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JUVENILE COURT NOTES
UTAH

keeping of juvenile offenders or to secure a building within

the territory for that purpose. This is not the first statute in During the last month the first step in the real administration regard to this matter. A law existing on the statute books of the of the Juvenile Court in Salt Lake City was taken. Two rooms territory leaves an open appropriation for this purpose. were refitted and furnished by the city, where Judge Willis Brown will hold Court, with Probation Officer M. M. Woods.

FURTHER PROTECTION FOR INDIANA CHILDREN MINNESOTA

The legislature of Indiana has just passed an adult delinThe incorrigible small boys of St. Paul, Minneapolis and

quency law to supplement its Juvenile Court legislation. It is

drawn on lines similar to the Illinois proposed law now under Duluth are put under the supervision of one of the district court

consideration at Springfield, except that the penalty prescribed judges in each of these cities by the terms of the Chamberlain

is a fine not exceeding $500.00 or imprisonment not exceeding six bill, passed under suspension of the rules in the house yesterday. The Chamberlain bill provides a juvenile court in cities of

months. The Illinois law prescribes a fine of not more than 50,000 inhabitants and over, one district court judge is to be

$200.00 or imprisonment not to exceed a year, or both. The ages

of children subject to the law are set by the Indiana bill at sixassigned to sit in the juvenile court. He is to have special dis

teen for girls, seventeen for boys, while the Illinois act makes cretionary powers in imposing sentences for incorrigibility, mis

them

seventeen for girls and eighteen for boys. demeanors and felonies, and may suspend sentence at will.

The Indiana law is more specific as to what constitutes adult The bill gives him authority to place dependent children

delinquency with reference to children than ours in that it preunder the guardianship of institutions and of persons not their

scribes some of the particular acts on the part of adults which parents or guardians. A probation officer is provided to act in must not be committed. Our proposed law merely says that it is connection with the court.

unlawful for any person to aid directly in "producing, promoting KANSAS

or contributing to the conditions which render a child dependent,

neglected or delinquent.” For example, Indiana says it is unThe juvenile court law passed the late legislature and is lawful "to send or cause to be sent any child to an immoral house, now in effect. Hereafter all children under 16 years, against or to any saloon or wine room, or to any policy shop, gambling whom coniplaint is made, must be tried by the probate court,

room, bucket shop or poolroom, or to knowingly encourage, or other courts have no jurisdiction.

contribute to, or in any way cause any child to violate the laws

of the state or the ordinances of any city, or to knowingly perINDIAN TERRITORY

mit, encourage or contribute to vicious or immoral conduct by

any child." Through the activity of the women's clubs of the territory Under this act messenger boys under sixteen years cannot there was passed at the recent session of the legislature a law, be sent to places of evil resort without subjecting the person of by which the governor is authorized to make contracts for the corporation employing them to punishment.-Co-operation.

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COURT

SOME LITTLE STORIES OF THE JUVENILE

BY JUDGE BEN B. LINDSEY Loyalty is one of the noblest at regions of a little human heart, to find the good that shall overtributes of the human heart. I know come the evil. Sometimes the child does not respond, and then of no place where it is better exempli they say he is bad. There is no such thing. It is not the child fied than in the character of a boy. that fails. We fail-that is, those responsible for the child. We He loves his chum, and when there is did not understand. But with little Harry the response came trouble he refuses to "snitch"—that like the sweet sound of a bell attuned, clear and beautiful. is, to tell. If he does, it is because He was in jail; a strange place for a twelve-year old boy of fear and dread at the demands of with a soul and a heart-an instrument so wonderful that, attuned his parent or teacher. It is the un

to perfect harmony, it is the very image of God. He that shapes alterable law of boyville, “Thou shalt and moulds clay and marble is as nothing to him who can subdue not snitch." But in his respect for the discords of a soul and bring out its noblest impulses, its most this law he is often called disobe energetic faculties, and so parents should study and know and dient just the same. The truth is, he love their little children more even than the skilled artist pours is supremely loyal. He will in the out his devotion upon canvas or marble. It is this power we should end, because of this fidelity to his cultivate rather than rules or laws for punishment and prisons comrade, be more loyal to his school, for degradation, his home and the state—if he is The jailer had telephoned me, one cold wintry night, that handled right.

the boy was in a spasm of tears, which had so alarmed him that Tommy D. ran a gang.

