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Sec. 23. AGRICULTURE-FARMS, LAND, AND FINANCES.

603

Fig. XXXIX. Farm population and farms...-

604

Farm population and farms.... 605 Farm assets and liabilities.

616

Farm characteristics.--
607 Farm income and expenses.

617

Value of farm produots sold.. 612 Commodity Credit Corporation.-- 619

Tenure of operator; fertilizers... 613 Farm facilities and equipment.---- 621

Irrigation, drainage, conservation.. 614 Farmer cooperatives...

624

Sec. 24. AGRICULTURE–PRODUCTION, MARKETING, AND TRADE.... 626

Fig. XL-XLI. Farm output indexes; Agricultural exports..-

626

Farm output and labor.--
628 Cotton and cottonseed.

642

Agricultural production, trade.... 630 Sugar crops---

644

Crop summaries.
633 Tobacco

646

Wheat.
638 Vegetables and fruits...

647

Rice.
639 Canned and frozen foods..

648

Potatoes.
640 Livestock and products...

649

Corn, sorghum...
641 Fats and oils.

655

Sec. 25. FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS.-

656

Fig. XLII-XLIII. Lumber production; Newsprint...

656

Forest area and ownership.... 658 Lumber...

663

Sawtimber and growing stock.. 659 Roundwood products; prices.. 664

National forests.--

660 Wood products, and naval stores.- 666

Tree distribution; forest fires.. 662 Paper and paperboard...

667

Sec. 26. FISHERIES.

669

Quantity and value of catch. 669 Fishery products.

674

Fisheries industry---
670 Imports and exports.

677

Catch by principal species--- 671 Pollution-caused fish kill..

678

Sec. 27. MINING AND MINERAL PRODUCTS.

679

Fig. XLIV-XLV. Mineral production indexes; World mineral pro-

duction...

680

Mineral production and value.. 681 Oil wells, petroleum.

693

Raw materials summary.
686 Natural gas, fuel oils.

694

Prices; imports and exports.-- 687 Asphalt and road oil.

696

Mineral industries.-
688 Stone and earth minerals..

697

Coke and coal...
691 Metals.

701

Sec. 29. MANUFACTURES.

735

Fig. XLVIII. Industrial production indexes..

738

Historical summary ----

737 | Alcohol and tobacco products.-- 758

Production indexes; capacity. 739 Textiles and clothing -

760

General industry data..
740 Leather, rubber, chemicals.

765

Concentration measures.
750 Structural products.--.

768

Shipments and inventories.- 753 Glass and metal products.-

770

Horsepower; capital values
755 Machinery and appliances..

775

Capital expenditures; water use.-- 756 Farm equipment and tractors ---- 779

Sec. 30. DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICES. ---

780

Fig. XLIX-L. National income components; Retail store sales-

780

‘ional income...
782 | Public warehouses..

799

Personnel; retail trade...
783 Selected services..

800

Retail inventories..
793 Motion picture theaters.

805

Wholesale trade....
794| Advertising--

806

Sec. 31. FOREIGN COMMERCE AND AID...

810

Fig. LI-LII. Foreign assistance; Exports and imports ---

810

Balance of payments...

814 | Trade, by commodity groups. 829

International investments. 815 Exports of manufactures.

837

Foreign assistance....
818 Trade, by country ----

839

Foreign trade summary.

827 Imports of coffee, tea, cocoa. 842

Quantity and value indexes ------ 828 | Dutiable imports...

842

Sec. 32. OUTLYING AREAS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF THE UNITED

STATES..

845

Population estimates...

846 Finances and gross product-P.R. 852

Population characteristics - 847 Employment and income-P.R.-- 853

Vital statistics; schools --

850 Agriculture, manufactures--P.R.- 854

Mineral production; trade. 851 | Business—P. R., Guam, V.I..-- 856

Sec. 33. COMPARATIVE INTERNATIONAL STATISTICS.

858

Fig. LIII. Area and population of largest countries..

858

World summary---
861 |Net food supply ---

874

Area and population..
862 Agriculture and industry-

875

Labor force and unemployment. 865 Gold and foreign exchange.

884

Gross product..----

866 Transportation; communications. - 886

European economic blocs.
870 Housing----

890

National defense...
871 Education and health...

892

Economic indexes...

872 International organizations. 894

Sec. 34. METROPOLITAN AREA STATISTICS

897

Areas with 250,000 inhabitants or more.

898

Areas with less than 250,000 inhabitants...

926

APPENDIX I. Weights and measures -

945

APPENDIX II. Index to tables having Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to

1957 series...

947

APPENDIX III. Guide to sources of statistics..

950

Publications of recent censuses.-

992

Guide to State statistical abstracts..

997

Source agencies and table numbers.

1001

INDEX.

1007

Fig. I. MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, SHOWING CENSUS REGIONS AND DIVISIONS (Alaska and Hawaii are drawn at different scales from conterminous United States and are not shown in their correct relative geographic positions)

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Section 1

Population This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the population of the United States. The principal source of these data is the Bureau of the Census, which conducts a decennial census of the population and a monthly current population survey and also prepares periodic population estimates. For a listing of specific publications issued, see the Guide to Sources.

