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avoided. Familiarity with cases, and offenders reappearing, would much expedite work. The law being questioned, as to its harmony with the Constitution, was upheld by Supreme Court in a decision of Dec. 1903; so Probation Officers were not appointed until Feb. 1904. No place of detention for child offenders has yet been provided, as the Act contemplates. Hence they are often locked in jail, with adult prisoners. This has a most pernicious effect upon this class of unfortunates. Still much has been accomplished in checking evil among the youth. Not less than 80 per cent of those brought before the Court appear to have shown themselves entitled to rank among the industrious and progressive members of society. It would also appear that the age of 14 is the critical period in a boy's life; when he is full of energy, alert for any enterprise (good or bad) and most susceptible to outside influence. The period covered by this report is from Apr. 17, 1903 to Nov. 1, 1904. Number of Boys on Probation
250 Number of Girls
7 Number of Boys discharged
170 Cases settled outside of Court
HON. JOSEPH M, DEUEL, of the New York Children's Court.
ST. LOUIS, MO.
The Juvenile Court has completed its second year. With a rapidly increasing population, a large influx of foreigners of a not too desirable class, the number brought into this court grows less. Many boys, but a few months in the country, appeared as beggars, thieves and toughs, of miscellaneous sorts. It becomes us to know whence felons, and offenders of every rank come that the springs of vice and crime may be stopped. This court seems admirably equipped to deal with budding malefactors, as results attained show a force making for righteousness that deeply impresses the youth of the city.
The greater number of delinquents among the girls appears in foreign families. Out of school, sent abroad to find a bit of profit in the sale of papers, or what not, these poor girls meet low fellows, and are exposed to all sorts of degradation. They fear to return to their homes without the requisite amount of cash to please parental cupidity. But there are lynx-eyes watching such wanderers; and those betrayed by their own parents find among the agents of charitable societies shrewd and vigilant friends. Hence less of evil results than might be expected from terrible condition portrayed.
Statistics for the year 1904.
6714 Whole number of Girls
915 Cases of Larceny, Boys 1017, Girls 38
1055 Cases of Burglary, Boys 344, Girls 3
347 Cases of Homicide
Cases of Forgery Justice Deuel who presides in this Court may be reckoned as one of the barriers raised against the inflow of vice and crime in this great municipality. Having a kind heart to feel for youth, and a wise head to deal with them, his service here is of national importance. "One sinner destroyeth much good;" but 'here is a man equipped with means of turning many who are just entering sin, into better ways, paths of hope and blessing.
The Juvenile Court completed its first year in May, 1904 and this report covers that period. The work has been done at disadvantage, as no place of detention offers, outside a jail, or police station, save the House of Refuge. And that shelter is between three and four miles distant. Also there is a painful lack of interest on the part of benevolent people and the various charitable organizations of the city. The Mission Free School alone has given any real assistance to the Juvenile Court and the Probation Officers. The number of dependent children, compared with the delinquents is very small, being bur 13 per cent of the total. The colored population of the city is 5 per cent only of the whole; but 20 per cent of the children before the Court are colored. Only 10 per cent of the whole number reported are girls, and of these fully one-half were dependents. The reluctance shown by most people to prosecute girls has to do with the small number reported. Number of delinquents reported
1013 Disposed of by Court ..
815 Disposed of by Probation Officer
198 Placed on Probation
371 Sent to House of Refuge
187 Sent to other Institutions
78 Age of 14 years shows delinquents
256 Age of 15 years shows delinquents
323 Offences charged, Petit Larceny
283 Grand Larceny
14 Assault to kill
79 Other Institutions
10 Other Homes
8 Three judges have presided at times during the year. Judge Foster for four months, followed by Judges Kinealy and Mc. Donald. Number of sessions held
135 HERMAN HORCHERT, Probation Officer,
KANSAS CITY, MO.