Troubles he begged I come at once. I grabbed my coat and hat and out came-as it does some time to all into the night I went, feeling that the pitiless beat of the sleety gangs and all boys—and it happened rain was even kinder than a criminal law that condemns little that Tommy was "pinched” (arrest children to crime and iron cells. But this was before the fight ed.) He was dogged, sullen and against the jail was fought and won. This was before love and mean with the officer's. But he had firmness had supplanted hate and degradation, been nagged and abused. Hate, or the Behind iron bars that would shame the king tiger of the methods of hate, beget hate, as fear jungle, I found little Harry. He was sleeping, and you would breeds fear, and that is even worse. have thought not a care had ever visited that little tousled head Nevertheless, some people thought it with its worn and tear-stained face. But he was awakened. was the boy who was, as the officers startled by the grating of iron bolt and bars, the clicking of great expressed it to me, "dogged, sullen, keys turning in their solemn, monotonous locks, as the jailer, mean and not a word.” But others leaving me alone with the boy, returned from the cell back into thought it was the reflection yielded the dimly-lighted corridor. The boy, frightened at these strange

by nagging and abuse." Men as surroundings, looked at his new voluntary cell-mate at first curOne of the Judge's well as boys misunderstand.

iously, almost fearfully. Then a look of joy and gladness came Tom refused "to tell," and so to his eyes, as might come from the captive at the approach of Friends

neither his parents, teachers nor offi deliverance. The boy knew me, for he had been a chronic little cers could learn who were "in it." truant, and there may have been worse things, but they may be

So poor Tom was denounced. Now best left unsaid, for it was the boy, and not the "things" that we Tom stoed between two solemn obligations. His little soul were trying to redeem. A boy is worth ten thousand times more struggled.- he did not know just why. He wanted to be obedient than anything he steals, yet I knew a ten-year-old boy who stole to his superiors; he wanted to be loyal to his chums. Did any (?) a bicycle in the old day's when ten times more labor and one think of this? Did any one care? Well, we cared in the money were expended to recover the wheel than to save the boy. Juvenile Court. We tanght Tom the lesson of obedience. It is I sat down in the cell on the iron floor. I put my arms the first law. But we sympathized with and approved of his around the child. I told him how much I thought of him, and loyalty to his chums. This, also is a supreme law. We told him he was not a bad boy. Everyone else said he was. He found us fighting for him, and yet he found us fighting also for obedience, law and order. The real and correct impulse of his loyal little heart was applauled. Now what was the result? Without telling me the name of a boy, in forty-eight hours Tom brought the entire gang to my court. They told me all they had done; not boastingly, but truthfully and honestly, in order "never to do it again." And so poor little Tom, when understood, did himself what every source of authority above 'him-parent, teacher and policeman-had failed to do. And Tom and the "whole gang” are now friends and companions. The bad spirit of the gang is broken. The disturbances have ceased. Our purpose was accomplished. Our laws and those that controlled the lives of little children met on an equal footing, as it were, in the judge's chambers; harmony resulted, our laws and theirs

Boys Who Have Been in the Court were satisfied, and now we all pull together one way. It is a blessed thing to understand and to be understood.

how I despised the bad things he did, but I thought the world of I love to tell the story of a certain little Harry. It is like him. Yet what could I do if he did not help me? I might help some others where we have gone down into the unexplored him, but I could not carry him. I would always be his friend,

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a cure.

