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No. 155. ALIEN NATURALIZATION-DECLARATIONS, PETITIONS, AND CERtificates: 1907 TO 1972
[For years ending June 30. No national data compiled prior to fiscal year 1907. Includes outlying areas of the United States. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series C 158-159 and C 170]
Represents zero. NA Not available.
1 Declaration of intention to become citizen.
↑ Petition for naturalization. Includes 1,592,449 not distributed by sex.
No. 156. ALIENS NATURALIZED, BY COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE, AND BY STATE OF RESIDENCE: 1960, 1970, AND 1972
[For years ending June 30. Includes outlying areas of the United States. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series C 159]
Source: U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, Annual Report, and releases.
3 Includes colonies and dependencies.
FIG. VIII. INCOME PER CAPITA, 1972, COMPARED WITH CURRENT EXPENDITURE PER PUPIL IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS, 1973
Se: Chart prepared by U.S. Bureau of the Census. Data from U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis and U.S.
This section presents data concerning the enrollment, personnel, level, extent, and finances of formal education in the United States. The chief sources are the decennial Census of Population and the Current Population Survey, both conducted by the Bureau of the Census (see text, p. 1), and annual, biennial, and other periodic surveys conducted by the Office of Education. The Census of Population has included data on school enrollment since 1840 and on educational attainment since 1940. The Current Population Survey has reported on school enrollment annually since 1945 and on educational attainment and illiteracy periodically since 1947. The Office of Education has collected statistical information on education since 1870. Its annual Digest of Educational Statistics, first issued in 1962, includes data on pupils, staff, finances, and organization at elementary, secondary, and higher education levels. The Digest is also the primary source for detailed information on Federal funds for education and related activities. Projections of enrollment, graduates, teachers, and expenditures appear in Projections of Educational Statistics, issued annually since 1964. Other regular sources of education data include special studies of the Office of Education, publications of the National Education Association, and annual or biennial reports of education agencies in individual States. Administrative statistics on programs concerned with the distribution of Federal funds are issued by the agencies responsible. The quinquennial Census of Governments, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, provides data on school district finances. Reports published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics contain data relating employment experience to educational attainment. Data on vocational training are available in Vocational and Technical Education, issued annually by the Office of Education.
Types and sources of data. The statistics in this section are of two general types. One type, exemplified by data from the Bureau of the Census, is based on direct questioning of individuals to obtain information about their own and their families' education. Tabulations of this type of data relate to school enrollment and level of education attained, classified by age, sex, and other characteristics of the population. School enrollment statistics of the Bureau of the Census are based on attendance or enrollment in any regular school within a given period; educational attainment statistics are based on the highest grade completed by an individual.
The second type, exemplified by data from the Office of Education and the National Education Association, is based on reports from administrators of educational institutions and of local and State agencies having jurisdiction over education. This type of data relates to school enrollment, attendance, staff, and finances for the Nation, individual States, and local areas, by institutional characteristics.
Neither the Office of Education nor the Bureau of the Census regularly includes specialized vocational, trade, or business schools, residential schools for exceptional children, and correspondence schools. Office of Education enrollment data include kindergartens and publicly financed nursery schools; Census enrollment data include kindergartens and all nursery schools. At the higher education level, the basic Office of Education statistics and the Bureau of the Census enrollment statistics are concerned with institutions granting degrees or offering work acceptable for degreecredit, such as junior colleges. Statistics for certain other types of institutions beyond the high school, such as those offering organized occupational curriculums of nondegree character, are also collected by the Office of Education.
Although all States except Mississippi have requirements that children attend school, State laws vary as to the ages and circumstances of compulsory attendance. In the majority of States, the laws require that formal schooling begin by age 7 and continue to age 16.
Schools.-The Office of Education defines a "school" as "A division of the school system consisting of a group of pupils composed of one or more grade groups, organized as one unit with one or more teachers to give instruction of a defined type, and housed in a school plant of one or more buildings. More than one school may be housed in one school plant, as is the case when the elementary and secondary programs are housed in the same school plant."
"Regular" schools are those which advance a person towards a diploma or degree. They include public and private nursery schools, kindergartens, graded schools, colleges, universities, and professional schools. "Public" schools are schools controlled and supported by local, State, or Federal governmental agencies; "private" or "nonpublic" schools are those controlled and supported mainly by religious organizations or by private persons or organizations.
The Bureau of the Census defines "elementary" schools as including grades 1 through 8; "high" schools as including grades 9 through 12; and "colleges" as including junior or community colleges, regular 4-year colleges, and graduate or professional schools. Statistics reported by the Office of Education and the National Education Association by type of organization, as elementary level and secondary level, may not be strictly comparable with those from the Bureau of the Census because the grades included at the two levels vary, depending on the organization of junior high schools. The trend is for the enrollment in grades seven and eight to shift from an elementary to a secondary organization, with resultant changes in grade distribution.
School year. Except as otherwise indicated in the tables, data relating to enrollment and staff refer to the school year which generally begins in September of the preceding year and ends in June of the year stated. Statistics concerning school finances are for a 12-month period, usually July 1 to June 30.
Historical statistics.-Tabular headnotes provide cross-references, where applicable, to Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957. See preface.
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS-NUMBER, BY LEVEL: 1930 to 1971 [Prior to 1960, excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Schools classified by type of organization, rather than by gradegroup; elementary excludes kindergarten and secondary includes junior high schools]
1 Preliminary. 2 1942 data. * Partially estimated.
Universities, colleges, professional schools, teachers colleges, junior colleges, and U.S. service schools.
Source: U.S. Office of Education, 1930 to 1950, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, chapter on Statistical Summary of Education; thereafter, Digest of Educational Statistics, annual.