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The legislature of Indiana has just passed an adult delinThe incorrigible small boys of St. Paul, Minneapolis and
quency law to supplement its Juvenile Court legislation. It is
drawn on lines similar to the Illinois proposed law now under Duluth are put under the supervision of one of the district court
consideration at Springfield, except that the penalty prescribed judges in each of these cities by the terms of the Chamberlain bill, passed under suspension of the rules in the house yesterday.
is a fine not exceeding $500.00 or imprisonment not exceeding six
months. The Illinois law prescribes a fine of not more than The Chamberlain bill provides a juvenile court in cities of
$200.00 or imprisonment not to exceed a year, or both. The ages 50,000 inhabitants and over, one district court judge is to be
of children subject to the law are set by the Indiana bill at sixassigned to sit in the juvenile court. He is to have special dis
teen for girls, seventeen for boys, while the Illinois act makes cretionary powers in imposing sentences for incorrigibility, mis- them seventeen for girls and eighteen for boys. demeanors and felonies, and may suspend sentence at will. The bill gives him authority to place dependent children
The Indiana law is more specific as to what constitutes adult
delinquency with reference to children than ours in that it preunder the guardianship of institutions and of persons not their
scribes some of the particular acts on the part of adults which parents or guardians. A probation officer is provided to act in must not be committed. Our proposed law merely says that it is connection with the court.
unlawful for any person to aid directly in "producing, promoting KANSAS
or contributing to the conditions which render a child dependent,
neglected or delinquent.” For example, Indiana says it is unThe juvenile court law passed the late legislature and is lawful "to send or cause to be sent any child to an immoral house, now in effect. Hereafter all children under 16 years, against
or to any saloon or wine room, or to any policy shop, gambling whom complaint is made, must be tried by the probate court,
room, bucket shop or poolroom, or to knowingly encourage, or other courts have no jurisdiction.
contribute to, or in any way cause any child to violate the laws
of the state or the ordinances of any city, or to knowingly perJNDIAN TERRITORY
mit, encourage or contribute to vicious or immoral conduct by
any child.” Through the activity of the women's clubs of the territory
Under this act messenger boys under sixteen years cannot there was passed at the recent session of the legislature a law, be sent to places of evil resort without subjecting the person or by which the governor is authorized to make contracts for the corporation employing them to punishment.—Co-operation.
SOME LITTLE STORIES OF THE JUVENILE
BY JUDGE BEN B. LINDSEY Loyalty is one of the noblest at- regions of a little human heart, to find the good that shall over. tributes of the human heart. I know come the evil. Sometimes the child does not respond, and then of no place where it is better exempli. they say he is bad. There is no such thing. It is not the child fied than in the character of a boy. that fails. We fail-that is, those responsible for the child. We He loves his chum, and when there is did not understand. But with little Harry the response came trouble he refuses to "snitch”-that like the sweet sound of a bell attuned, clear and beautiful. is, to tell. If he does, it is because He was in jail; a strange place for a twelve-year old boy of fear and dread at the demands of with a soul and a heart-an instrument so wonderful that, attuned his parent or teacher. It is the un
to perfect harmony, it is the very image of God. He that shapes alterable law of boyville, “Thou shalt and moulds clay and marble is as nothing to him who can subdue not snitch." But in his respect for the discords of a soul and bring out its noblest impulses, its most this law he is often called disobe- energetic faculties, and so parents should study and know and dient just the same. The truth is, he love their little children more even than the skilled artist pours is supremely loyal. He will in the out his devotion upon canvas or marble. It is this power we should end, because of this fidelity to his cultivate rather than rules or laws for punishment and prisons comrade, be more loyal to his school, for degradation. his home and the state-if he is The jailer had telephoned me, one cold wintry night, that handled right.
the boy was in a spasm of tears, which had so alarmed him that Tommy D. ran a gang.
