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VISITATION AND AID SOCIETY

Result of a Year's Work

PRESIDENT'S REPORT.

these children in the business districts; it is to be hoped few if any begging children will be seen on the streets hereafter.

CHILD LABOR BUREAU.

To the Members and Friends of the Visitation and Aid Society:

During the past year many changes were made in Children's Work in our city, in all these matters the officers of your society took an active and in most cases a leading part; this was to be expected as the Society is the only active Catholic agency which maintains an office with the necessary assistance to participate in this work.

In all our efforts we have been most heartily encouraged and sustained by His Grace, the Most Reverend Archbishop. The various changes and improvements in the children's work (both official and private) were submitted to His Grace and in every instance received unqualified endorsement, especially was this the case in regard to the several laws enacted by the last legislature.

The pastors have continued their co-operation with the society, and as a general rule have referred all cases of dependent, neglected and delinquent children to us for care and attention. Ever mindful of the responsibility thus placed on the society your officers have been careful to manage and conduct its affairs so as to not only efficiently and promptly care for the work but, at all times, to satisfy the various parties interested.

We are pleased to report that our work has given entire satisfaction and that we have been able to increase the efficiency of our working force. This is due in part to the hearty co-operation that has been accorded us by the church and state; also the various charitable institutions and agencies of the city.

As you are aware no child under the age of fourteen years can be legally employed in our state and all children between the ages of fourteen and sixteen must procure an age and school certificate stating they can read and write before they are employed; to facilitate this work a Child Labor Bureau was established a year ago under the direction of a volunteer committee. His Grace, the Most Reverend Archbishop has placed this Bureau under the direction of our society; all child labor certificates for the parochial schools pass through this department and are subject to the approval of your president. We have been able to conduct this department without the least friction and so far the treasury of the V. & A. Society has financed the bureau. Total number of certificates issued during the last year, 3,167.

PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS.

The officers of the Society have been in daily communication with the different parochial schools; whenever a pupil becomes unruly a telephone message or letter is sent to our office and an officer is immeditately dispatched on the case; should the child continue his waywardness a petition is filed and the child brought before the Juvenile Court; in this way we have been instrumental in establishing and maintaining a strict rule of discipline in these matters in many of the schools.

NEW WORK.

JUVENILE COURT.

Five representatives from the society are in attendance at the Juvenile Court. All catholic dependent cases are referred to our society for care and as a general rule catholic dependent petitons are filed by our officers thus affording complete records for the institution receiving children, fifty per cent of all dependent cases are catholic. All releases from catholic institution are referred to the Visitation and Aid Society for investigation.

JUVENILE COURT RECORD.

Through the efforts of your officers the Cook County Legislative League was revived during the year; Hon. Thos. C. Mac Millan being elected Chairman, and your humble servant Secretary. The object of the league is to prepare and revise bills and amendments to the Children's Laws. The membership of the league is composed of the principal charity workers of Chicago : a bill amending the Illinois Juvenile Court Law increasing the ages of boys to 17 and girls to 18 years and other minor amendments was prepared by the sub-committee of which Hon. Julian W. Mack, Judge of the Juvenile Court was chairman.

A bill was prepared by the Visitation and Aid Society regulating the transfer of children, providing that no child could be placed in a family home without the written consent of the parents or an order of court; a bill providing for the placement and visitation of children placed in family homes was prepared by a sub-committee, Dr. H. H. Hart being chairman. A bill providing for the punishment of adult delinquents by Hon. A. Barnes and A bill providing for the pay of probation officers by the County was prepared by a sub-committee,-Hon. Harvey B. Hurd, Chairman. All these measures receive the unanimous endorsement of the General Committee and were introduced into the legislature by direction of His Excellency, Charles S. Deneen, Hon. Daniel Campbell had charge of the bills in the Senate and Hon. Chester W. Church in the House; these bills were passed by the legislature and received the approval of the Governor, and are now laws of our state, while pending before the legislature they were under the personal supervision of your president. Six trips were made to Springfield in their behalf. Judges Carter and Mack, Mr. H. H. Hart and E. Rubovits made one visit to Springfield and appeared before the legislative committee. These laws place Illinois in the front rank in Children's Work.

