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Section 29
Manufactures

This section presents measures of the manufacturing segment of the economy and its component inputs and outputs. The input data include figures for establishments; employment and wages; raw materials, fuels, and electricity consumed; plant and equipment expenditures; and water use. The output data include figures for value and quantity of production and shipments; and value added by manufacture. Both types of data are shown for manufacturing as a whole, for major product groups, and for specific selected products.

The principal sources of these data are the reports of the Census of Manufactures conducted periodically by the Bureau of the Census; the same agency's Annual Survey of Manufactures; and its Current Industrial Reports series which presents monthly, quarterly, or annual data on production, shipments, and stocks for particular commodities. Indexes of industrial production are presented monthly in the Federal Reserve Board's Federal Reserve Bulletin. Reports on current activities of industries, or current movements of individual commodities, are also compiled by such government agencies as Bureau of Labor Statistics, Statistical Reporting Service of the Department of Agriculture, Business and Defense Services Administration, Fish and Wildlife Service, Tariff Commission, and Internal Revenue Service; and by private research or trade associations such as the American Iron and Steel Institute, the National Canners Association, and the National Association of Hosiery Manufacturers. Data on financial operations and intercorporate relations of manufacturing corporations are collected from time to time by the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Tariff Commission, and the Federal Trade Commission. Financial statistics for certain manufacturing industries in the form of balance sheets, profit and loss statements, analyses of sales and expenses, lists of subsidiaries, and types and amounts of security issues are summarized and published for the leading corporations that are registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Tariff Commission publishes commodity surveys which cover economic and competitive aspects of production, distribution, and international trade in selected important industries. Each survey deals with several products which are related because of the raw materials consumed, or because of their competitive uses. The Federal Trade Commission has made several comprehensive studies of individual industries.

Censuses and annual surveys.-The first Census of Manufactures covered the year 1809. Thereafter, a census was taken at 10-year intervals to 1899, with the exception of 1829. It was conducted at 5-year intervals from 1904 through 1919, and at 2-year intervals from 1921 through 1939. It was suspended during the war period until the 1947 Census. Thereafter, censuses were taken covering 1954, 1958, and 1963. Recent legislation provides for a quinquennial census to be conducted for years ending in "2" and "7." Thus, the next census will be conducted in 1968 covering manufactures during 1967.

The Annual Survey of Manufactures, conducted for the first time in 1949, carries forward, for the intercensal years, measures of manufacturing activity covered in detail by the quinquennial Census of Manufactures. It provides statistics on employment, payrolls, value added by manufacture, inventories, and new capital expenditures for industry groups, individual industries, geographic divisions, States, and large standard metropolitan statistical areas.

The most recent annual survey is based on a sample of about 60,000 of an approximate total of 300,000 manufacturing establishments. It comprises all large plants, which account for approximately two-thirds of total manufacturing employment in

the United States, and a representative selection of the more numerous small plants. Government-owned and -operated establishments are excluded.

Establishments and classification.-The 1947, 1954, 1958, and 1963 Censuses of Manufactures covered operating manufacturing establishments as defined in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual issued by the Bureau of the Budget. Reports were required from all establishments employing one or more persons at any time during the census year. Each of the establishments tabulated was classified in one of the more than 400 manufacturing industries as defined by the Standard Industrial Classification system. This system defines an industry as a number of establishments producing a single product or a closely related group of products. An establishment is classified in a particular industry if its production of this product or product group exceeds in value its production of any other product group. In a few instances, the industry classification of an establishment is determined not only by its product group but also by the processes employed in making the products.

Final reports of the 1958 Census of Manufactures present data based on the classifications in the 1957 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual and include 1954 data converted to the same basis. Selected industries were reclassified for the 1963 Census. Wherever possible, the corresponding 1958 data were revised to a comparable basis. Because of the revisions in classification, 1954, 1958, and 1963 Census data for some industries and industry groups are not comparable with figures for prior years. The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was issued in early 1967.

While some establishments produce only the products of the industry in which they are classified, it rarely happens that all the establishments in an industry specialize to that extent. The statistics on employment, payrolls, value added, inventories, and expenditures, therefore, reflect not only the primary activities of the establishments in that industry but also activities of a secondary nature. For this reason the industry statistics usually cannot be directly related to statistics on the total shipments of products primary to the industry.

The 1947, 1954, 1958, and 1963 Censuses were conducted on an establishment basis. The term "establishment" signifies a single physical plant site or factory. It is not necessarily identical with the business unit or company, which may consist of one or more establishments. A company operating establishments at more than one location is required to submit a separate report for each location. An establishment engaged in distinctly different lines of activity and maintaining separate payroll and inventory records is also required to submit separate reports.

The basic statistical measures of manufacturing activity, such as employment, payrolls, value added, etc., are defined in essentially the same way for the annual surveys as for the Census of Manufactures. Consequently, these series may be considered comparable, except for the changes brought about by the revisions in the industry classification system noted above. However, beginning with 1949, average employment was calculated from the figures reported for the pay periods ending nearest the fifteenth of March, May, August, and November, whereas for 1947 such averages were based on 12 monthly employment figures. The 1954 figures are an average of reported employment totals for the four specified months, except for highly seasonal industries, where a 12-month average was obtained. For 1958 and 1963, averages of production workers for the four specified months plus the March figure for "all other employees' were used for all industries. Figures for 1947 exclude data for central administrative offices and auxiliary establishments of manufacturing concerns, which are included in the statistics for later years.