Troubles he begged I come at once. I grabbed my coat and hat and out came-as it does some time to all into the night I went, feeling that the pitiless beat of the sleety gangs and all boys—and it happened rain was even kinder than a criminal law that condemns little that Tommy was "pinched” (arrest- children to crime and iron cells. But this was before the fight ed.) He was dogged, sullen and against the jail was fought and won. This was before love and mean with the officers. But he had firmness had supplanted hate and degradation. been nagged and abused. Hate, or the Behind iron bars that would shame the king tiger of the methods of hate, beget hate, as fear jungle, I found little Harry. He was sleeping, and you would breeds fear, and that is even worse. have thought not a care had ever visited that little tousled head Nevertheless, some people thought it with its worn and tear-stained face. But he was awakened. was the boy who was, as the officers startled by the grating of iron bolt and bars, the clicking of great expressed it to me, "dogged, sullen, keys turning in their solemn, monotonous locks, as the jailer, mean and not a word.” But others leaving me alone with the boy, returned from the cell back into thought it was the reflection yielded , the dimly-lighted corridor. The boy, frightened at these strange by "nagging and abuse."
surroundings, looked at his new voluntary cell-mate at first curOne of the Judge's well as boys misunderstand.
iously, almost fearfully. Then a look of joy and gladness came Tom refused "to tell," and so to his eyes, as might come from the captive at the approach of Friends
neither his parents, teachers nor offi- deliverance. The boy knew me, for he had been a chronic little cers could learn who were “in it." truant, and there may have been worse things, but they may be
So poor Tom was denounced. Now best left unsaid, for it was the boy, and not the "things" that we Tom stood between two solemn obligations. His little soul were trying to redeem. A boy is worth ten thousand times more struggled. - he did not know just why. He wanted to be obedient than anything he steals, yet I knew a ten-year-old boy who stole to his superiors; he wanted to be loyal to his chums. Did any (?) a bicycle in the old day's when ten times more labor and one think of this? Did any one care? Well, we cared in the money were expended to recover the wheel than to save the boy. Juvenile Court. We tanght Tom the lesson of obedience. It is I sat down in the cell on the iron floor. I put my arms the first law. But we sympathized with and approved of his around the child. I told him how much I thought of him, and loyalty to his chums. This, also is a supreme law. We tolá him he was not a bad boy. Everyone else said he was. He found us fighting for him, and yet he found us fighting also for obedience, law and order.
The real and correct impulse of his loyal little heart was applauded. Now what was the result? Without telling me the name of a boy, in forty-eight hours Tomi brought the entire gang to my court. They told me all they had done; not boastingly, but truthfully and honestly, in order "never to do it again.” And so poor little Tom, when understood, did himself what every source of authority above him-parent, teacher and policeman-had failed to do. And Tom and the "whole gang” are now friends and companions. The bad spirit of the gang is broken. The disturbances have ceased. Our purpose was accomplished. Our laws and those that controlled the lives of little children met on an equal footing, as it were, in the judge's chambers; harmony re'sulted, our laws and theirs
Boys Who Have Been in the Court were satisfied, and now we all pull together one way. It is a blessed thing to understand and to be understood.
how I despised the bad things he did, but I thought the world of I love to tell the story of a certain little Harry. It is like him. Yet what could I do if he did not help me? I might help some others where we have gone down into the unexplored him, but I could not carry him. I would always be his friend,
infinitely better results. There are a number of well-qualified citizens who would take the children's work for a small salary or honorarium; the children are already in the shelter, a smaller number would be sent off to the Industrial School, and in this saving the salaries of the probation officers would be met.
"Just think of the situation as it is at present. The city spends $260,000 annually for police protection, and the preventive force is practically represented by two or three Children's Aid Society workers. The police and legal machinery has been perfected at tremendous cost to punish and repress, while rescue and preventive work has been almost entirely ignored. The police and punishment never yet saved a young life. Even the best-managed Industrial School often fails, because it implies distrust, and brings the heart-hungry lad into daily association with evil-minded companions. Improvement in life and conduct can be brought about in the child's own home, through the agency of faithful probation officers, and if this should fail, a change of surroundings from city to country will often effect
"I would suggest bringing about this improved system through a conference of philanthropic workers and Aldermen, for this is a civic as well as a philanthropic movement.”—Toronto Globe, March 27, '05.