The Juvenile Court Record, published by the society, has been continued throughout the year. Its circulation numbers 25,000 per month. It consists of 16 pages containing Juvenile Court news from all sections of the country. It is circulated in every State in the Union. Whenever legislatures are considering Juvenile Court laws the Juvenile Court Record supplies practically all of the statistics for individual members of the legislature. These papers are furnished as a rule free. We have been able to finance the paper without costs to the Society.

COOK COUNTY INFIRMARY.

CHILD BEGGARS.

The work at the Cook County Infirmary was continued throughout the year. The regular Tuesday, Friday and Sunday visitation was made. Arrangements were perfected so that services are held alternate Sundays in the Consumptive Ward and the Insane Asylum. A visitor accompanied Reverend Father Walters on his weekly visits; a special delegation attending Sundays. A contribution of some 1,500 books was received from the Public Library. An average of 1,500 inmates are in the institution throughout the year; all in a more or less helpless and dependent condition, most of the sick requiring special attention. The population changes about every three months.

In conclusion I am pleased to report the Society was able to pay its liabilities during the year leaving a small balance.

Respectfully submitted,

T. D. HURLEY, President,

The annual fall crusade against child beggars was again taken up. On a recent court day 18 cases of this class were submitted to the Juvenile Court for attention. His honor, Judge Mack announced that with the aid of the Visitation and Aid Society he would rid the streets of these children and ordered no girl under the age of 18 years be allowed to sell papers. Since the above decision, a special officer has been detailed to look after

OFFICE REPORT.

CHILDREN'S REPORT. The following work was performed in the Children's Department from August 31, 1904 to August 31, 1905. Total number of children registered

.2314 Disposed of through the Society's Agency by the Juvenile

Court.
Committed to St. Mary's Training School

141
St. Vincent's Infant Asylum

115 Angel Guardian Orphan Asylum

35 House of the Good Shepherd

17 Chicago Industrial School

128 Illinois Industrial School

7 Illinois Manual Training School

6 Erring Women's Refuge

3 Home for the Friendless

20 Polish Orphan Asylum

7 Ill. Children's Home & Aid Society 10 Cook County Infirmary

7 Jacksonville, Ill. (Blind Institute)

2 Chicago Orphan Asylum

2 Methodist Home, Lake Bluff, Ill.

2 Illinois State Training School

9 John Worthy School

8 St. Charles School

2 Placed in hospitals

13
Returned to parents by Court

.149
Paroled to probation officers of the V.
& A. Society ..

.120
Disposed of without going through Court.
Sent to St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum

10 St. Joseph's Provident Asylum

15 Returned to parents ..

..528 Condition improved through supervision of the Society

.958 Total

2314 Respectfully submitted,

J. F. Bowers, Chairman.

Application of all kinds

..3658 Children registered

.2314 Transportation obtained for

76 Patients sent to hospitals

40 Temporary assistance given

372 Patients sent to the Poor House

5 Otherwise assisted such as procuring medicine, medical

aid, provisions, from the County or alms-giving so

cieties, temporary shelter, advice, etc. ........ 783 Application disapproved or referred to other societies 95

Total

3658 Respectfully submitted,

T. D. HURLEY, Chairman.

REPORT OF TREASURER.

I respectfully report that during the year commencing September 1, 1904, and ending August 31, 1905, I have received from all sources for account of the Society, $4,217.91. Paid out on warrants drawn on the Treasurer during the year ending Aug. 31, 1905

$4,101.36 To credit balance

116.55

$4,217.91 Respectfully submitted,

J. F. Bowers, Treasurer.

Civil Service Examination of Juvenile Court

Probation Officers

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A UNIQUE EXAMINATION. As far as known, there was never before held in any city in the United States a civil service examination for probation officers until the one given to candidates for these positions on July 14 here in Chicago. While the new state law covering appointment of probation officers for the Juvenile Court does not specifically call for such tests of fitness, still the friends of this work believed it would be the highest wisdom to have them, in the interest of civil service reform itself, and to lend dignity and importance to this field of social usefulness.

One hundred and thirty-two persons, young and old, entered the lists, three-fourths of them women. About twenty-five will be appointed from among the eligibles, by Judge Mack, and will be paid for by the County Board.