but he was getting both himself and the judge into trouble if he infinitely better results. There are a number of well-qualified "swiped things," as it was wrong and hurt him, and his friends citizens who would take the children's work for a small salary worst of all. If I let him out, and he “swiped things" again, would or honorarium; the children are already in the shelter, a smaller not the officer say that the judge made a mistake in not sending number would be sent off to the Industrial School, and in this that kid "to Golden” (the State Industrial School), because, if saving the salaries of the probation officers would be met. he had done so, then Harry would not have "swiped things," for "Just think of the situation as it is at present. The city he would not have had the chance? So, in such a case, would spends $260,000 annually for police protection, and the preventive they not say that both the judge and the boy should be in jail? force is practically represented by two or three Children's Aid How could he expect a judge to keep his job if his boys did such Society workers. The police and legal machinery has been perthings? He saw the point, and, standing upright there in the cell, fected at tremendous cost to punish and repress, while rescue the light in his eyes speaking better than his words, and the and preventive work has been almost entirely ignored. The earnestness of his promise to "stay wid yer, Judge," proclaimed police and punishment never yet saved a young life. Even the by every feature, he tearfully and to this day truthfully declared best-managed Industrial School often fails, because it implies he should never get me into any trouble and that we would both distrust, and brings the heart-hungry lad into daily association keep out of jail. And so I almost as tearfully accepted his prof with evil-minded companions. Improvement in life and conduct fered protection, as out of the jail we walked together into the can be brought about in the child's own home, through the pitiless black storm. And yet, it was no such storm as had raged agency of faithful probation officers, and if this should fail, a in that boy's life. His was a home blighted by a father who had change of surroundings from city to country will often effect deserted it and trodden under foot every vow taken at the marriage altar, and so the divine birthright of every child to a father's "I would suggest bringing about this improved system care had been denied him. The boy was not bad; his opportuni through a conference of philanthropic workers and Aldermen, for ties had been bad; his environment was bad. I took him home to this is a civic as well as a philanthropic movement.”—Toronto his mother, a poor, struggling woman, deserving of a better fate Globe, March 27, '05. than to toil all day to feed and clothe her hungry children, with no hope in sight. A mother, however noble, who, under such handicaps and difficulties, tries to perform the functions of both father and mother, generally fails to perform that of either.

NEW YORK JUVENILE COURT Is it a wonder then that the child is not "brought up in the way it should go?" Is it the child's fault? If not, why then

PAROLE REPORT the jail and degradation ?

The boy returned to school. He brought good reports for To the Justices of the Court of Special Sessions: over two years, and with them he brought joy and gladness. Gentlemen : We had, in a poor way, tried to supply what was lacking in his The report of the Chief Probation Officer in cases of little life, but to do this well a spark had to be struck some children under age of sixteen years, arising in the Court of where, or a heartstring had to be touched that would respond Special Sessions, First Division, Children's Part, from January clear and true. Once his mother came, at the end of a weary, 1st, 1905 to March 31st, 1905, inclusive respectfully shows; toilsome day, to say that Harry was a changed boy; that he was thoughtful and loving, and once when she had been sick he had,

BOYS PAROLED

297 with the tenderness of a woman, waited on her and given up all

GIRLS PAROLED

11 298 the dangerous pleasures of the street. Finally the tears came into her eyes, and she said: "Judge, I never knew just why Harry changed so much till one day, while I was ill and he was so OFFENSES:

BOYS. GIRLS. sweet and kind, I asked him how it was he became good for the Judge, and, looking up into my face, with a tear in his eye, he Disorderly Conduct

64 said: 'Well, mother, you see it is this way; if I ever gits bad or Petit Larceny

92

2 swipes things again, the Judge—the Judge will lose his job. See? Grand Larceny

11 And he is my friend-he is--and I am going to stay wid him.' Burglary

33 Loyalty, responsibility, trust, confidence and love--all the No Proper Guardianship

20

5 ennobling instincts of the soul, were there, and these were played Assault

10 upon rather than hate and fear, despair and gloom. That they Robbery

10 responded, clear and true, sweet and pure, the boy and the Malicious Mischief

5 mother knew; and God knows, and I know, and thus to know is Ungovernable Child

11

2 one of the sweetest joys of life.

Disorderly Child

18

1 Peddling ..

2 Violation Educational Law

6

Carrying Firearms
CHILDREN AND CRIME
Viol. of Sec. 353, Laws of 1886.