Decennial censuses.— The Constitution provides for a census of the population every 10 years, primarily to establish a basis for apportionment of Members of the House of Representatives among the States. For over a century after the first census in 1790, the census organization was a temporary one. In 1902, the Bureau of the Census was established as a permanent Federal Agency, responsible for enumerating the population and also for compiling statistics on other subjects and at other times.

In the 1960 Census, as in previous censuses, each person was counted as an inhabitant of his usual place of residence (the place where he lives and sleeps most of the time). While this place is not necessarily his legal residence, voting residence, or domicile, the use of these different bases of classification would usually produce substantially the same statistics.

In the last 3 decennial Censuses, some data were obtained from representative samples of the population rather than from a complete count, as follows: 5 percent in 1940, 20 percent in 1950, and 25 percent in 1960. Exact agreement is not to be expected among the various samples, nor between them and the complete count, but sample data may be used with confidence where large numbers are involved and assumed to indicate patterns and relationships where small numbers are involved.

Current Population Survey.—This is a monthly nationwide survey of a scientifically selected sample representing the noninstitutional civilian population. The sample is located in 357 areas comprising 701 counties and independent cities with coverage in every State. About 40,000 housing units and other quarters are designated for the sample at any time, of which about 35,000 (containing 80,000 persons 14 years old and over) are occupied by households eligible for interview; of these, in turn, about 4 to 6 percent are, for various reasons, unavailable for interview. For a discussion of the reliability of estimates based on the sample, see text, p. 217.

Population estimates and projections.—National estimates are derived by use of decennial census data as benchmarks and of data reflecting components of population change available from various agencies as follows: Births and deaths (Public Health Service); immigrants and emigrants (Immigration and Naturalization Service); the Armed Forces (Department of Defense); net migrants (Puerto Rico Planning Board); and Federal employees abroad (Civil Service Commission). State estimates are based on similar data and also on school statistics from State Departments of Education and parochial school systems.

National population projections indicate the approximate future level and characteristics of the population under given assumptions as to future fertility, mortality, and net immigration from abroad. The method used to develop the projections involved preparation of separate projections of each of the components of population change-births, deaths, and net immigration and the combination of these with July 1 estimates of the current population. The projections by State incorporate further assumptions about population redistribution through interstate migration throughout the projection period.

For details concerning methodology, see the sources cited below the tables containing projections data.

Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA).—The entire territory of the United States has been classified by the Bureau of the Budget as either (a) metropolitan, or "inside SMSA's,” and (b) nonmetropolitan, or "outside SMSA's.” An SMSA is a county or group of contiguous counties (except in New England) which contains at least one central city of 50,000 inhabitants or more or “twin cities” with a combined population of at least 50,000. In addition, other contiguous counties are included in an SMSA if, according to certain criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in character and are socially and economically integrated with the central city. In New England, towns and cities rather than counties are used in defining SMSA's. Central cities are those named in the titles of the areas. For a more detailed explanation and a listing of the component areas of each SMSA, see Bureau of the Budget, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 1964. Data on metropolitannonmetropolitan residence obtained from the Current Population Survey relate to SMSA's as defined at the time of the 1960 Census of Population except as otherwise noted.

Urban and rural areas.-According to the 1960 Census definition, the urban population comprises all persons living in (a) places of 2,500 inhabitants or more incorporated as cities, boroughs, villages, and towns (except towns in New England, New York, and Wisconsin); (b) the densely settled urban fringe, whether incorporated or unincorporated, of urbanized areas; (c) towns in New England and townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania which contain no incorporated municipalities as subdivisions and have either 25,000 inhabitants or more or a population of 2,500 to 25,000 and a density of 1,500 persons or more per square mile; (d) counties in States other than the New England States, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that have no incorporated municipalities within their boundaries and have a density of 1,500 persons or more per square mile; and (e) unincorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or more.

Substantially the same definition was used for the 1950 Census, the major difference being the designation in 1960 of urban towns in New England and urban townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. In censuses prior to 1950, the urban population comprised all persons living in incorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or more and areas (usually minor civil divisions) classified as urban under somewhat different rules relating to population size and density. In all definitions, the population not classified as urban constitutes the rural population.

Changes in the size of the urban population from one census to another are affected by 2 components: (a) Growth in areas classified as urban at the beginning of the decade; and (b) reclassification of rural territory as urban. Between censuses, it is possible only to obtain measures of the first component from the Current Population Survey (see p. 1). Measures of the second are too costly. Since about 60 percent of the urban population growth between 1950 and 1960 was attributable to expansion of urban territory, data on the urban population from the Survey may be misleading. Consequently, regular publication of data on urban-rural residence from the Current Population Survey has been discontinued.

Farm and nonfarm residence.-The rural population is divided into "rural-farm," comprising all persons living on farms, and “rural-nonfarm,” comprising the remainder. According to the 1960 Census definition, the farm population consists of all persons living in rural territory on places of less than 10 acres yielding agricultural products which sold for $250 or more in the previous year, or on places of 10 acres or more yielding agricultural products which sold for $50 or more in the previous year.

Color and race.—The concept of race as used by the Bureau of the Census is derived from that which is commonly accepted by the general public as reflected in the action of legislative and judicial bodies of the country. It does not, therefore, reflect clearcut definitions of biological stock, and several categories refer to nationality. “Color" divides the population into white and nonwhite. The nonwhite population consists

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