The examinations were held under the direction of the County Civil Service Board, but a specially appointed commission of competent persons prepared and examined the papers. They were: Miss Jane Addams, Judges R. S. Tuthill, O. N. Carter, Justice T. D. Hurley and W. B. Moulton. Immediately after the examination the papers were taken in hand and results will be made known in a few days. This is extraordinary speed and marks a new departure in the matter of settling the doubts and anxieties of those who try county examinations.—Co-Operation.

2. Out of a total number of 700 tried in the Juvenile Court of Denver, 45 were committed to institutions. What per cent of the total number tried were committed ?

3. The cost of maintaining the Dunning institutions for one year was $889,546, the number of inmates 1,800; what was the per capita cost?

LETTER-WRITING.

1. Write a letter containing not less than 100 words to the Judge of the Juvenile Court, calling attention to a case of delinquency, giving conditions and home surroundings of the child.

Note.—Leave signature blank. You are at liberty to make preliminary drafts on other paper. In masking the letter, errors in form and address, paragraphing, spelling, punctutation and composition will be considered.

NUMBER 2. Time, 10:15 to 12:30, July 14, 1905.

EXAMINATION FOR PROBATION OFFICERS.

DUTIES.

NUMBER 1.

Time. 9:30 to 10:15, July 14, 1905.

NOTE.-Applicants must not sign their names to the examination papers or give any marks of identification.

PENMANSHIP.
As shown by papers.

SPELLING
From dictation.

NOTE.--Examiner will first pronounce the word, then define it or exemplify it in a sentence, then pronounce it again.

1. What, generally and briefly speaking are the following (statutory definitions not required)?

(a) Juvenile Court.
(b) Probation officer.
(c) A factory inspector.
(d) A paroled boy.
(e) A delinquent child.
(f)A dependent child.
(g) A truant child.

2. (a) What is the duty of a probation officer before the case goes into court?

(b) What are the duties of a probation officer if the child has been paroled?

(c) What, if any, is the duty of the probation officer with respect to the discovery of dependent and delinquent children in his or her district ?

3. (a) What should be done with a child pending trial in the Juvenile Court?

(b) In case the child is homeless?
4. At what age can a child be legally employed ?

5. What would you regard your first duty with reference to a child alleged to be (a) delinquent; (b) dependent; (c) truant; (d) afflicted with contagious disease?

6. A girl of 13, father and stepmother living, is working in a saloon for wages, sent there by her parents. She does not go to school. State any violations of law and state what should be done in such a case by a probation officer to whose attention the facts were brought.

7. What action would you take and what recommendations would you make in the following cases :

(a) Three boys are arrested for breaking into a store, ages 10, 12 and 14 years.

(b) Boy 10 years old has parents indifferent and careless as to his welfare, both drink, child has been in court before and paroled as a dependent.

(c) Boy 12 years, parents honest, hardworking people, interested in their son; first time the child was ever arrested or in trouble, although he is fond of mischief and irregular at school.

(d) Boy 14 years, has been arrested on a previous occasion on the same charge and was paroled.

NUMBER 3.

(b) How may the court dispose of dependent and delinquent

children and what authority has the court over them after committing them to an institute association, or

individual? 5. (a) State fully your idea of the duties and qualifications

of the chief probation officer? (b) What plan of organization of the juvenile court forces

would you suggest, which in your opinion, would secure the most efficient service—what would you consider essential traits of character of a probation officer-what general instructions would you give to

an inexperienced officer? (c) State briefly the duties of a district probation officer

a police probation officer-a volunteer probation of

ficer. 6. (a) What is the relation of the work of the truant officer

to that of the juvenile court? (b) What is the relation of the state factory inspectors to

that of the juvenile court? 7. (a) What in your opinion are the chief direct and con

tributary causes of juvenile delinquency? (b) In what ways do you believe that the work of the

juvenile court can operate as a deterrent to crime? 8. (a) What statistical information would you consider valu

able to be collected each year under direction of the

juvenile court? (b) How do you think such information could promote

the prevention of juvenile delinquency and a more rational treatment of neglected and dependent chil