1
Stoning Passenger Trains

2

298 Mr. J. J. Kelso Suggests Improvements to the Toronto Systein. "It is a curious fact,” remarked J. J. Kelso Saturday, "that DISPOSITION:

BOYS. GIRLS. while we in Ontario set the pace twelve years ago for the majority of the States and Great Britain in the matter of a children's

Sentence Suspended

180 Committed for Violation of Parole

2 court, we have been far outstripped in the practical working out of the idea. The juvenile court and probation system is ex

Discharged

48

3

Now on Parole tremely popular everywhere, and is the greatest agency yet known

134

9 for the prevention of crime. In the first place, it takes children entirely out of the hands of the police, and by the probation plan

BENCH WARRANTS UNEXPECTED: they are reformed without ever seeing a reformatory. Child

BOYS. GIRLS... offenders are not only tried apart from the police machinery, but

18

1 they have a special Judge, who patiently, almost affectionately, studies their peculiar needs, and seeks to remove the cause of TERMS OF PAROLE:

BOYS. GIRLS. wrongdoing. In this he is assisted by what are known as proba

Less than one Month tion officials, some of them ladies. One of these officers receives

70

2

One Month the guardianship of the lad from the court, and becomes his

153

6 friend and adviser. Instead of being discharged on suspended

Two Months

51

3

13 sentence, as is done in Toronto, the boy is given a friend

Three Months

298 to help and encourage him. A regular record of his conduct is made, and tendencies to renewed wrongdoing instantly checked. It has been demonstrated that many so-called bad boys

CHILDREN RE-PAROLED:

BOYS.' GIRLS. can be reformed in this way, at least ninety per cent.

Once ....

52

2 "In my opinion the children's court in Toronto should be held Twice

15

1 in the Children's Shelter, without the presence of even one uni Three times

4 formed constable. There should be a special commissioner to deal Four times

2 with childish delinquencies, as provided in the children's act, and

Respectfully submitted, there should be three or four probation officers-or, say, two ladies and two men-to assist the court in solving the problem.

(Signed) E. FELLOWS JENKINS, This would involve but a very slight increase in expense, with

Chief Probation Officer.

46

MINNESOTA JUVENILE COURT LAW

CHAPTER 285–H. F. NO. 753.

served as provided by law for the service of summons in civil

actions. The parents of the child, if living, and their residence AN ACT to regulate the treatment and control of dependent, is known, or its legal guardian, if one there be, or if there is neglected and delinquent children.

neither parent nor guardian, or if his or her residence is not Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Minnesota: known, then some relative, if there be one and his residence

Section 1. This act shall apply only to children under the is known, shall be notified of the proceedings, and in any case age of seventeen (17) years. For the purposes of this act the

the judge may appoint some suitable person to act in behalf of words "dependent child" and "neglected child" shall mean any the child. Where the person to be notified resides within the child who for any reason is destitute or homeless or abandoned; county, service of notice shall be the same as service of the or dependent upon the public 'for support; or has not proper

summons, but in any other case service of notice shall be made parental care or guardianship; or who habitually begs or re in such manner as the court may direct. If the person summoned ceives alms; or who is found living in any house of ill fame

as herein provided shall fail without reasonable cause to appear or with any vicious or disreputable persons, or whose home, by

and abide the order of the court, or bring the child, he may be reason of neglect, cruelty or depravity on the part of its parents,

proceeded against as in case of contempt of court. In case the guardian or other person in whose care it may be, is an unfit summons cannot be served or the party served fails to obey the place for such a child; and any child under the age of ten (10)

same, and in any case when it shall be made to appear to the years who is found begging, peddling or selling any article or

court that such summons will be ineffectual, a warrant may issue singing or playing any musical instrument upon the street, or on the order of the court, either against the parent or guardian giving any public entertainment, or who accompanies or is used or the person having custody of the child or with whom the in aid of any person so doing The words "delinquent child"

child may be or against the child itself. On the return of the shall include any child under the age of seventeen (17) years