The Juvenile Court began its sessions Apr. 17, 1903, when Hon. Jas. Gibson, one of the Circuit Court Judges, was selected to preside. Judges Teasdale, Slover and Douglas have also held sessions of the Court. It would seem to be for the best interests of this work that frequent changes in the presiding Judge be
INDIANAPOLIS The Juvenile Court law was passed in March, 1903; and the Court was opened in its present quarters in April of the same year. Volunteer Probation Officers have been selected with great care and much attention has been given to the home surroundings, and the family life of the delinquent children. When these are bad a child can be sent to a state institution until such time as a change has been effected in home life. The parents need a Probation Officer often as much, or more than the child; and not seldom do they profit by the opportunity afforded. The figures below cover the work of the Court for the year 1904. Number of children brought in
682 Number of children brought in second time 110 Number placed on Probation
250 Number sent to Institutions
124 Of this last number, to Ind. Boys' School 45 Of same, to Ind. Girls' School
9 Dependent children
90 Discharged, or continued indefinitely
216 It is worthy of note that of the 250 children under care of Volunteer Probation Officers but six have been returned to Court for bad conduct.
HERBERT JOINER, Clerk Juvenile Court.
FT. WAYNE, IND. Report of cases in the Juvenile Court for the year 1904. Total number of cases
3 Charges, Larceny
37 Assault and battery
2 Released on probation
40 Sent to Institutions
The Juvenile Court has taken cognizance the past year of a larger number of cases than formerly. These aggregate 8 to the thousand of the children in the city. The probation period is but three months and seems short to induct the child into good ways, and make him at all waywise in them. Poverty, intemperance and where these do not complicate matters hopelessly, yet the endless struggle for a bare subsistance so absorbs the time and attention of the parents that they cannot aid the good work of the probation officers in their unpaid tasks. It is suggested that the parents need the probation officer as much as the children. Further delinquency is caused oftener by parental neglect, misfortune or vice than all other causes combined. Statistics of the year 1904. Whole number of cases
295 Committed to Institutions of all kinds
per week) ...
764 Number paroled
564 Released on payment of fine
72 Sentence suspended
292 Charges, Larceny
139 Highway robbery
12 JAMES P. SIN NOTT, Clerk Children's Court.
Habits of children, cigarettes
16 Neighborhood conditions, Bad
7 Occupation of head of family, Laborer
24 Skilled worker
3 The chief causes of delinquency appear to be, bad companions, bad home conditions, lack of parental control, and cigarettes.
JESSE PATTON, Probation Officer.
PHILADELPHIA The work of the Juvenile Court for 1904 is summarized as follows: Delinquents
The Juvenile Court was established June, 1902. The period covered by this report is the year 1904. Total number of cases
2128 Paroled to Truant Officers
John A. ALBURN, Chief Probation Officer.
1092 Number of Boys
993 Number of Girls
99 Number of White children
949 Number of Colored
143 Number 16 years and over
143 Brought before Court Second time
67 Brought before Court Third time
5 Brought before Court Fourth time
1 Those coming before Court more than twice were sent to the House of Refuge.
Arthur D. BRENNER, Clerk.
LOS ANGELES, CAL. The Juvenile Court under Judge Wilbur makes rigid inquiry into the circumstances of family, schooling and associates of the juvenile offender, that if possible a cause may be found, and a remedy applied to fit each one. A case is nearly always continued that a careful study may be made of the disposition, habits and mental and physical characteristics, and when these are understood a decision can be reached such as will preclude injustice to the child, or to its relatives. The statistics for the year 1904 are as follows: Number of children arraigned in Court
216 Number of Boys in above
185 Number of Girls in above
31 Boys on Probation
146 Girls on Probation
21 Boys sent to Whittier State School
16 Girls sent to Whittier State School
5 Returned to homes
15 Cases dismissed
13 Offences charged, Burglary
under care of probation officers and with good result in most cases.
More power for the Court in dealing with both dependent and delinquent children, and the parents of such is an apparent want; and to this public attention should be called. The parents' accountability for delinquency, and the protection of the boy or girl from whatever evil in the home or the environment menaces their future, these things are of first importance. Advances in method of treatment of the little ones are grand omens and give assurance that soon the high plane of kindliness, firmness and wisdom will be reached.
STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR 1904. Number of cases before the Court
354 Boys charged with Larceny, number cases.. 630 Burglary
42 Girls charged with Immorality, cases.
55 Disposition of cases, Boys Paroled.
685 Girls Paroled
226 J. J. McManaman, Chief Probation Officer.
Parental conditions, Both parents living
86 Mother only ...
42 Father only
28 Parents separated
28 Age of greatest delinquency, 15 years, number 65
A. C. Dodds, Chief Probation Officer.
ATLANTA, GA. The Juvenile Court here is in operation under municipal ordinance, since April, 1904. Many towns might follow the good example here set, where a state law cannot be had. A good detention ward has been provided at a safe removal from criminal quarters in the police barracks. While this Court is not planted on the desired broad, and permanent basis; yet it has well begun a most important work, and will no doubt develop to the limits of the situation. Judge Broyles says this Court is no longer an experiment but a success; and in this Chief John W. Ball, of the Police Dep't and Probation Officer Gloer heartily concur. The youth, under 16 years before this Court from April 5 to October 28, 1904 were as follows: White boys
The Juvenile Court was instituted in July, 1904; and the cases heard in six months, to January, 1905 are tabulated below. We find that placing the delinquents on their own parol and requiring them to report to the Court every Saturday morning is resulting in decided good. We aim to make this meeting somewhat attractive by short lectures, etc. Number brought before the Court
117 On parol
73 Discharged, as reformed ...
18 Boys sent to State Industrial School
9 Girls sent to State Industrial School
3 Sent to County Children's Homes
6 Sent to homes in the country
THE JUVENILE COURT IN OMAHA
The necessary bill having passed the legislature, and been signed by the governor of the state, this good city of Omaha is at once to join the advanced rank of cities providing in the best way for the restriction of evil, and the cultivating of virtue among the youth. Many of the best features of the laws else. where operative for the benefit of 'children are found in this bill. A chief probation officer, with two assistants, a man and a woman, is provided for at liberal pay. A house of detention is to be provided, parental responsibility insisted on, home influences and surroundings carefully weighed, and thus is launched this most hopeful of movements in another great state. The children, the hope and the treasure of this noble commonwealth, are to be wisely and kindly safe-guarded as they move toward the arena of destiny.
NEW STATUTES IN FOUR STATES
The Juvenile Court was established in 1899. Since that time 6,000 delinquent cases have been filed. These figures will impress all who are interested in our youth, our city or our common humanity. These thousands coming at the impressible period into the hands of Judges and probation officers whose one task it is to save them from their follies and from themselves, and to launch them on life's sea with chart and compass, buoyant and hopeful,—if this does not stir the heart of the philanthropist and patriot, what can do so? These little mortals coming before the man on the bench, that seat of power, hearing his sage counsel, are deeply moved; the probation officer then takes up the task of their betterment with parents, surroundings and themselves also. If parents think food, clothing and shelter fill the circle of needs they will be shown better. If bad groups of youth are working mischief they are broken up, then a.channel is open for good to flow into these lives. Nearly a thousand children were sent to institutions with the express understanding that if the parents stop drinking, clean up, go to work and show the Court that they will take proper care of them, their little ones will be returned to them. There is the machinery of justice hitched to the car of civilization. Where children are committed to institutions, parents are often put
Judge B. B. Lindsey sends for the Record information concerning statutes passed in the states of Washington, Utah, Nebraska and Kansas. The Nebraska law is especially good being largely copied from Colorado. The broad definition of delinquency is a fine feature, and the adult delinquent law contains some features improving on the Col.- Act, for instance it seeks to avoid constitutional objection in limiting suspended sentences to a definite time. No doubt the presence and counsel of Judge Lindsey aided materially these satisfactory enactments. Senators Mockett of Lincoln and Thomas of Omaha introduced the bill. In counties having over 40,000 population the district court has jurisdiction, and in the absence of that court the county court has authority in the matter. Three paid probation officers (one of them must be a woman) are provided in counties having a population of 50,000 or more; the chief to have $1,200 per
annum and the assistants $3 per day for time employed. Mogey people find a change of surroundings necessary that the little Bernstein, chief probation officer for Omaha, is a power among ones may be removed from evil companions they are at a great the boys, having done much for them in the way of newsboys' disadvantage. If they have not the means for this they are club, lunch-room, etc.
compelled to look on and see their children ruined because the A copy of the Washington act is not at hand but it is under- great state of Texas has no institution where she can place her stood that the adult delinquent feature is embodied in it as imperiled youth. A few weeks ago a little girl was taken out passed.