dren? 9. Three girls are found iir a saloon dance hall; a girl of

16 intoxicated, known to have had an immoral experience; a girl of 13, who is unruly in school, and uncontrolled at home, but is not otherwise incorrigible; a girl of 12 who is innocent and ordinarily well behaved but easily led by older girls. Two of the girls have respectable parents with comfortable homes, but the parents are careless about the children. The girl of 13 has a respectable mother who works all day

and is home' only at night. (a) What recommendation would you make to the court in

each case? (b) What action, if any, can the court take with reference to

the parents or the saloon keeper? (c) What papers would be filed in court in each case? 10.

A boy of 16 years has stolen a quantity of lead pipe. He has given it to two boys of 10 and 12 years for sale. The property is found in their possession. All of the boys are brought into the Juvenile Court. The boy of sixteen years has been twice in the John Worthy School and was for 9 months at the St. Charles Home for boys; parolled 3 months ago. The boy of 12 has been in the Juvenile Court twice and is now on probation, under a probation officer. His parents are well to do with a good home. The boy of ten is not yet vicious and has never before neen arrested. His parents are intemperate and the boy

is neglected. (a) What recommendation would you make in each case? (b) What papers would be filed in Court in each case?

Time 12:30 to 1 o'clock, July 14, 1905.

EXPERIENCE.

NOTE.-In answering the following questions the applicants should give full details of experience, giving dates, period of service and other particulars. Any false statements made by applicant will be regarded as good cause for excluding said applicant from the eligible list, or for removal or discharge during the probation period thereafter.

Have you had experience as a probation officer or any similar position? If so, give term of service.

Have you had any experience as a teacher in a public or private school—in kindergarten, social settlement, charitable or similar institution or organization ?

Have you ever had any experience either as an employe or in connection with the management of a public institution? Are you now, or have been employed during the last five years; if so in what line of work?

Have you had any other experience which, in your opinion, would tend to qualify you for the position of probation officer?

What is your age? Married or Single? If married, how many children living under the age of fourteen?

EXAMINATION FOR CHIEF PROBATION OFFICER.

DUTIES:

NOTE:

In answering the following questions the applicants should give full details of experience, giving dates, period of service and other particulars. Any false statements made by applicant will be regarded as good cause for excluding said applicant from the eligible list, or for removal or discharge during the probation period thereafter.

EXPERIENCE:

1 (a) What difference in theory and practice exists between

the objects and results of the juvenile Court method and the old method of dealing with children under

the criminal law ? (b) Give in substance the purposes and intention of the

law as stated in the Statute. (c) Name the Illinois Statutes other than the Juvenile

Court law which apply to and deal with children, and a knowledge of which will be helpful to the chief probation officer in advising the district pro

bation officers and others. 2. (a) State carefully the difference between a dependent and

a delinquent child and your opinion as to the possi

bility of dependency contributing to delinquency. (b) What do you understand by a defective child and what

are his chances of becoming a delinquent? 3.

From what court is the judge of the juvenile court

chosen,-by whom selected-for what term? 4. (a) What authority has the juvenile court with reference

to the parents or guardians of dependent and delinquent children?

Have you had any experience as a probation officer or any similar position ? If so give term of service.

Have you had any experience as a teacher in a public or private school or in any other profession?

Have you ever had any experience either as an employe or in connection with the management of a public institution ? Are you now, or have you been employed during the last five years; if so in what line of work?

Have you had any other experience which, in your opinion, would tend to qualify you for the position of chief probation officer?

State what general education you have had, and what, if any, has been your professional training-what is your age?

Facts Regarding Children Arrested in New York

By Thomas D. Walsh

As an indication at least of the volume of work before it during the year 1904, aside from any conclusion as to whether or not its establishment has fulfilled all of the expectations previously held forth and so strongly emphasied, the report of the New York Children's Court for that year shows that the cases of 7,631 children were heard and disposed of. Of these, it is worthy of note that over 25 per cent were cases (of "improper guardianship”) in which children were not themselves responsible for their arraignment before the court; that but 10 per cent were arrested on charges of a felonious nature, most of which necessitated summary commitment to reformatory institutions; that 14 per cent were arrested for misdemeanor (which includes every larceny of a lessor nature, or of goods valued at less than twenty-five dollars, simple assault and malicious mischief), and is more frequently disposed of by release on parole than by commitment, that 8 per cent were arraigned as "Ungovernable children," and most of them committed to institutions, and that 40 per cent of such arraignments were on charges of the pettiest nature, neither felonies misdemeanors, such throwing stones, breaking glass, playing ball, truancy and violation of numerous local ordinances.