summons or other process, or on the appearance of the child who violates any law of this state or any city or village ordi

with or without summons or other process in person before the nance; or who is incorrigible; or who knowingly associates with court, and on the return of the service of notice, if there be any thieves, vicious or immoral persons; or who without just cause

person to be notified or a personal appearance or written consent and without the consent of its parents or custodian absents itself to the proceedings of the person or persons, if any to be notified, from its home or place of abode; or who is growing up in idleness

or as soon thereafter as may be the court shall proceed to hear or crime; or who knowingly frequents a house of ill fame; or

and dispose of the case in a summary manner. Pending the final who knowingly patronizes any policy shop or place where any disposition of any case, the child may be retained in the possesgaming device is or shall be operated; or who frequents any

sion of the person having the charge of the same, or may be kept saloon or dram shop where intoxicating liquors are sold, or in some suitable place provided by the city or county authorities. who patronizes or visits any public pool room or bucket shop;

Sec. 6. The court shall have authority to appoint or designate or who wanders about the streets in the night time without being

one or more discreet person of good character to serve as proin any lawful business or occupation; or who habitually wanders

bation officers during the pleasure of the court; such probation about any railroad yards or tracks or jumps or hooks on to any

officers shall act under the orders of the court in reference to moving train or enters any car or engine without lawful author

any child or children, committed to his care, and it shall be the ity; or who habitually uses vile, obscene, vulgar, profane or inde

duty of said probation officers to make such investigations with cent language; or who is guilty of immoral conduct in any public

regard to any child or children as may be required by the court place or about any schoolhouse. Any child committing any of

before or after trial and to furnish to the court such informathe acts herein mentioned shall be deemed a delinquent child, and

tion and assistance as the judge may require, and to take charge shall be proceeded against as such in the manner hereinafter

of any child or children before or after trial, whenever he may provided. A disposition of any child under this act or any

be so directed by the court, and to keep such records and to evidence given in such cause shall not in any civil, criminal or

make such reports to the court as the court may order or direct. other cause of proceeding whatever in any court be lawful or

Probation officers heretofore or hereafter appointed under the proper evidence against such child for any purpose whatever

provision of chapter one hundred fifty-four (154) of the Genexcepting subsequent cases against the same child under this

eral Laws of Minnesota for 1899, and all laws amendatory thereof act. * The word "child" or "children” may mean one or more

shall be subject to the orders of the court in reference to all children, and the word "parent" or "parents” may be held to

matters covered by the provisions of this act. Probation officers mean one or both parents, when consistent with the intent of this act. The word “association” shall include any corporation pensation from the county, save only that the majority of the

appointed under authority of this act shall serve without comwhich includes in its purpose the care or disposition of children

judges of the court may direct the payment of such salary to coming within the meaning of this act.

such probation officers as may be approved by the board of county Sec. 2. The district court in counties having over 50,000 commissioners of the county where such officers are appointed. population shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction in all Sec. 7. When any child under the age of seventeen (17) cases coming within the terms of this act. In all trials under years shall be found to be dependent or neglected, within the this act except as hereinafter provided, any person interested meaning of this act, the court may make an order committing therein may demand a jury; or a judge of his own motion may the child to the care of some suitable state institution or to the order a jury to try the case.

care of scme reputable citizen of good moral character, as proSec. 3. In counties having over 50,000 population the judges vided by law, or to the care of some association willing to receive of the district court shall, at such times as they shall determine, it

, embracing in its objects the purpose of caring for or obtaindesignate one or irore of their number, whose duty it shall be to ing homes for dependent or neglected children, which associahear all cases arising under this act, and such designation shall tion shall have been accredited as hereinafter provided. The be for a period of one year, or until otherwise ordered. A spe court may, when the health or condition of the child shall recial court room, to be designated as the juvenile court room quire it, cause the child to be placed in a public hospital or shall be provided for the hearing of such cases, and the finding institution for treatment or special care, or in a private hospital of the court shall be entered in a book or books to be kept for

or institution, which will receive it for like purpose without that purpose, and known as the "Juvenile Record," and the court charge. may for convenience be called the "Juvenile Court."