of a buggy drunk; girls 13 to 15 range the streets at all hours The Kansas bill lacks the desirable breadth in its defining of of the night and all we can do is to reprimand them. On Frijuvenile delinquency and fails to include adult delinquency, an day night with Officer Blackwell at the Opera House we corralled omission much to be regretted. The Kansas laws have for 20 26 boys from 9 to 15 years of age. But 4 of them went to school, years forbidden placing children in jail; it is now to be hoped 5 had fathers living and 4 neither parent. In any large city of that will be enforced. The probate judge in each county pre- Texas you will find children ranging the streets at all hours of sides in the juvenile court. He may receive fees as additional the night. The police are powerless because there is no place compensation for this work. He may designate one or more to put them when arrested. A Juvenile Court and a House of probation officers at a salary not to exceed $2 per day for time Detention managed by the right men would do more to prevent spent; and in cities of 15,000 the compensation shall not exceed crime than any other method I could suggest. In Fort Worth $3 per day, to be paid from the public treasury. In Kansas and Nebraska where the case is heard by the
31 boys under 16 were fined and put to work with the road
gang. But boys of from 9 to 15 should be taught all that is county or probate court an appeal is allowed to the district court. One feature of the Col. law adopted in Kansas is the right to
good, true and beautiful; impressions made then will endure transfer a felony case to the criminal court.
through life. If the parents do not take care of the children
the state should do so. A copy of the Utah law has not yet come to hand; but we hear that one novel feature appears in that the judge of the
Judge C. P. Smith of Dallas says, We in free America with Juvenile count does not have to be a lawyer, and he is
all our institutions, our boasted civilization, and much vaunted appointed in large cities by the mayor and two other officers.
wisdom have never yet been able to come to a satisfactory conclusion as to how we can metamorphose a street Arab into a useful citizen. This problem must be solved and speedily or
all we boast now or expect to acquire of this world's blessings BOSTON AND THE JUVENILE COURT will fade into utter insignificance. In our police and criminal
courts we find mere children charged with all manner of The Father's and Mother's Club in this Athens of America offences, and yet with all our modern court machinery aided by lately had three legal experts discussing the above subject. Little long experience, we have utterly failed to check the onward favor was shown the idea of a separate court for the children. march of this small army of lawbreakers to the goal of the One says: “We all have stolen apples and violated city ordi- finished and often polished criminal. To dally with this quesnances. These crimes against the laws do not involve moral tion is permitting a cancerous growth to endanger the very turpitude.” They do not necessarily lead boys into real crime. vitals of our republic. Who in the throngs rushing along our That is a serious matter. When you have a boy in court for arteries of trade, where all are striving to gain high seats at stealing the judge “cannot favor a boy more than he does a man. the right hand of the money god, has a moment to pause and We are not there to reform. Our second duty is to punish." reflect that these urchins darting here and there by day and by If one may interrupt this flow of wisdom from the Boston judge, night are a charge upon the public, and that the public must a mere layman would like to say that this same hard, unfeeling in common justice, decency and humanity gather them and grasp, making no account of ignorance, inexperience or what not train them in industry and virtue lest they find tuition in the of little children, dealing with them as with hardened criminals is streets in ways of crime and sorrow? Court records show that almost worthy of a Herod. It is responsible for the slaughter 75 per cent of heinous offences, that shock our communities, of a vast host of little ones. Another thought Juvenile Courts are committed by those coming up from the ranks of neglected might deal more wisely with arrested children; if so he would childhood. There is no place in Texas to confine juvenile depfavor them. But the Clubs can do better than seek the establish- redators free from the contamination of older offenders. The ment of these courts. They can use influence to change the average municipal Bastile in the state is a disgrace to our boasted attitude of parents; they should not be patting delinquents on
civilization; while many of our county jails are no better. No the back, making them by the way they look at the judge and regard whatever is shown in their construction to the laws of the police, heroes when they are criminals. It would be a good
sanitation or decency. While it is bad enough to incarcerate thing to have one judge devote all his time to the children if in such places grown persons it is inhuman to deposit these the right man was chosen. Another opposed Juvenile Courts atoms of humanity in cheerless grated cells where their little for two reasons; the cost and the impracticability.
lives receive a blight and chill that remain with them always. Thus Boston's tapers burn exceeding pale; it is better to turn But what can be done with erring and incorrigible children? toward many shining ones elsewhere.
Probably the first attempt to recognize the seriousness of the situation and apply the remedy is now pending before our legislature in the shape of a bill providing for a Juvenile Court.