In a population of 650,000 children under the age of sixteen years, students of the subject will find little cause for discouragement in the fact that the arrests for a year equalled but one in every hundred of the juvenile population.

The last report of the Denver Junevile Court quotes arrests in a Western city equaling & per cent of the juvenile population, and alarmingly refers to a similarly high ratio of arrests in other Western places. New York's complex population must always

be borne in mind when any comparison of arrests of children here is made with those of other cities. Too much stress cannot be laid upon the statistical fact that one-third of the children arrested in New York are either themselves of foreign birth or children of foreign-born parents. The "native population" (children of parents born here), furnished but seven-tenths of one per cent of the children of school age arraigned before that court for any offense, and, since over one-quarter of the whole number of arrests was for causes over which the children had no control, the number of second-generation New Yorkers arraigned before that court was but one in every one hundred and eighty of the juvenile population, or one in every seven hundred of the entire population of New York City. A remarkably low figure!

Since the inauguration of a method of extensive research on the subiect nf children arrested during the past ten years, the proportion of arrests of children of native parents has gradually decreased. But with a vearly influx of 123,000 foreign-born children (1214 per cent. of whom remain in New York), desoite the birth of 30,000 children of native Americans, it is not unlikely that the number of children arrested will continue proportionately the same.

The only way to lessen juvenile crime in this cosmopolitan city is to restrict immigration of children under sixteen. Such a recommendation, however, will not be likely to be made by anyone who understands that these very children become the forebearers of the prospective members of the “second generation” which has been found to be so law-abiding.

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Tennessee Juvenile Court Law

AN ACT CONCERNING DELINQUENT CHILDREN.

Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, That this act shall apply only .to children sixteen (16) years of age or under. The words “neglected child" or "delinquent child” shall include any child sixteen (16) years of age or under such age who violates any law of this state or any city or village ordinance; or who is incorrigible; or who knowingly associates with thieves, vicious or immoral persons; or wlio is growing up in idleness or crime; or who knowingly visits or enters a house of ill repute; or who knowingly patronizes or visits any policy shop or place where any gaming device is, or shall be operated; or who patronizes or visits any saloon or dram shop where intoxicating liquors are sold; or who patronizes or visits any public pool-room or bucket-shop; or who wanders about the streets in the night time without being on any lawful business or occupation; or who habitually wanders about railroad yards or tracks, or jumps or hooks on to any moving train, or enters any car or engine without lawful authority; or who habitually uses vile, obscene, vulgar, profane or indecent language, or is guilty of immoral conduct in any public place or about any schoolhouse. Any child committing any of the acts herein mentioned shall be deemed a juvenile delinquent or neglected person, or whose home by reason of any neglect or depravity on the part of its parents, guardians or other person in whose care it may be, and any child under the age of fourteen (14) years who is found begging, peddling ,or selling any article or singing or playing any musical instrument on the street, or giving any public entertainment, or who accompanies or is used in aid of any person so doing, shall be proceeded against as such in the manner hereinbefore provided. A disposition of any child under this act, or any evidence given in such cause, shall not in any civil. criminal or other cause or proceeding whatever in any court be lawful or proper evidence against such child for any purpose whatever, excepting in subsequent cases against the same child under this act. The word "child” or “children” mav mean one or more children, or the word "parent" or "parents” may mean one or both parents when consistent with the intent of this act. When jurisdictioni has been acquired under the provisions of this act over the persou of a child, such jurisdiction shall continue for the purposes of this act until the child shall have attained its majority.

