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[In short tons, except as indicated. Excludes Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, except for imports and exports and as noted. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series M 232-238]

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Represents zero. NA Not available. 1 Excludes lead content of antimonial lead.

? Includes lead imported for immediate consumption plus material entering country under bond. 3 Pigs, bars, and anodes. 4 Source: Estimated by American Bureau of Metal Statistics.

3 Official maximum price fixed by British Ministry of Supply at £25 per long ton. London Metal Exchange dealings suspended for duration of war. Includes Alaska.

No. 1062. LEAD, RECOVERABLE-MINE PRODUCTION, BY STATES: 1940 To 1966

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No. 1063. TIN-SUMMARY: 1940 TO 1966

[Quantities in long tons. Excludes Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, except for imports and exports. Production

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D Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

1 Includes tin content of ores used to make alloys. 2 Foreign only, domestic not separately recorded.
3 Source: American Metal Market. Prior to 1955, excludes production of U.S.S.R.
Source of tables 1061-1063: Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines; Minerals Yearbook.

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[Quantities in thousands of long tons; values in thousands of dollars. Excludes Alaska and Hawaii prior to 1960, except imports and exports include Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico for all years. See Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series M 249, for production]

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Beginning 1955, import figures adjusted to dry equivalent for Jamaican, Haitian, and Dominican Republic bauxite. Other imports on "as shipped" basis.

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[Quantities in thousands of short tons; values in thousands of dollars. Excludes Alaska and Hawaii prior to 1960, except that imports and exports include Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico for all years. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series M 251-255]

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The

As quoted. 99+ percent virgin ingot. The use of the term "pig" was discontinued in August 1960. former pig price is now applied to ingot. Source: American Metal Market.

2 Through 1950, recoverable aluminum-alloy content; thereafter, recoverable aluminum content.
Based upon average price of primary aluminum as reported to Bureau of Mines, or as quoted by the Engineer-
ing and Mining Journal and the American Metal Market.

Crude and semicrude (including metal and alloys, plates, bars, etc., and scrap).
Beginning 1955, not comparable with earlier years.

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[In short tons, except as indicated. Excludes Alaska and Hawaii prior to 1960, except that imports and experts include Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico for all years. See Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series M 256-258, for production]

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Represents zero. NA Not available.

Beginning 1960, some material formerly included with metals and alloys in crude form and scrap, included with semifabricated forms, etc. Not strictly comparable with 1950.

1940 data, primary and secondary; thereafter, primary only.

3 Represents imports for consumption.

Source of tables 1064-1066: Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines; Minerals Yearbook.

FIG. XLVI. VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION: 1960 To 1966

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[See table 1067]

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FIG. XLVII. NEW NONFARM HOUSING UNITS STARTED: 1960 TO 1966

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Source of figs. XLVI and XLVII: Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

Section 28

Construction and Housing

This section presents various measures of construction activity and costs; housing units; housing values, facilities, and structural characteristics; and residential financing.

The principal sources of these data are the monthly Construction Reports series (see below) and reports of the decennial Census of Housing published by the Bureau of the Census; and the monthly Construction Review, published by the Business and Defense Services Administration. Other sources, specializing in particular types of construction or housing statistics, include the monthly Dodge Construction Contract Statistics Services of F. W. Dodge Company, a division of McGraw-Hill, Inc., which presents State data on construction contracts; the Engineering News-Record, issued weekly by McGraw-Hill, Inc., which contains figures on construction costs; the Annual Report of the Department of Housing and Urban Development which presents housing statistics for all its operating programs; and the Annual Report of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, which presents home mortgage data. Monthly data on characteristics of vacant housing units are collected by the Bureau of the Census and presented quarterly in its Current Housing Reports.

Construction. Monthly statistics on the start of construction of total, singlefamily, and multifamily housing units in housekeeping residential buildings are published in Construction Reports: Housing Starts. Quarterly information is presented on number of units in multifamily buildings by number of floors and presence of elevators in structures. The statistics are derived from monthly sample surveys which measure the relationship between housing units authorized by permits and the number of units on which construction started. Housing starts in areas which do not issue permits are measured directly by a monthly survey in a sample of such areas. Historical data on housing starts and building permits appear in Housing Construction Statistics, 1889 to 1964, issued by the Bureau of the Census in 1966.