but he was getting both himself and the judge into trouble if he "swiped things," as it was wrong and hurt him, and his friends worst of all. If I let him out, and he “swiped things” again, would not the officer say that the judge made a mistake in not sending that kid “to Golden” (the State Industrial School), because, if he had done so, then Harry would not have "swiped things," for he would not have had the chance? So, in such a case, would they not say that both the judge and the boy should be in jail? How could he expect a judge to keep his job if his boys did such things? He saw the point, and, standing upright there in the cell, the light in his eyes speaking better than his words, and the earnestness of his promise to "stay wid yer, Judge," proclaimed by every feature, he tearfully and to this day truthfully declared he should never get me into any trouble and that we would both keep out of jail. And so I almost as tearfully accepted his proffered protection, as out of the jail we walked together into the pitiless black storm. And yet, it was no such storm as had raged in that boy's life. His was a home blighted by a father who had deserted it and trodden under foot every vow taken at the marriage altar, and so the divine birthright of every child to a father's care had been denied him. The boy was not bad; his opportunities had been bad; his environment was bad. I took him home to his mother, a poor, struggling woman, deserving of a better fate than to toil all day to feed and clothe her hungry children, with no hope in sight. A mother, however noble, who, under such handicaps and difficulties, tries to perform the functions of both father and mother, generally fails to perform that of either. Is it a wonder then that the child is not "brought up in the way it should go?" Is it the child's fault? If not, why then the jail and degradation ?
The boy returned to school. He brought good reports for over two years, and with them he brought joy and gladness. We had, in a poor way, tried to supply what was lacking in his little life, but to do this well a spark had to be struck somewhere, or a heartstring had to be touched that would respond clear and true. Once his mother came, at the end of a weary, toilsome day, to say that Harry was a changed boy; that he was thoughtful and loving, and once when she had been sick he had, with the tenderness of a woman, waited on her and given up all the dangerous pleasures of the street. Finally the tears came into her eyes, and she said: “Judge, I never knew just why Harry changed so much till one day, while I was ill and he was so sweet and kind, I asked him how it was he became good for the Judge, and, looking up into my face, with a tear in his eye, he said : Well, mother, you see it is this way; if I ever gits bad or swipes things again, the Judge—the Judge will lose his job. See? And he is my friend-he is--and I am going to stay wid him.'
Loyalty, responsibility, trust, confidence and love-all the ennobling instincts of the soul, were there, and these were played upon rather than hate and fear, despair and gloom. That they responded, clear and true, sweet and pure, the boy and the mother knew; and God knows, and I know, and thus to know is one of the sweetest joys of life.
CHILDREN AND CRIME
Mr. J. J. Kelso Suggests Improvements to the Toronto Systein.
"It is a curious fact,” remarked J. J. Kelso Saturday, “that while we in Ontario set the pace twelve years ago for the majority of the States and Great Britain in the matter of a children's court, we haye been far outstripped in the practical working out of the idea. The juvenile court and probation system is extremely popular everywhere, and is the greatest agency yet known for the prevention of crime. In the first place, it takes children entirely out of the hands of the police, and by the probation plan they are reformed without ever seeing a reformatory. Child offenders are not only tried apart from the police machinery, but they have a special Judge, who patiently, almost affectionately, studies their peculiar needs, and seeks to remove the cause of wrongdoing. In this he is assisted by what are known as probation officials, some of them ladies. One of these officers receives the guardianship of the lad from the court, and becomes his friend and adviser. Instead of being discharged on suspended sentence, as is done in Toronto, the boy is given a friend to help and encourage him. A regular record of his conduct is made, and tendencies to renewed wrongdoing instantly checked. It has been demonstrated that many so-called bad boys can be reformed in this way, at least ninety per cent.