Sec. 8. In any case where the court shall award a child to Sec. 4. Any reputable person resident in the county, having the care of any association or individual in accordance with the knowledge of a child in his county who appears to be either provisions of this act, the child shall, unless otherwise ordered, neglected, dependent or delinquent, may file with the clerk of become a ward, and be subject to the guardianship of the assoa court having jurisdiction in the matter a petition in writing, ciation or individual to whose care it is committed. Such assosetting forth the facts verified by affidavit. The petition shall set ciation or individual shall have authority to place such child forth the name and residence of each parent, if known, and if in a faimly home, with or without indenture, and may be made both are dead or the residence unknown, then the name and party to any proceeding for the legal adoption of the child, and residence of the legal guardian, if known, or if not known, then may by its or his attorney or agent appear in any court where the name and residence of some near relative, if there be one, such proceedings are pending and assent to such adoption. And and his residence is known. It shall be sufficient that the affi such assent shall be sufficient to authorize the court to enter davit is upon information and belief.

the proper order or decree of adoption. Provided, however, Sec. 5. Upon the filing of the petition a summons shall be that when adoption proceedings for any such child or children issued by the clerk of the court requiring the person having are commenced in any other court than the court which origicustody or control of the child, or with whom the child may nally committed such child, then a copy of the petition in such be, to appear with the child at a place and time stated in adoption proceedings shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the summons, which time shall not be less than twenty ihe court which originally committed such child, at least thirty four (24) hours after service. Such summons shall be (30) days before any final decree of adoption shall be entered.

Such guardianship shall not include the guardianship of any to pass annually upon the fitness of every such association as may estate of the child.

receive, or desire to receive, children under the provisions of Sec. 9. In the case of a delinquent child the court may this act, and every such association shall annually, at such time as continue the hearing from time to time, and may commit the said board shall direct, make report thereto, showing its condichild to the care or custody of a probation officer, and may tion, management and competency to adequately care for such allow said child to remain in its own home, subject to the children as are, or may be committed to it, and such other facts visitation of the probation officer; such child to report as said board may require, and upon said board being satisfied to the probation officer as often as may be required, that such association is competent and has adequate facilities to and subject to be returned to the court for further or care for such children, it shall issue to the same a certificate other proceedings whenever such action may appear to be neces to that effect, which certificate shall continue in force for one sary; or the court may cause the child to be placed in a suitable (1) year, unless sooner revoked by said board, and no child family home, subject to the friendly supervision of a probation shall be committed to any such association, which shall not officer and the further order of the court; or it may authorize have received a certificate within fifteen (15) months next prethe child to be boarded out in some suitable family home, in case ceding the commitment. The court may, at any time, require provision is made by voluntary contribution or otherwise for from any association receiving or desiring to receive children the payment of the board of such child, until suitable provisions under the provisions of this act, such report, information and may be made for the child in a home without such payment; statements as the judge shall deem proper or necessary for his or the court may commit such child to the state training school, action, and the court shall in no case be required to commit a or the court may commit the child to any institution incorporated child to any association whose standing conduct or care of chilunder the laws in this state, that may care for delinquent chil dren or ability to care for the same, is not satisfactory to the dren, or provided by city or county suitable to the care of such court.

) children, or to any state institution which may be established Sec. 12. It shall be lawful for the parents, parent, guardian for the care of delinquent children. In no case shall a child or other person having the right to dispose of a dependent or be committed beyond his or her minority. A child committed neglected child to enter into an agreement with any associato such an institution shall be subject to the control of the board tion or institution incorporated under any public or private law of managers thereof, and the said board shall have power to of this state for the purpose of aiding, caring for or placing parole such child on such conditions as it may prescribe, and in home such children, and being approved as herein provided, ihe court shall, on the recommendation of the board, have power for the surrender of such child to such association or instituto discharge such child from custody whenever, in the judgment tion, to be taken and cared for by such association or instituof the court, his or her reformation is complete or the court tion or put into a family home. Such agreement may contain may commit the child to the care and custody of some association any and all proper stipulations to that end, and may authorize that will receive it, embracing in its objects the care of neglected the association or institution, by its attorney or agent, to appear or dependent children, and that has been duly accredited as in any proceeding for the legal adoption of such child, and conhereinafter provided. The district court may, in its discretion, sent to its adoption and the order of the court made upon such cause any delinquent child to be proceeded against in accordance consent shall be binding upon the child and its parents or with the laws that may be in force governing the commission guardian or other person the same as if such person were perof crimes and misdemeanors, or the violation of municipal, sonally in court and consented thereto whether made party to ordinance.