Monthly statistics supplemented by additional quarterly data on the number of 1-family homes sold and for sale, compiled by the Bureau of the Census under the sponsorship of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, are published in Construction Reports: Housing Sales. Statistics are based on samples of homes authorized by building permits and of homes started in areas without permit systems. Monthly estimates of the value of construction put in place appear in the Bureau of the Census series, Construction Reports: Construction Activity. Estimates for private residential construction are based primarily on housing starts statistics and on construction cost data derived largely from building permit records. Estimates for nonresidential buildings such as stores, office buildings, and factories are compiled from a Bureau of the Census survey of those new construction projects in the 37 Eastern States and the District of Columbia identified by the F. W. Dodge Company, supplemented by building permit and F. W. Dodge contract award data covering the 13 Western States. Public utility construction estimates are derived from data compiled by the Interstate Commerce Commission and other Federal regulatory agencies, and by private associations and organizations such as the American Gas Association, the Edison Electric Institute, and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Statistics for State and local governmental construction are derived from expenditure data obtained quarterly by the Bureau of the Census from State and local government bodies. Estimates of federally financed construction, and of the Federal component of federally aided construction programs, are derived by the Bureau of the Census from reports of the responsible Federal agencies.

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Monthly statistics on housing units authorized by building permits, based on reports provided monthly by over 3,000 relatively active permit-issuing places and annually by the 12,000 known permit-issuing jurisdictions, appear in Construction Reports: Building Permits.

Annual statistics on expenditures for residential additions, alterations, repairs, maintenance, and replacements are published in Construction Reports: Residential Alterations and Repairs. Statistics are based on expenditures reported by owners of a sample of single and multifamily properties, including nonfarm and farm, privately and publicly owned, owner and renter occupied, and vacant housing units.

Housing. From 1850 through 1930, the Bureau of the Census collected some housing data in conjunction with Censuses of Population and Agriculture. Beginning in 1940, full-fledged Censuses of Housing have been taken at 10-year intervals. The most recent census, taken as of April 1, 1960, provided data on occupancy and structural characteristics, condition, plumbing facilities, equipment, fuels, and financing. It also included data on components of inventory change (new construction, conversion, merger, demolition, and other gains and losses) for 1950-60 and 1957-60.

Housing data were collected by the Bureau of the Census in sample surveys in October 1944, November 1945, April 1947, and May 1948 as part of the Current Population Survey (see p. 1). In 1955, the Bureau began a monthly vacancy survey, results of which are issued on a quarterly basis. A National Housing Inventory, conducted in 1956, provided measurements of the housing supply for the nation as a whole and for selected metropolitan areas, and information on components of change during the 1950-56 period.

Housing units.-In general, a housing unit is a group of rooms or a single room occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters, that is, the occupants do not live and eat with any other persons in the structure, and there is either (1) direct access from the outside or through a common hall, or (2) a kitchen or cooking equipment for the exclusive use of the occupants. Transient accommodations (tourist courts, hotels, etc.), barracks for workers (railroad, construction, etc.), and institutional-type quarters are not included in the housing-unit inventory.

In the 1950 Census, the unit of enumeration was the dwelling unit. Although the definition of housing unit in 1960 is essentially similar to that of dwelling unit in 1950, the housing unit definition was designed to encompass all separate living quarters, whereas the dwelling unit definition did not. The main difference was in the treatment of 1-room quarters. Nevertheless, the change in definition between 1950 and 1960 had relatively little effect on comparability of the data at national and State levels. Residential financing.—As early as 1890, the Bureau of the Census (then Census Division of the Department of the Interior) collected detailed statistics on residential mortgages. As part of the 1920 and 1940 Censuses, mortgage questions were asked of owners who occupied their own homes. In 1950, the census included a separate survey on residential financing, covering nonfarm residential mortgaged properties, both owner and renter. As part of the 1956 National Housing Inventory, data were collected on the financing of owner-occupied nonfarm properties. In 1960, the Residential Finance Survey program of the Census of Housing covered financing of both home owner and rental properties and characteristics of nonmortgaged as well as mortgaged properties. Data on home mortgages and foreclosures, based largely on reports from major holders, are provided by the Federal Home Loan Bank Board. The Federal Housing Administration compiles, from its records, data on its real estate financial operations, such as volume of mortgages insured, type of lending institution, etc. The Veterans Administration also compiles, from its records, data on amounts and types of loans. Urban, rural, and farm-nonfarm residence. See section 1, "Population," for 1960 definitions of urban, rural, and farm-nonfarm residence.

Historical statistics.-Tabular headnotes provide cross-references, where applicable, to Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957. See preface.

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