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Federal Funds for Education
No. 227. FEDERAL FUNDS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES: 1965 TO 1973 [In millions of dollars. For years ending June 30. Data represent "Outlays" beginning 1968. Includes Puerto Rico and outlying areas]
Represents zero. 1 Estimated.
Excludes payments for services rendered to the Federal Government. Includes sinall amounts for NDEA loans to private elementary-secondary schools. Includes supplemental centers, schoo! library materials, strengthening of State education agencies, captioned films for the deaf, dissemination of information, school counseling and testing, American Printing House for the Blind, planning and evaluation, NASA elementary-secondary schools program, and civil rights technical assistance.
Includes Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I, handicapped children, dropout prevention, bilingual education, Kendall School for the Deaf, and Model School for the Deaf. Includes District of Columbia, Canal Zone, territories and dependencies, Cuban refugees, and payments in lieu of taxes by the Atomic Energy Commission and the Tennessee Valley Authority. 7 Data from U.S. National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research, Development, and Other Scientific Activities. Higher education data include university operated research centers.
Not classifiable by level.
Includes adult vocational education, and manpower training programs. Includes National Defense Education Act and insured student loans.
Includes Dept. of Housing and Urban Development college housing loans and Office of Education college facilities loans. 12 Includes payments for services rendered to the Federal Government and education and related activities excluded above. 13 Includes military academies. 14 Previously Peace Corps. Source: U.S. Office of Education, Digest of Educational Statistics, annual.
--560 - 73-11
FEDERAL GRANTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF EDUCATION, BY PROGRAM-STATES AND OTHER AREAS: 1970
[In thousands of dollars. For year ending June 30. Data on a checks-issued basis]
1 Includes National Defense Education and Arts and Humanities Acts. 2 Includes teacher corps ($18,191,272), educational improvement for the handicapped ($31,072,629), and civil rights education ($3,099,324). 3 Includes education professions development ($67,701,219), land-grant college assistance ($2,600,000), and higher education facilities assistance ($191,716,060). Includes public library and community services, adult basic education, educational TV and radio facilities, and public library construction. Includes civil defense education ($3,662,807), public works and economic development ($2,960,408), and Appalachia ($20,279,455).
Source: U.S. Office of Education, Digest of Educational Statistics, 1970.
Law Enforcement, Federal Courts, and Prisons
This section presents data on crimes, arrests, Federal court cases, the legal profession, Federal and State prisoners, and use of the death penalty. The chief sources of data on these subjects are: Uniform Crime Reports for the United States, issued annually by the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Annual Report of the Director and Special Reports on Federal Offenders and Persons Under the Supervision of the Federal Probation System, issued by the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts; and Statistical Report, an annual review of the Federal prison system, and National Prisoner Statistics, issued by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration beginning 1971, and before then by the Bureau of Prisons; and Governmental Finances and Public Employment, issued annually by the Bureau of the Census. Limited information on juvenile delinquency and the operation of juvenile courts is collected by the Social and Rehabilitation Service of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Statistics on lawyers are compiled by the American Bar Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, and on law firms by the Bureau of the Census.
Other recent reports on subjects in this section are: 1970 National Jail Census, presenting characteristics of jails and their inmates, issued by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration; The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society, issued in 1967 by the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice; the Report of the President's National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, issued in 1968; the various Task Force Reports of the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, issued in 1969; Crime Against Small Business, issued in 1969 by the Small Business Administration; and, beginning 1969, the annual Expenditure and Employment Data for the Criminal Justice System, issued jointly by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration and the Bureau of the Census.
Law enforcement and legal jurisdiction.-Law enforcement is for the most part a function of State and local officers and agencies. The U.S. Constitution reserves general police powers to the States. By act of Congress, Federal offenses include only offenses against the U.S. Government and against its employees while engaged in their official duties, and offenses which involve the crossing of State lines or an interference with interstate commerce. Consequently, criminal offenses such as murder, robbery, burglary, theft, assault, and rape are violations of State laws unless they involve Federal property or a Federal officer while engaged in his official duties, or unless they occur in Federal territories or reservations or on the high seas. Excluding the military, there are 52 separate criminal law jurisdictions in the United States: 1 in each of the 50 States, 1 in the District of Columbia, and the Federal jurisdiction. Each of these has its own criminal law and procedure and its own law enforcement agencies. Yet the system of law enforcement is quite similar among the States, although there are often substantial differences in the penalties for like offenses.
Law enforcement can be divided into three parts. The first, covering the investigation of crimes and the arrest of persons suspected of committing them, involves municipal police, county police, State police, sheriffs, constables, marshals, Federal agents, and many kinds of special officers. The second phase is the prosecution of those charged with criminal offenses to determine whether they are in fact guilty. The agencies concerned include the courts, justices of the peace, municipal, State, and Federal grand juries, and prosecuting court officers. The third division of administration is concerned with the punishment or treatment of those convicted of crime. While the courts usually determine the sentence after conviction, the penalty is enforced by the prison, reformatory, or jail, or by probation or parole officials.
No. 212. INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION-CHARGES: 1964, 1969, and 1974 [In dollars. Estimated. For entire academic year ending in year stated. Represents average charges per full-time resident degree-credit student. Includes Puerto Rico and outlying areas]
No. 213. INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION-MEDIAN ANNUAL SALARIES OF INSTRUCTIONAL STAFF AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS: 1960 To 1972
[In dollars. For fiscal years ending in year stated. Figures for instructional staff are for 9 months of full-time teaching; for others, usually for 11 or 12 months of service. For definition of median, see preface]
Source: National Education Association, Washington, D.C., Research Report 1972-R5, Salaries Paid and Salary-Related Practices in Higher Education, 1971-72. (Copyright © 1972 by the National Education Association. All rights reserved.)
No. 214. COLLEGE FACULTY MEMBERS-CHARACTERISTICS, BY SEX: 1969 [Percent distribution. As of Spring. Covers all universities, 4-year colleges, and 2-year colleges, both publicly and privately controlled. Based on a sample survey]
Institutions of Higher Education
No. 215. Institutions of HIGHER EDUCATION-FINANCES: 1950 TO 1970 [In millions of dollars. Prior to 1960, excludes Alaska and Hawaii. For coverage, see headnote, table 208. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series H 339-362 and H 369]
NA Not available. ! Beginning 1963, private grants represent nongovernmental revenue for sponsored research and other sponsored programs.
* Beginning 1969, includes "major public service programs" previously reported under educational and general income.
* Beginning 1968, includes "other sponsored programs". 4 Gross addition to plant value.
$ Includes grounds, buildings, equipment, and, except for 1963, unexpended plant funds. All funds other than national defense and student loan funds.
Source: U.S. Office of Education, 1940 and 1950. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, chapter on Statistical Summary of Education; thereafter, Digest of Educational Statistics, annual.
No. 216. INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION-VALUE OF PLANT, CURRENT-FUND INCOME, AND EXPENDITURE, STATES AND OTHER AREAS: 1970 (In millions of dollars. Value of plant includes grounds, buildings, and equipment]