“In my opinion the children's court in Toronto should be held in the Children's Shelter, without ihe presence of even one uniformed constable. There should be a special commissioner to deal with childish delinquencies, as provided in the children's act, and there should be three or four probation officers--or, say, two ladies and two men-to assist the court in solving the problemi. This would involve but a very slight increase in expense, with
TERMS OF PAROLE:
MINNESOTA JUVENILE COURT LAW
CHAPTER 285–H. F. NO. 753. AN ACT to regulate the treatment and control of dependent,
neglected and delinquent children. Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Minnesota :
Section 1. This act shall apply only to children under the age of seventeen (17) years. For the purposes of this act the words "dependent child” and “neglected child” shall mean any child who for any reason is destitute or homeless or abandoned ; or dependent upon the public 'for support; or has not proper parental care or guardianship; or who habitually begs or receives alms; or who is found living in any house of ill fame or with any vicious or disreputable persons, or whose home, by reason of neglect, cruelty or depravity on the part of its parents, guardian or other person in whose care it may be, is an unft place for such a child; and any child under the age of ten (10) years who is found begging, peddling or selling any article or singing or playing any musical instrument upon the street, or giving any public entertainment, or who accompanies or is used in aid of any person so doing. The words “delinquent child" shall include any child under the age of seventeen (17) years who violates any law of this state or any city or village ordinance; or who is incorrigible; or who knowingly associates with thieves, vicious or immoral persons; or who without just cause and without the consent of its parents or custodian absents itself from its home or place of abode; or who is growing up in idleness or crime; or who knowingly frequents a house of ill fame; or who knowingly patronizes any policy shop or place where any gaming device is or shall be operated; or who frequents any saloon or dram shop where intoxicating liquors are sold, or who patronizes or visits any public pool room or bucket shop; or who wanders about the streets in the night time without being in any lawful business or occupation; or who habitually wanders about any railroad yards or tracks or jumps or books on to any moving train or enters any car or engine without lawful authority; or who habitually uses vile, obscene, vulgar, profane or indecent language; or who is guilty of inmoral conduct in any public place or about any schoolhouse. Any child committing any of the acts herein mentioned shall be deemed a delinquent child, and shall be proceeded against as such in the manner hereinafter provided. A disposition of any child under this act or any evidence given in such cause shall not in any civil, criminal or other cause of proceeding whatever in any court be lawful or proper evidence against such child for any purpose whatever excepting subsequent cases against the same child under this act. The word "child” or “children” may mean one or more children, and the word "parent" or "parents” may be held to mean one or both parents, when consistent with the intent of this act. The word “association” shall include any corporation which includes in its purpose the care or disposition of children coming within the meaning of this act.
Sec. 2. The district court in counties having over 50,000 population shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction in all cases coming within the terms of this act. In all trials under this act except as hereinaiter provided, any person interested therein may demand a jury; or a judge of his own motion may order a jury to try the case.
Sec. 3. In counties having over 50,000 population the judges of the district court shall, at such times as they shall determine, designate one or more of their number, whose duty it shall be to hear all cases arising under this act, and such designation shall be for a period of one year, or until otherwise ordered. A special court room, to be designated as the juvenile court room shall be provided for the hearing of such cases, and the finding of the court shall be entered in a book or hooks to be kept for that purpose, and known as the "Juvenile Record,” and the court may for convenience be called the “Juvenile Court."
Sec. 4. Any reputable person resident in the county, having knowledge of a child in his county who appears to be either neglected, dependent or delinquent, may file with the clerk of a court having jurisdiction in the matter a petition in writing, setting forth the facts verified by affidavit. The petition shall set forth the name and residence of each parent, if known, and if both are dead or the residence unknown, then the name and residence of the legal guardian, if known, or if not known, then the name and residence of some near relative, if there be one, and his residence is known. It shall be sufficient that the affidavit is upon information and belief.
Sec. 5. Upon the filing of the petition a summons shall be issued by the clerk of the court requiring the person having custody or control of the child, or with whom the child may be, to appear with the child at a place and time stated in the summons, which time shall be less than twentyfour (24) hours after service. Such
served as provided by law for the service of summons in civil actions. The parents of the child, if living, and their residence is known, or its legal guardian, if one there be, or if there is neither parent nor guardian, or if his or her residence is not known, then some relative, if there be one and his residence is known, shall be notified of the proceedings, and in any case the judge may appoint some suitable person to act in behalf of the child. Where the person to be notified resides within the county, service of nctice shall be the same as service of the summons, but in any other case service of notice shall be made in such manner as the court may direct. If the person summoned as herein provided shall fail without reasonable cause to appear and abide the order of the court, or bring the child, he may be proceeded against as in case of contempt of court. In case the summons cannot be served or the party served fails to obey the same, and in any case when it shall be made to appear to the court that such summons will be ineffectual, a warrant may issue on the order of the court, either against the parent or guardian or the person having custody of the child or with whom the child may be or against the child itself. On the return of the summons or other process, or on the appearance of the child with or without summons or other process in person before the court, and on the return of the service of notice, if there be any person to be notified or a personal appearance or written consent to the proceedings of the person or persons, if any to be notified, or as soon thereafter as may be the court shall proceed to hear and dispose of the case in a summary manner. Pending the final disposition of any case, the child may be retained in the possession of the person having the charge of the same, or may be kept in some suitable place provided by the city or county authorities.
