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FIG. XLIX. NATIONAL INCOME ORIGINATING IN DISTRIBUTION INDUSTRIES: 1951

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Source: Chart prepared by Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data from Office of Business Economics.

FIG. L. RETAIL STORE SALES, BY KIND OF BUSINESS: 1966

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0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS

Source: Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

Distribution and Services

This section presents statistics relating to retail, wholesale, and service trades. Data shown for the distribution trades, classified by kind of business, and for the various categories of services (personal, business, repair, amusement, hotel, etc.) cover sales or receipts, establishments, employees, payrolls, proprietors, and other items. Also included are several tables on advertising expenditures.

The principal sources of these data are the reports of the Census of Business and of annual and monthly surveys conducted by the Bureau of the Census. Data on retail sales, wholesale inventories and sales, consumer expenditures for services, etc. appear in the monthly Survey of Current Business, issued by the Office of Business Economics. Financial data for tax-filing and securities-listed corporations engaged in retail, wholesale, or service trades, and for sole proprietorships and partnerships similarly engaged, appear in the annual Statistics of Income, published by the Internal Revenue Service, and are also available from the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Federal Trade Commission, in the course of its investigations, collects operating statistics on firms and chains in various kinds of business.

Censuses and current surveys.-Censuses of business have been taken at intervals since 1929. The 1954 census was the first taken under present legislation, which provides for a quinquennial Census of Business. The latest census covers the year 1963. Current sample surveys conducted by the Bureau of the Census cover various aspects of the retail, wholesale, and service trades. Estimates of weekly sales in retail stores are shown for the United States, by kind of business, in the Bureau's Weekly Retail Sales Report. Its Monthly Retail Trade Report contains monthly estimates of sales and end-of-month accounts receivable of all retail stores and of retail organizations operating 11 or more stores, United States, by kind of business. Also included are monthly retail sales data for Census regions and divisions, 15 large States, and 20 large standard metropolitan statistical areas. Annual figures on sales, sales-stock ratios, and year-end inventories and accounts receivable data, classified by kind of business, are presented in the Annual Retail Trade Report.

Statistics from the Bureau's wholesale trade survey, conducted monthly, include merchant wholesalers' sales and inventories and stock-sales ratios by kind of business, United States, as well as sales and inventory trends by kind of business and by geographic divisions. Monthly sales estimates are also shown by geographic divisions for the summary groups-durable goods trades, nondurable goods trades, and all trades combined. These data, based on reports submitted by a sample of firms representing merchant wholesalers in all kinds of business, appear in the Monthly Wholesale Trade Report. The monthly Selected Services Receipts Report, first issued in November 1966, provides monthly estimates of receipts for six major kinds of business groups for the United States as a whole. The monthly retail, wholesale, and service trades data are adjusted by the Bureau of the Census for seasonal variations and, in the case of sales, also for trading day differences. These data are also published in the Survey of Current Business.

The Bureau of the Census issues a quarterly report on green coffee inventories in the United States as well as total coffee roastings and roastings for soluble use. The Bureau's Canned Food Report, issued five times a year, provides canner and distributor stocks of various canned foods as well as canners' data on pack and shipments of these items.

Estimates obtained from the annual and monthly surveys are based on sample data and are not expected to agree with the results that would be obtained from a complete census of all establishments. Measures of the sampling variability, shown in the source reports, exclude biases which might arise from differences of response or from nonreporting.

Establishments and coverage. The business establishments covered in the Census of Business are classified into 3 groups as follows: (1) Retail trade, places of business primarily engaged in selling merchandise for personal, household, or farm consumption; (2) Wholesale trade, establishments primarily engaged in selling goods to dealers and distributors for resale or to purchasers who buy for business uses; and (3) Selected services, establishments engaged primarily in the sale of services as contrasted with the sale of merchandise. Figures for establishments refer to those in business at the

end of the year.

