk and Dallas. Had we room, we could

satisfy any candid mind that New-York was Parishes are apt to swell their vote the most. carried by means equally foul and flagitious, The single exception is the Loco-Foco strong--Can such victories profit the winners ?

18

TOTES FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT.

...... 83

1796

49

1800

PRESIDENT.
VICE PRESIDENT.

PRESIDENT

VICE PRESIDENT.

34 1788{ Geo. Washington.69 John Adams....

Andrew Jackson. 99 | John C. Calhoun. .182 (Unanimous.) (Scattering).

1824
John Q. Adams $ 84 Five others...

78 John Adams.

W. H. Crawford 41 IJ.Q. Adams elected Pre17922 Geo. Washington 132

50
George Clinton
()

Henry Clay... 37 sident by House of Rep.
T. Jefferson 4, Burr.... 1

1828

Andrew Jackson 178 John C. Calhoun......173 John Adams..... 71 Thomas Pinckney 58 John Q. Adams. 83 Richard Rush Thos. Jefferson.. 68 Aaron Burr...

50

Andrew Jackson219 | Martin Van Buren....189 Thos. Jetterson.. 73 Anaro Burrt.

73 Henry Clay...... 49 John Sergeant.. John Adarns..... 64 Thomas Pinckney 50 1832 John Flovd...... 11 William Wilkins...

162 Thos. Jefferson..162 George Clinton, 1804

7 William Wirt... 7 Henry Lee.. Chas.C.Pinckney 14 Rufus King..

14

Amos Ellmaker.

118 James Madison.. 152 George Clinton. 1808

Martin Van B'n.170 Richard M. Johnson...147 Chas.C.Pinckney 45 Rufus King.

47 WH. Harrison. 73 Francis Granger. 1812

James Marlison..127 Elbridge Ger y.. .128 1836 Hugh L. White. 26 John Tyler.
De Witt Clioton. 89 | Jared Ingersoilt. 58 ** i Daniel Webster.. 14 William Smith.

James Monroe...183 Daniel D. Tompkins...183 W. P. Mangum. 11
1816
Rufus King...... 34 | (Opposition scattering)

W.H. Harrison.234 John Tyler ... 234 James Monroe...218 Daniel D. Tompkins...218 1840 Martin Van B'n. 60 Richard M. Johnson... 48 1820 (No opp.bat l votell) (Opposition scattering) Har. 19 Sts. V. B'n ? | Polk 1, Tazewell. 11

1844

James K. Polk..170 George M. Dallas......170

Henry Clay......105 Theo. Frelinghuysen..105 * At the four first elections, no discrimination was made between votes for President and Vice President; each elector voting for two can idates, and the highest on the poll being President and the next Vice Rreside: t.

+ Under the Constitution as it then stood, there was no choice for President; the votes for Jefferson and Burr, the Demo 'ratic candidates, being equal. The House, after a protracted and most exciting struggle. elected Mr. Jefferson President: whereunon Burr became Vice President. Mr. Ingersoll receivsd only the Fede al votes; Mr. Clinton those of New York in addition. il Gov. Wm, Plumer, of N. H. voted for J. Q. Adams, who was not a candidate. $ In the House of Representatives, Adams received the votes of 13 States, Jackson of 7, Crawford of 4.

P South Carolina voted for Ex-Gov. Floyd of Virginia, and H. Lee of Boston. Pennsylvanin voted for Jackson, but eschewed Vaa Buren, and cast her vote for Wilkius. Vermont voted for Wirt and Ellmaker, (Anti. Masonic.) *** Tennessee and Georgia voted for White and Tyler;

Maryland for Harrison and Tyler : South Carolina for Mangum and Tyler ; Massnchusetts for Webster and Granger. Virginia for Martin Van Buren and Judge Smith of Alabama. Col. R. M, Johnson having just half the votes for Vice-President, the Senate proceeded to elect; whereupon Col. Johnson received 33 votes and Francis Granger 16.

VOTES OF NEW YORK FOR PRESIDENT. 1832-Andrew Jackson..

.168,497 Clay and Wirt... 1836-Martin Van Buren..

.166,815 William H. Harrison... 1840-William H. Harrison..

.225,817 Martin Van Buren.. James G. Birney.

2,808 1844-James K. Polk.

237,558 Henry Clay

James G. Birney...

.154,896

138,543 .212,527 .232,482

15,812

8,332*

NEW YORK ELECTIONS SINCE 1789. Statement of Votes cast in this State for Governor, at the several Electians of Chief Magistrate, since the

adoption of the Federal Constitution. Year. Candidates. Votes. Majority. Year. Candidates.

Votes. Majority. 1789-George Clinton..

6,391
1824-De Witt Clinton...

. 103,452
Robert Yates...

5,962
429 Samuel Young... ....87,093

16,359 1792–George Clinton.

8,440
1826-De Witt Cl nton.

99,785
John Jay
108 William B. Roche ter...96,137

3,650 1795-Jo n Jay.

13,481
1828-Martin Van Buren..

.136,794
Robert Yates

.11,892

1,589
Smith Thmpson..

.106,444

30,350 1798-John Jay

.16,012

Solomon Southwick. .33,345
Robert R. Livingston.....13,632

2,380 1830- Enos T. Throop..

128,842 1801-George Clinton.

