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Vessel shipments, entrances, and clearances.-Shipments by dry cargo vessels comprise shipments on all types of watercraft except tanker vessels; shipments by tanker vessels comprise all types of cargo, liquid and dry, carried by tanker vessels.

A vessel is reported as entered at the first port which it enters in the United States, regardless of whether any cargo is unladen at that port. A vessel is reported as cleared from the last port where outward cargo is completed or where the vessel cleared in ballast. Army and Navy vessels entering or clearing without commercial cargo and vessels touching at a United States port in distress, or for other temporary causes without discharging cargo, are not included in the figures.

Units of measurement.-Cargo tonnage and shipping weight both represent the gross weight of the cargo including the weight of containers, wrappings, crates, etc. However, shipping weight excludes lift and cargo vans and similar substantial outer containers. Other tonnage figures generally refer to stowing capacity of vessels, 100 cubic feet being called 1 ton. Gross tonnage comprises the space within the frames and the ceiling of the hull, together with those closed-in spaces above deck available for cargo, stores, passengers, or crew, with certain minor exceptions. Net or registered tonnage is the gross tonnage less the spaces occupied by the propelling machinery, fuel, crew quarters, master's cabin, and navigation spaces. It represents substantially space available for cargo and passengers. The net tonnage capacity of a ship may bear little relation to weight of cargo. Dead-weight tonnage is the weight in long tons required to depress a vessel from light water line (that is, with only the machinery and equipment on board) to load line. It is therefore the weight of the cargo, fuel, etc., which a vessel is designed to carry with safety.

Historical statistics.—Tabular headnotes provide cross-references, where applicable, to Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957. See preface.

No. 852. SCHEDULED PASSENGER/CARGO OPERATIONS-OPERATING REVENUES AND EXPENSES OF CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS: 1955 TO 1966

[In millions of dollars. 1955 not exactly comparable with later years. Beginning 1962, aircraft expense items include some ground and indirect expenses not previously included, and the ground and indirect expense item covers only expenses chargeable to general services and administration. See also headnote, table 855]

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Source: Dept. of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration; FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation

Data from Civil Aeronautics Board.

FIG. XXXVII. OPERATING REVENUES AND EXPENSES OF SCHEDULED AIR CARRIERS: 1955 TO 1965

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Source: Chart prepared by Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data from Federal Aviation Agency.

FIG. XXXVIII. WATERBORNE COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES: 1940 TO 1965

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Source: Chart prepared by Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data from Dept. of the Army, Corps of Engineers.

No. 853.

SUMMARY OF CIVIL FLYING: 1940 TO 1966

[As of Dec. 31 or for years ending Dec. 31. General aviation flying excludes civil flying performed by public carriers-scheduled, supplemental, contract, or intrastate. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series Q 376-383 and Q 394-397]

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NA Not available. X Not applicable.

1 Existing airports and airfields recorded with FAA. Includes military airports with joint civil and military use. Beginning 1960, includes Puerto Rico. American Samoa, Canton, Guam, Virgin Islands, and Wake.

2 Airport type definitions: Public-public use and public services, public control: Private-(a) public use and public services, private control, and (b) no public services, private control, military control, or Federal Govern

ment control.

Prior to

3 United States and outlying areas. Beginning 1950, includes gliders, and 1960, dirigibles and balloons. Regulation requiring certificates (not rating shown on pilot certificate) effective Sept. 1, 1957. 1960, excludes Alaska and Hawaii. 7 Corporation and individual business transportation not for hire. Passenger and cargo transportation for hire, aerial application (crop dusting, spraying, seeding, etc.), patrol. survey, and other miscellaneous work use. Comprises express and freight ton-miles.

10 Includes some military ton-miles and may include a small amount of international traffic. 11 Civil and military. 12 Preliminary. 13 Excludes commercial operators.

Source: Dept. of Transportation. Federal Aviation Administration; FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation. Includes data from Civil Aeronautics Board.

No. 854. CIVIL AIRCRAFT, AIRPORTS, AND FEDERAL-AID AIRPORT PROGRAMSTATES AND OTHER AREAS: 1966

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! Includes gliders, dirigibles, and balloons.

* Includes military airports with joint civil and military use.

Cumulative since enactment of Federal Airport Act, May 16, 1946, through Dec. 31, 1966.
Comprises Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Canton, Guam, Virgin Islands, and Wake.

Source: Dept. of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration; FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation.

No. 855. SCHEDULED PASSENGER/CARGO AIR CARRIERS-Summary oF

OPERATIONS: 1940 TO 1966

[As of Dec. 31 or for calendar years, except as noted. Operations between conterminous U.S. and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and outlying areas included with international. Intra-Alaska included with domestic carriers and Mainland-Alaska with international, as follows: Number of operators and traffic data, beginning 1950; fuel and financial data, beginning 1955; and personnel data, beginning 1960. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series Q 352, Q 354-362, and Q 384-393]

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1940, domestic is average for December, international as of Dec. 31; 1950-1966, based on fourth quarter. Represents aircraft of the certificated route air carriers; excludes those used for crew training and general utility purposes, held for disposal, beginning 1960, operated by the scheduled all-cargo carriers.

Obtained by dividing passenger seat-miles by revenue-miles flown in passenger service.

7 Data for domestic passengers include duplication.

* Excludes freight flown by certificated all-cargo operators and irregular carriers.

Beginning 1960, includes military contract operations. 1965 data preliminary.

10 Includes 2 midair collisions nonfatal to air carrier occupants; excluded in computation of fatal accidents. Excludes passenger deaths occurring in dynamite accidents, as follows: Nov. 1, 1955, 39; Jan. 6, 1960, 29; May 7, 1964, 1.

Source: Dept. of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration; FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation. Includes data from Civil Aeronautics Board.

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