circuit, or county court or chairman of any county court of the several counties in this state shall have jurisdiction in all cases coming within the terms and provisions of this act. Such cases to be heard and determined by the judge or chairman of said court. A special record book or books shall be kept by the court for all cases coming within the provisions of this act, to be known as “The Juvenile Record," and the docket or calendar of the court upon which there shall appear the case or cases under the provisions of this act shall be known as “The Juvenile Docket," and for convenience the court in trial and disposition of such cases may be called “The Juvenile Court." Between the first and thirteenth days of October of each year the clerks of the several courts shall submit to the county court a report in writing, upon blanks to be furnished by said court, showing the number and disposition of delinquent children brought before such court, together with such information regarding such cases and the parentage of such children as may be reasonably obtained at the trials thereof, provided that the name or identity of any such child or parent shall not be disclosed in such report, and that such report shall not be published at state expense.

Sec. 3. Be it further enacted. That any reputable persoil, being a resident of the county, having knowledge or information of a child in the county, who appears to be a neglected child, may file with the clerk of such court ä petition in writing, setting forth the facts, verified by affidavit. It shall be sufficient that the affidavit is on information and belief.

In any such information or complaint filed under this act, the act or acts claimed to have been committed by the child proceeded against shall in a general way be stated therein as constituting such child a juvenile delinquent child or person.

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted, That it shall be unlawful for any court, clerk or other person to tax or collect, or for any county to pay, any fees whatever now permitted by law to be taxed and collected for the benefit of any court, officer or person, for the case of any delinquent child coming within the provisions of this act for violating any law of this state, or committing any of the acts mentioned in section 1 hereof, unless such child shall be proceeded against in such court under the provisions and in accordance with the purpose of this act, except in capital cases, or where the court shall direct a prosecution under the criminal code, or where complaint has been filed before a justice of the peace or police magistrate who shall duly comply with the terms of section 6 of this act.

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That any judge of any criminai,

Sec. 5. Be it further enacted, That upon the filing of an information under this act, a warrant or capias may issue as in other cases, but no incarceration of the child proceeded against thereunder shall be made or had unless in the opinion of the judge of the court, or in the absence of the judge or chairman from the county seat, then in the opinion of the sheriff of the county, it shall be necessary to insure its attendance in court at such times as shall be required. In order to avoid such incarceration, if practicable, it shall be the duty of the sheriff of the county or his deputy or representative, to serve a notice of the proceedings upon at least one parent of the child, if living and known, or its legal guardian, or if his or her whereabouts or residence is not known, or if neither parent nor guardian shall be in this state, then some relative living in the county, if any there be whose whereabouts are known, and such judge or sheriff may accept the written promise of such person so notified, or of any other person to be responsible for the presence of such child at the hearing in such case, or at any other time to which the same may be adjourned or continued by the court. In case such child shall fail to appear at such time or times as the court may require, the person or persons responsible for its appearance as herein provided for, unless in the opinion of the court there shall be reasonable cause for such failure of such child to appear as herein provided for, may be proceeded against as in cases of contempt of court and punished accordingly; and where any such child shall have failed to appear, as required by the court or its officers, any warrant, capias or alias capias issued in such case may be executed as in other cases, provided, however, that no such child within the provisions of this act under fourteen (14) years of age, shall under any circumstances be incarcerated in any common jail or lockup, unless such child shall be charged with a felony, and any officer or person violating this provision of this act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction fined in a sum not to exceed one hundred dollars ($100). It shall be the duty of the county court to provide and maintain at public expense a detention room, or house of detention, separated or removed from such jail or lockup, to be in charge of a matron or other person of good moral character, wherein all children within the provisions of this act shall, when necessary, be incarcerated. Any such child, so informed against, shall also have the right now given by the law to any person to give bond or their security for the trial of such cases and the court may, in any such case, appoint counsel to appear and defend on behalf of any such child.