the proceeding or not. Sec. 10. In any case in which the court shall find a child Sec. 13. The court in committing children shall place them, neglected, dependent or delinquent, it may, in the same or sub as far as it deems practicable in the care and custody of some sequent proceeding, upon the parents of said child, or either of individual holding the same religious belief as the parents of them being duly summoned, or voluntarily appearing, proceed said child, or with some association which is controlled by perto inquire into the ability of such parent or parents to support sons of like religious faith of the parents of the said child. the child or contribute to its support, and if the court shall find Sec. 14 This act shall he liberally construed to the end that such parent or parents able to support the child or contribute its purpose may be carried out, to wit: That the care, custody thereto, the court may enter such order or decree as shall be, and discipline of the child shall approximate as nearly as may according to equity in the premises, and may enforce the same səse) je up pue 'susjed si! iq uəa!: aq pinoys yrym zeyi əq execution, or in any way in which a court of equity may enforce where it can properly be done, the child to be placed in an apits orders or decrees.

proved family home and become a member of the family by Sec. 11. All associations receiving children under this act legal adoption or otherwise. shall be subject to the same visitation, inspection and supervision Sec. 15. This act shall take effect and be in force from and by the state board of control as are the public charitable institu after the 1st day of June, 1905. tions of this state, and it shall be the duty of the said board Approved April 19, 1905,

CHILD-HELPING

A feature of the recent annual meeting of the conference of child-helping societies of Boston was the accounts of the work of the various branches of the city's children's institutions department. Of the parental school, the city's school for truants, it was related that most of the boys do not lack affection for their homes. Their misbehavior comes chiefly from their love of excitement and freedom. They are usually more or less abnormal, and the public schools did not supply the training suited to their natures and capacities. This indicates the importance of adapting education to the particular needs of the individual-a difficult

problem to solve.

The boys take delight in biography, stories of history and especially of daring and adventure. They take a keen interest in nature study. Few have really criminal tendencies. In one important respect, that of careful physical oversight, the boys at school have a great advantage over the mass of children. All come to school well fed, warmly clad, with a long night's sleep behind them; defective teeth have been filled, defective eyes provided with glasses. But many are made difficult material by the fact that before commitment they have been stupefied by narcotics, enfeebled from lack of nutrition or from heredity, "old in the knowledge of evil and woefully ignorant of good.” Nevertheless, the teachers do not regard them as bad boys. Manual

training develops honesty and carefulness among them.

In the work of the trustees for children in finding proper homes for neglected little ones the aim is to place them under circumstances that will make them as nearly as possible like children of good parents. The reported results are gratifying. Of the boys of the house of reformation at Rainsford island it was said that, while bad traits may be hereditary, environment and lack of proper training are more largely responsible for their evil conditions. It is encouraging that less than 6 per cent of the boys have had to be returned on account of bad behavior.

Few of us appreciate the value of these various instrumentalities for bettering the lot of unfortunately circumstanced children. Together they constitute a highly developed organism at work in our midst. The work deserves encouragement by all possible expressions of sympathy and appreciation. The economic service is inestimable. It is of immense value for a community when thousands of children are rescued from downward courses, and all the enormous waste thus, implied, and made good and useful members of society. Heredity from incompetent or vicious progenitors is a heavy load. But the work that a wholesome environment does for most children indicates that human nature is fundamentally better than it is often supposed to be. - Boston Herald.

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