The Census of Business excludes the activities of doctors, lawyers, dentists, and others performing a professional or scientific service; educational institutions; religious or charitable institutions; hospitals and infirmaries; and public utilities. Governmentoperated enterprises, except wholesale and retail liquor operations, are also excluded. Data from the 1958 Census exclude retail and service nonemployer establishments which had receipts of less than $2,500 and $1,000, respectively. In the 1963 Census, this rule was modified so as to include those nonemployer establishments which did not operate the entire year if, during the period they operated, their receipts were at a rate which would have reached the annual totals specified had they operated the entire year. Wholesale trade establishments with no paid employment are excluded from both the 1958 and 1963 data.

Advertising. The statistics on advertising expenditures are compiled by private organizations. McCann-Erickson, Inc., which compiles certain of the data shown, defines national advertising as the advertising done for companies whose products are distributed nationally, and for which national media rates are paid; and local advertising as the advertising done for companies which market their products locally and which may pay special "local" media rates. Monthly figures are published regularly in Printers' Ink and in the Survey of Current Business. Total corporate expenditures for advertising, by industry, appear in Statistics of Income.

Historical statistics.-Tabular headnotes provide cross-references, where applicable, to Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957. See preface.

No. 1174.

NATIONAL INCOME ORIGINATING IN

DISTRIBUTION

AND SERVICE

INDUSTRIES: 1950 To 1966

[In millions of dollars. Prior to 1960, excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Data represent net value added at factor costs. See Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series T 1-11, for related data]

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Source: Dept. of Commerce, Office of Business Economics; National Income and Product Accounts of the United States, 1929-1965 and Survey of Current Business, July 1967.

No. 1175.

PERSONS IN DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE INDUSTRIES: 1950 TO 1966 [In thousands. Prior to 1960, excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Data represent man-years of full-time equivalent employment by persons working for wages or salaries and by active proprietors of unincorporated businesses devoting the major portion of their time to the business. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series T 12-22]

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Source: Dept. of Commerce, Office of Business Economics; The National Income and Product Accounts of the United States, 1929-1965 and Survey of Current Business, July 1967.

No. 1176. RETAIL TRADE-SALES OF RETAIL STORES AND MULTIUNIT ORGANIZATIONS: 1951 To 1967

[In millions of dollars. Prior to 1960, excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Retail stores beginning 1959, and multiunit organizations beginning 1964, reflect use of new sample based on definitions and classifications according to the 1963 Census of Business. All retail stores data, 1959 through third quarter 1965, and multiunit organization data, 1964 through third quarter 1965, adjusted for sample revision effective with October 1965 data. Quarterly data are not adjusted for seasonal variation or trading day differences]

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1 Based on sales of organizations operating 11 or more retail stores in 1948, 1954, 1958, and 1963, respectively. Source: Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; Monthly Retail Trade Report. Monthly data in Office of Business Economics; Survey of Current Business, February 1967.

No. 1177. Retail Trade-Sales, by Kind of BUSINESS: 1960 TO 1967 [In millions of dollars. Quarterly data are not adjusted for seasonal variation or trading day differences. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series T 24-48]

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1 Includes data not shown separately.

In addition, includes paint, plumbing, and electrical stores.

Source: Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; Monthly Retail Trade Report. Monthly data in Office of Business Economics; Survey of Current Business, February 1967.

No. 1178. RETAIL TRADE-SALES OF MULTIUNIT ORGANIZATIONS, BY KIND OF BUSINESS: 1960 To 1967

[In millions of dollars. Data based on sales of organizations operating 11 or more retail stores in 1963. Quarterly data are not adjusted for seasonal variation or trading day differences. See also headnote, table 1176, and Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series T 49-71]

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1 Includes data not shown separately.

? Comprises men's and boys' clothing, furnishings stores, and custom tailors.

Comprises women's ready-to-wear, other apparel, accessory, specialty shops, and furriers.

Source: Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; Monthly Retail Trade Report, and unpublished data.

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