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Question or Command. How do you cut Rigging correctly?
Answer. Draw a plan and cut by the plan.



Q. What is done with the Shroud rope before cutting it ?

A. Stretch the shroud rope about an inch to the foot, that is about one-twelfth, before cutting it. It is better to let it remain on the stretch for a day or two before cutting it.

Q. What is done with the Standing Rigging ?

A. Standing rigging is wormed, parcelled, and served, wherever there will be any chafe on it; but no more service should be put on than will prevent chafe, as it is better for it to be exposed to the air. Canvas coats used formerly to be put over the rigging at the mast heads, and canvas sewed over block strops, and the confined water and air soon caused the ropes to rot. The rigging should be wormed before it is stretched. Q. Which shrouds are most liable to chafe ?

The foremost shroud of the fore rigging is liable to chafe from the tacks, sheets, and other gear of the foresail; and that of the main rigging



The following work is derived principally from the author's treatise on Navigation. It is here put in the form of question and answer.

. There are some additional subjects treated, which it is hoped will increase the utility of the work.

It is difficult, without repetition, to keep the seamanship for the several grades distinct. The author has therefore thought it best to treat every subject completely, and the following Rules will enable the candidate to select the part he wants. Or his teacher will point it out to him :



The qualifications in Seamanship required for the several ranks undermentioned are as follow :

A SECOND MATE must be seventeen years of age, and must have been four years at sea.

IN SEAMANSHIP.—He must give satisfactory answers as to the rigging and unrigging of ships, stowing of holds, &e.; must understand the measurement of the log-line, glass and lead-line; be conversant with the rule of the road, as regards both steamers and sailing vessels, and the lights and fog signals carried by them, and will also be examined as to his acquaintance with “the Commercial Code of Signals for the use of all Nations.”

An ONLY MATE must be nineteen years of age, and have been five years at sea.

IN SEAMANSHIP. In addition to what is required for a Second Mate, he must know how to moor and unmoor, and to keep a clear anchor ; to carry out an anchor; to stow a hold; and to make the requisite entries in the ship's log. He will also be questioned as to his knowledge of the use and management of the mortar and rocket lines in the case of the stranding of a vessel, as explained in the official log-book.

A FIRST MATE must be nineteen years of age, and have served five years at sea, of which one year must have been as either Second or Only Mate, or as both.

IN SEAMANSHIP.-In addition to the qualification required for an Only Mate, a more extensive knowledge of seamanship will be required, as to shifting large spars and sails, managing a ship in stormy weather, taking in and making sail, shifting yards and masts, &c., and getting heavy weights, anchors, &c., in and out; casting a ship on a lee-shore ; and securing the masts in the event of accident to the bowsprit.

A MASTER must be twenty-one years of age, and have been six years at sea, of which at least one year must have been as First or Only Mate, and one year as Second Mate.

He will be examined as to his competency to construct jury rudders and rafts; and as to his resources for the preservation of the ship's crew in the event of wreck. He must possess a sufficient knowledge of what he is required to do by law, as to entry and discharge, and the management of his crew, and as to penalties and entries to be made in the official log; and a knowledge of the measures for preventing and checking the outbreak of scurvy on board ship. He will be questioned as to his knowledge of invoices, charter party, Lloyd's agent, and as to the nature of bottomry, and he must be acquainted with the leading lights of the channel he has been accustomed to navigate, or which he is going to


In cases where an applicant for a certificate as Master Ordinary has only served in a fore-and-aft-rigged vessel, and is ignorant of the management of a square-rigged vessel, he may obtain a certificate on which the words fore-and-aft-rigged vessel" will be written. This certificate does not entitle him to command a square-rigged ship. This is not, however, to apply to Mates, who, being younger men, are expected for the future to learn their business completely.

An EXTRA MASTER'S EXAMINATION is voluntary, and intended for such persons as wish to prove their superior qualifications, and are desirous of having certificates for the highest grade granted by the Board of Trade.

IN SEAMANSHIP.—The extra examination will consist of an inquiry into the competency of the applicant to heave a ship down, in case of accident befalling her abroad; to get lower masts in and out; and to perform such other operations of a like nature as the Examiner may consider it proper to examine him upon.




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Cutting and Fitting Rigging
Rigging Ship
Preparing for Cargo. Dunnage. Stowage
Getting ready for sea. Log Line. Lead Line
Management of a Sailing Ship or a Steamer at sea..
Anchor Lights. Sailing Ship’s Lights. Steamer's Lights. Exceptional Lights.

Fog Signals ..
Regulations for Preventing Collisions..
Aids to Memory. Exercises in the Rules of the Road ..
Commercial Code
Mortar and Rocket Apparatus
Mate's Duties. Log Book. Lifting heavy weights. Accidents. Official Log

Ship’s Business
Seamanship for Master
Coming into the English Channel..
Average Statement

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After the preceding, a few pages are printed from the stereotype plates of the third edition of Bergen's Navigation, comprising Distant, Semaphore, Boat, and Danger Signals, and the Laws of Storms.

After the preceding, some pages are selected from the stereotype plates of the Appendix to the fourth edition of Bergen’s Navigation, now in course of preparation.


Anchoring. Single Anchor. Mooring, &c. ..
Definitions ..
Adjustments of the Sextant
Examination in Chart
Questions in Deviation of the Compass
Diagram shewing the Effect of the Magnets

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