24,808
Fiancis Granger... 120,361

8,481 Stephen Van Rensselaer.:20,843

3,965 Ezekiel Williams.. .2,332 1804–Morgan Lewis....

30,829
1832-William L. Marcy.

166,410
Aaron Burr.

22,139

8,690
Francis Granger .156,672

9,738 1807-Daniel D. Tompkins..

35,074
1834-William L. Marey

181,900
Morgan Lewis..

30,989
4,085 William H. Seward. .169,008

12,892 1810-Daniel D. Tompkins.

1836-William L. Marcy.

166,122
Jonas Piatt....

36,481
6,610 Jesse Buel.

136,648

29,474 1813-Daniel D. Tompkins.

43,324
Isaac S. S nith.

.3,496
Stephen Van Rensse aer.. 39,713

3,606 1838-William H. Seward.. 192,882 1816—Daniel D. Tompkins.

45,412
William L. Marcy. :182,481

10,421 Rufus King

.38,647
6,765 1840--Williain H. Seward.

222,011 1817-De Wit Clinton.

43,310
William C. Bouck.... 216, 26

5,285 Peter B. Po ter.

41,891 Gerrit Smith.

.2,662 1820-De Witt Cinton.

47,447
1842-William C. Bouck.

.208,072
Daniel D. Tompkins... 45,990
1,457 Luther Bradish...... 186,091

21,981 (New Constitution.

Alvan Sewart.

7,263 1822-Joseph C. Yates...

128,493
1844-Silas Wright

.241,090
Solomon Southwick......2,910

Millard Fillmore..

.231,057

10,033

Alvan Stewart. 15,119 • Votes of Otsego and Tioga Counties rejected, which it is said would have reversed the majority.

43,094

1,417

....125,583

INTRODUCTION TO THE

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

In the Congress of 1776, the great question of American Liberty came first to be discussed. On the 8th of May, Mr. Adams offered a resolution, that the Colonies should adopt governments adequate to the wants of the Country, and independent of Great Britain. The success of this resolution on the 15th was considered as

decisive of the question of allegiance to any foreign power. On the 7th of June, Richard Henry Lee, seconded by Mr. Adams, moved in Congress the ever-memorable resolution of American Independence. The debate continued until the 10th, when the consideration of the resolution was postponed until the 1st of July. The

next day, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and R. R. Livingston, wers appointed to prepare a draught of a Declaration of Independence. The two gentlemen first named on this Committee having been deputed a sub-Committee to draw up a Declaration, at the des.re of Mr. Adams it was prepared by Mr. Jefferson.

On the 1st of July, the question on the resolution was again resumed, and unanimously agreed to on the second. Mr. Jefferson has told us that "the Colossus of that Congre s-the great pillar of support to the De. claration of Independence, and its ablest advocate and champion on the floor of the House, was John Adams. In that moment of darkness, of terror, and of consternation, when the election was to be made between an at. tempt at Liberty and Independence on the one hand, and defeat, subjugation, and death on the other, the courage of Adams, in the true spirit of heroism, ruse in proportion to the dangers which pressed around bim; and he poured forth that only genuine eloquence, the eloquence of soul, which, in the language of Mr. Jefferson, 'moved his hearers from their seats. The objections of his adversaries were seen no longer bet

in a state of wreck; floating in broken fragments on the billows of the storm, and over rocks, over breakers and amid ingulphing whirlpools, that every where surrounded bim, he brought the gallant ship of the Nation safe into port."

[* Wirt. The Declaration already prepared was taken into consideration on the 4th of July, 1776-a day never to be forgotten- when it received the sanction of the whole Congress.

DECLARATION.

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When in the course of human events, it ly, all experience hath shown, that mankind becomes necessary for one people to dissolve are more disposed to suffer, while evils are the political bands which have connected sufferable, than to right themselves by abolthem with another, and to assume, among the ishing the forms to which they are accustomed.

powers of the earth, the separate and equal sta- But, when a long train of abuses and usurpation to which the laws of nature and of nature's tions, pursuing invariably the same object, evin

God entitle them, a decent respect for the ces a design to reduce them under absolute opinions of mankind requires that they should despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to

declare the causes which impel them to the throw off such government, and to provide separation.

new guards for their future security. Such We hold these truths to be self-evident, that has been the patient sufferance of these Coloall men are created equal; that they are endow-nies, and such is now the necessity which ed by their Creator with certain unalienable constrains them to alter their former systems frights; that among these, are life, liberty, and of government. The history of the present the pursuit of happiness. That, to secure these King of Great Britain, is a history of repeated rights, governments are instituted among men, injuries and usurpations, all having, in direct deriving their just powers from the consent of object, the establishment of an absolute tyranny the governed; that, whenever form of gov- over these States. To prove this, let facts be, ernment becomes destructive of these ends, it submitted to a candid world: is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, He has refused his assent to laws the most and to institute a new government, laying its wholesome and necessary for the public good. fcundation on such principles, and organizing He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws its powers in such form, as to them shall seem of immediate and pressing importance, unless most likely to effect their safety and happiness. suspended in their operation till his assent Prudence, indeed, will dictate, that govern- shonld be obtained; and, when so suspended, ments long established, should not be changed he has utterly neglected to attend to them. for light and transient causes; and, according He has refused to pass other laws for the

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