Sec. 6. The court shall have authority to appoint or designate one or more discreet person of good character to serve as probation officers during the pleasure of the court; such probation officers shall act wider the orders of the court in reference to any child or children, committed to his care, and it shall be the duty of said probation officers to make such investigations with regard to any child or children as may be required by the court before or after trial and to furnish to the court such information and assistance as the judge may require, and to take charge of any child or children before or after trial, whenever he may be so directed by the court, and to keep such records and to make such reports to the court as the court may order or direct. Probation officers heretofore or hereafter appointed under the provision of chapter one hundred fifty-four (154) of the General Laws of Minnesota for 1899, and all laws amendatory thereof shall be subject to the orders of the court in reference to all matters covered by the provisions of this act. Probation officers appointed under authority of this act shall serve without compensation from the county, save only that the majority of the judges of the court may direct the payment of such salary to such probation officers as may be approved by the board of county commissioners of the county where such officers are appointed.
Scc. 7. When any child under the age of seventeen (17) years shall be found to be dependent or neglected, within the meaning of this act, the court may make an order committing the child to the care of some suitable state institution or to the care of scme reputable citizen of good moral character, as provided by law, or to the care of some association willing to receive it, embracing in its objects the purpose of caring for or obtaining homes for dependent or neglected children, which association shall have been accredited as hereinafter provided. The court may, when the health or condition of the child shall require it, cause the child to be placed in a public hospital or institution for treatment or special care, or in a private hospital or institution, which will receive it for like purpose without charge.
Sec. 8. In any case where the court shall award a child to the care of any association or individual in accordance with the provisions of this act, the child shall, unless otherwise ordered, become a ward, and be subject to the guardianship of the asso. ciation or individual to whose care it is committed. Such association or individual shall have authority to place such child in a faimly home, with or without indenture, and may be made party to any proceeding for the legal adoption of the child, and may by its or his attorney or agent appear in any court where such proceedings are pending and assent to such adoption. And such assent shall be sufficient to authorize the court to enter the proper order or decree of adoption. Provided, however, that when adoption proceedings for any such child or children are commenced in any other court than the court which originally committed such child, then a copy of the petition in such adoption proceedings shall be filed in the office of the clerk of ihe court which originally committed such child, at least thirty (30) days before any final decree of adoption shall be entered.
Such guardianship shall not include the guardianship of any estate of the child.
Sec. 9. In the case of a delinquent child the court may continue the hearing from time to time, and may commit the child to the care or custody of a probation officer, and may allow said child to remain in its own home, subject to the visitation of the probation officer; such child to report to the probation officer as often may be required, and subject to be returned to the court for further or other proceedings whenever such action may appear to be necessary; or the court may cause the child to be placed in a suitable family home, subject to the friendly supervision of a probation officer and the further order of the court; or it may authorize the child to be boarded out in some suitable family home, in case provision is made by voluntary contribution or otherwise for the payment of the board of such child, until suitable provisions may be made for the child in a home without such payment; or the court may commit such child to the state training school, or the court may commit the child to any institution incorporated under the laws in this state, that may care for delinquent children, or provided by city or county suitable to the care of such children, or to any state institution which may be established for the care of delinquent children. In no case shall a child be committed beyond his or her minority. A child committed to such an institution shall be subject to the control of the board of managers thereof, and the said board shall have power 10 parole such child on such conditions as it may prescribe, and the court shall, on the recommendation of the board, have power to discharge such child from custody whenever, in the judgment of the court, his or her reformation is complete or the court may commit the child to the care and custody of some association that will receive it, embracing in its objects the care of neglected or dependent children, and that has been duly accredited as hereinafter provided. The district court may, in its discretion, cause any delinquent child to be proceeded against in accordance with the laws that may be in force governing the commission of crimes and misdenieanors, or the violation of municipal ordinance.
Sec. 10. In any case in which the court shall find a child neglected, dependent or delinquent, it may, in the same or subsequent proceeding, upon the parents of said child, or either of them being duly summoned, or voluntarily appearing, proceed to inquire into the ability of such parent or parents to support the child or contribute to its support, and if the court shall find such parent or parents able to support the child or contribute thereto, the court may enter such order or decree as shall be, according to equity in the premises, and may enforce the same execution, or in any way in which a court of equity may enforce its orders or decrees.