Sec. 8. Be it further enacted, That in any case of a delinquent child coming under the provisions of this act, the court may continue the hearing from time to time, and may commit the child to the care of a probation officer, and may allow said child to remain in its own home, subject to the visitation of the probation officer; such child to report to the court or probation officer as often as may be required, and subject to be returned i the court for further proceedings whenever such action fuay appear necessary; or the court may cause the child to be placed in a suitable family home, subject to the friendly supervision of the probation officer and the further order of the court; or it inay authorize the child to be boarded out in some suitable family house in case provision is made by voluntary contribution or otherwise for the payment of the board of such child, until suitable provision be made for the child in a home without such payment; or the court may commit such child to the State 11dustrial School, or to any institution within the county, incorporated under the laws of this state, that may care for children, or which may be provided by state or county, suitable for the care of such children, or to any state institution which may now or hereafter be established for the care of boys and girls. In no case shall a child proceeded against under the provisions of this act be committed beyond the age of twenty-one (21). A child committed to any such institution shall be subject to the control of said court, which shall have power to parole such child on such conditions as he may prescribe; and the court shall have power to discharge such child from custody when or, in the judgment of the court, his or her reformation is complete; or the court may commit the child to the care and custody of some association that will receive it, embracing in its objects the care of neglected or delinquent children, and which has been duly credited as herein provided.

Sec. 6. Be it further enacted, That when any child sixteen (16) years of age or under is arrested with or without warrant, such child shall instead of being taken before the judge of the peace or police magistrate, be taken directly before the judge of such court; or, if the child is taken before a justice of the peace or police magistrate, upon complaint sworn out in such court or for any other reason, it shall be the duty of such justice of the peace or police magistrate to transfer the case to such court, and the officer having the child in charge to take the child before that court, and in any such case the court may proceed to hear and dispose of the case in the same manner as if such child had been brought before the court upon information originally filed as herein provided; or, when necessary, in cases when the delinquency charged would otherwise constitute a felony, may direct such child to be kept in proper custody until an information or complaint may be filed as in other cases under this act of the laws of the state, provided that nothing herein shall be constituted to confer jurisdiction upon any justice of the peace or police court to try any case against any child sixteen (16) years of age or under.

Sec. 9. Be it further enacted, That all institutions or associations receiving children under this act shall be subject to the same visitation, inspection and supervision by the county court, through committees appointed by it, as are public charitable institutions of this state, and it shall be the duty of the county court to pass annually upon the fitness of any institution or association which may receive or desire to receive any child or children under the provisions of this act; and every such institution or association shall, at such times as said court shall direct, make report thereto, showing its conditions, management and competency to adequately care for such children as are, or may be committed to it, and such other facts as said court may require; and upon said court being satisfied that any such association or institution is competent and has adequate facilities to care for such children, it shall issue to the same a certificate to that effect, which certificate shall continue in force one year, unless sooner revoked by said board. The court, or the judge thereof, may, at any time, require from any such institution or association receiving or desiring to receive children under the provisions of this act, such reports, information and statements as the court or judge shall deem proper and necessary for his action, and the court shall in no case commit a child or children to any association or institution whose standing, conduct or care of children, or ability. to care for the same, is not satisfactory to the court.

Sec. 10. Be it further enacted, That all laws in conflict with this act are hereby repealed.

Sec. 11. Be it further enacted, That this act shall be liberally construed, to the end that its purposes may be carried outto wit: that the care and custody and discipline of the child shall approximate as nearly as may be that which shall be given by its parents, and that as far as practicable any delinquent child shall be treated, not as a criminal, but as misdirected and misguided, and needing aid, encouragement, help and assistance.

Sec. 7. Be it further enacted, That such courts of the several counties in this state shall have authority to appoint or designate one or more discreet persons of good moral character to serve as probation officers during the pleasure of the court; said probation officer to receive no compensation.

In case a probation officer shall be appointed by the court it shall be the duty of the clerk of the court, if practicable, to notify the said probation officer when any child is to be brought before the court; it shall be the duty of such probation officer to make investigation of such cases; to be present in court to represent the interests of the child when the case is heard; to furnish to the court such information and assistance as the court or judge may require, and to take charge of any child before and after the trial as may be directed by the court. Probation officers provided for by this act are hereby vested with all powers and authority of sheriffs to make arrests and perform other duties incident to their office.

Sec. 12. Be it further enacted, That this act shall only apply to counties of seventy thousand (70,000) inhabitants and over by the Federal Census of 1900, or any future Federal Census.

Sec. 13. Be it further enacted, That this act take effect from and after its passage, the public welfare requiring it.

Passed April 15, 1905.

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