Historical statistics.-Tabular headnotes provide cross-references, where applicable, to Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957. See preface.

Technical Note-Annual Survey of Manufactures

The annual survey estimates vary from the totals that would have been obtained from a complete canvass of all manufacturing establishments. The relative magnitude of this sampling variation is given in the table column captioned "Standard error." The standard error should be interpreted to mean that the sample estimates will differ from complete canvass totals by less than: (1) The percentage shown in approximately 2 cases out of 3; (2) twice the percentage shown in approximately 19 cases out of 20; and (3) three times the percentage shown in almost every case. It should be noted that standard errors are shown only for selected items. The standard errors of other measures are usually of the same general magnitude.

In making any study of the trend, it is important to take account of the effect of the sampling variation on the apparent increase or decrease shown between years. In addition to sampling errors, individual figures may be subject to biases arising from undetected response or procedural errors which are not reflected in the "standard errors." Figures are enclosed by parentheses in the original source volumes if (1) the standard error of the estimate exceeds 15 percent, or (2) survey estimates are inconsistent with other Census series and related data. Any estimate which can be derived by subtraction of one published figure from another may have a standard error considerably in excess of 15 percent.

No. 1110.

MANUFACTUREs-Summary: 1947 to 1965

[Prior to 1958, excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Except as noted, figures are estimates based on sample; see text, pp. 735-737. Covers all establishments employing 1 or more person: at any time during year. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series P 1-8]

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Includes data for employees of manufacturing establishments engaged in distribution and construction work. Beginning 1950, includes administrative offices, and units auxiliary to manufacturing.

Data for all industries in 1950-1953 and 1955-1957, and for most industries in 1954, are based on pay periods ending nearest 15th of March, May, August, and November. For 1947, and industries of a seasonal type in 1954, data represent average of 12 monthly figures.

Unadjusted through 1953, thereafter, adjusted. For definitions, see footnote 2, table 1116.

Census data. Includes administrative offices and auxiliary units.

Source: Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; 1947, 1954, 1958, and 1963 Censuses of Manufactures reports and Annual Survey of Manufactures.

No. 1098. HOUSING UNITS TENURE, CONDITION AND PLUMBING, ROOMS, AND PERSONS PER ROOM: 1960

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X Not applicable. 1 For definition of median, see headnote, table 8.

Source: Dept. of Commerce. Bureau of the Census; U.S. Census of Housing: 1960, Vol. I, Congressional District Data Book, and unpublished data.

No. 1099.

RENTER-OCCUPIED

NONFARM HOUSING UNITS-GROSS MONTHLY RENT: 1940 TO 1960

[Number in thousands. Prior to 1960, excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Contract monthly rent is the rent at the time of enumeration, as contracted for by the renter, regardless of whether it includes furniture, heating fuel, electricity, cooking fuel, water, or other services sometimes supplied. Gross monthly rent is contract monthly rent plus the reported average monthly cost of utilities (electricity, gas, water) and other fuels (such as coal, oil, kerosene, and wood) if these items were paid for by the renter, in addition to contract monthly rent. In 1940 and 1950, if furniture was included in the contract rent, the reported estimated rent of the housing unit without furniture was used for the computation rather than the contract rent. For definition of median, see headnote, table 8]

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Source: Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; Sixteenth Census Reports, 1940, Housing, Vol. III, and U.S. Census of Housing: 1950, Vol. I, and 1960, Vol. I.

No. 1100.

OWNER-OCCUPIED NONFARM HOUSING UNITS-VALUE: 1950 AND 1960 [Number in thousands. Prior to 1960, excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Data restricted to 1-housing-unit structures without business and with only 1 housing unit on property. Value represents the amount which the owneroccupant estimated that the property, including the structure and its land, would sell for under ordinary conditions and not at forced sale. For definition of median, see headnote, table 8]

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1 1960 data collected on basis of intervals rounded to nearest $100 ($5,000 to $7,400, $7,500 to $9,900, etc.). Source: Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; U.S. Census of Housing: 1950, Vol. I, and 1960, Vol. I.

No. 1101.

NONFARM OWNER-OCCUPIED DWELLING UNITS-MORTGAGE STATUS: 1890 To 1960

[Prior to 1960, excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Through 1920, mortgage data are for owner-occupied units in all types of structures; for 1940 and 1950, for owner-occupied dwelling units in 1- to 4-dwelling unit structures without business; and for 1960, for properties with 1 to 4 dwelling units. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series N 190-194]

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Source: Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; U.S. Census of Housing: 1950, Vol. I. and 1960, Vol.V.

-MARKET

No. 1102. MORTGAGED OWNER-OCCUPIED NONFARM PROPERTIES-
VALUE, MORTGAGE DEBT, AND INTEREST RATE: 1890 TO 1960
[Prior to 1960, excludes Alaska and Hawaii. For definition of median, see headnote, table 8]
ALL PROPERTIES
1890

ITEM

1-DWELLING-UNIT PROPERTIES

1920

1940

1950

1960

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NA Not available. 1 Estimated from midpoints of distribution.
Source: Prior to 1960, Ratcliff, Rathbun, and Honnold, Residential Finance, 1950, John Wiley and Sons, New
York, N.Y.; thereafter, Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Housing: 1960, Vol. V.

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