Sec. 11. All associations receiving children under this act shall be subject to the same visitation, inspection and supervision by the state board of control as are the public charitable institutions of this state, and it shall be the duty of the said board
to pass annually upon the fitness of every such association as may receive, or desire to receive, children under the provisions of this act, and every such association shall annually, at such time as said board shall direct, make report thereto, showing its condition, management and competency to adequately care for such children as are, or may be committed to it, and such other facts as said board may require, and upon said board being satisfied that such association is competent and has adequate facilities to care for such children, it shall issue to the same a certificate to that effect, which certificate shall continue in force for one (1) year, unless sooner revoked by said board, and no child shall be committed to any such association, which shall not have received a certificate within fifteen (15) months next preceding the commitment. The court may, at any time, require from any association receiving or desiring to receive children under the provisions of this act, such report, information and statements as the judge shall deem proper or necessary for his action, and the court shall in no case be required to commit a child to any association whose standing conduct or care of childiren or ability to care for the same, is not satisfactory to the court.
) Sec. 12. It shall be lawful for the parents, parent, guardian or other person having the right to dispose of a dependent or neglected child to enter into an agreement with any association or institution incorporated under any public or private law of this state for the purpose of aiding, caring for or placing in home such children, and being approved as herein provided, for the surrender of such child to such association or institution, to be taken and cared for by such association or institution or put into a family home. Such agreement may contain any and all proper stipulations to that end, and may authorize the association or institution, by its attorney or agent, to appear in any proceeding for the legal adoption of such child, and consent to its adoption and the order of the court made upon such consent shall be binding upon the child and its parents or guardian or other person the same as if such person were personally in court and consented thereto whether made party to the proceeding or not.
Sec. 13. The court in committing children shall place them, as far as it deems practicable in the care and custody of some individual holding the same religious belief as the parents of said child, or with some association which is controlled by persons of like religious faith of the parents of the said child.
Sec. 14 This act shall he liberally construed to the end that its purpose may be carried out, to wit: That the care, custody and discipline of the child shall approximate as nearly as may səseɔ ile up pue 'sjuǝsed si! q uəng əq Pinoys ylym feyz əq where it can properly be done, the child to be placed in an approved family home and become a member of the family by legal adoption or otherwise.
Sec. 15. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after the 1st day of June, 1905.
Approved April 19, 1905.
A feature of the recent annual meeting of the conference of child-helping societies of Boston was the accounts of the work of the various branches of the city's children's institutions department. Of the parental school, the city's school for truants, it was related that most of the boys do not lack affection for their homes. Their misbehavior comes chiefly from their love of excitement and freedom. They are usually more or less abnormal, and the public schools did not supply the training suited to their natures and capacities. This indicates the importance of adapting education to the particular needs of the individual—a difficult problem to solve.
The boys take delight in biography, stories of history and especially of daring and adventure. They take a keen interest in nature study. Few have really criminal tendencies. In one important respect, that of careful physical oversight, the boys at school have a great advantage over the mass of children. All come to school well fed, warmly clad, with a long night's sleep behind them; defective teeth have been filled, defective eyes provided with glasses. But many are made difficult material by the fact that before commitment they have been stupefied by narcotics, enfeebled from lack of nutrition or from heredity, "old in the knowledge of evil and woefully ignorant of good.” Nevertheless, the teachers do not regard them as bad boys. Manual
training develops honesty and carefulness among them.
In the work of the trustees for children in finding proper homes for neglected little ones the aim is to place them under circumstances that will make them as nearly as possible like children of good parents. The reported results are gratifying. Of the boys of the house of reformation at Rainsford island it was said that, while bad traits may be hereditary, environment and lack of proper training are more largely responsible for their evil conditions. It is encouraging that less than 6 per cent. of the boys have had to be returned on account of bad behavior.
Few of us appreciate the value of these various instrumentalities for bettering the lot of unfortunately circumstanced children. Together they constitute a highly developed organism at work in our midst. The work deserves encouragement by all possible expressions of sympathy and appreciation.
The economic service is inestimable. It is of immense value for a community when thousands of children are rescued from downward courses, and all the enormous waste thus, implied, and made good and useful members of society. Heredity from incompetent or vicious progenitors is a heavy load. But the work that a wholesome environment does for most children indicates that human nature is fundamentally better than it is often supposed to be. --Boston Herald.