It aims to soften the method of dealing with juvenile offenders, THE JUVENILE COURT IN TEXAS properly dispose of the abandoned child, and the street beggar,
while also arranging for the removal of children from vicious It bodes well for the future of that imperial state that the or incompetent parents. Delinquent children after trial can be interests of the children, that is the citizens of the next genera: committed to some institution, or some reputable citizen, but tion are to be carefully safeguarded. Judge J. B. Marmion cannot be confined in jail or police station. A Board of Visitaof the Houston Post says, I have been asked if this city has tion shall inspect all places where children are confined and make grown so that a Juvenile Court is a necessity? (I will venture due report. How any one having at heart the best interests to say that many who have grown up in these cities do not of Texas can object to the passage of this bill is past comprerealize their size. Here we have in Texas several cities of 70,- hension. The Juvenile Court is working satisfactorily in over 000 others of 40,000, etc. In our courts the rich and poor, the a dozen states, and has passed the experimental stage. No more old and young all come together.) It is surprising to see how important measure is before the legislature this session: it should young children take to crime. I have had them before me only by all means become a law. 8 or 9 years of age charged with theft, burglary, and assault to commit murder. Several nights ago at 3 in the morning five little fellows from 8 to 9 were arrested burglarizing a fruit stand on Texas ave. When brought before me what could I do with them? Should I fine them and throw them in jail with hardened criminals? I sent for their parents. Only two had both parents, one father being an engineer; the other employed in the fire department. Two of the tots had no parents and ate and slept where they could. The other was the son of a widow, had to make a living the best he might. Not one of the five went to school.
The same day two little fellows were brought in, caught by the police at the Grand Central depot. One of them had bought tickets to Beaumont; his grandfather had given him a $5 bill to get changed and he, a boy of 9 years, thought he would like to see the world. His grandfather asked me to lock him up. as he was beyond his control. If the middle class and poorer
ONCE A HOMELESS BABY.
Court Record the country were furnished principally by the Juvenile
What is the reason for such remarkable interest in T. D. HURLEY, Editor, 79 Dearborn Street, Chicago, Ill.
this branch of jurisprudence? Is it a fad, or is it a sign
of genuine interest in child life? We are disposed to
judge this interest as but another outcropping of that Boston Office, 147 Milk St., Boston, Mass.
larger movement in the charity world, that which is de
manding of social workers possession of an altruism The JUVENILE COURT RECORD is published monthly, except in the month of July. Single copies, 10 cents. Subscription price, $i per year. that has only the welfare of the unfortunate at heart. Entered at Postoffice, Chicago, as second-class matter.
That movement intimates that not always have we looked The JUVENILE COURT RECORD is the official organ of and published by the Visitation and Aid Society and will deal with social problems in
to causes of poverty and crime and concluded that many child-saving work and give an account of the workings of the Juvenile Court.
thousands of our fellow men, especially the children, have NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS can commence with current number.
had barely a chance to develop the normal life, not to WHEN RENEWING, always give the name of the postoffice to which your paper is now being sent. Your name cannot be found on our books speak of “the higher life.” It calls for justice, not for unless this is done. Four weeks are required after the receipt of money by us before the date opposite your naine on your paper, which shows to what pampering aid that is blind to the morrow's need. It time your subscription is paid, can be changed. This will show that your remittance was received.
does not plant its flag on the supposed bulwark, “the poor CHANGE OF ADDRESS.-Always give both your old and your new address when you ask us to change.
are always with us" and refuse to take hope for better PAYMENT FOR THE PAPER, when sent by mail, should be made in a things both economically and morally. postoffice money order, bank check or draft, or an express money order. When neither of these can be procured, send 2-cent United States postage The Juvenile Court says to the child before it: "You stamps; only this kind can be received.
LETTERS should be addressed and checks and drafts made payable to have violated a law, but that does not make you a crimJUVENILE COURT RECORD, 79 Dearborn Street, Chicago.
inal. You need to be directed to do as many right and ADVERTISING RATES made known on application.
good things as possible so that you cannot think of doing OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY-1904-5.
To help you, here is a probation officer T. D. HURLEY, President.
who will be your friend, who will study your home and James F. Bowers, Treasurer.
change things if necessary so that you will not be pulled Emma Quinlan, Recording Secretary,
down when you want to climb upward in your young May Mallanny, Corresponding Secretary.
life. Take hope. You have the making of a man or
woman in you and that possibility shall not be destroyed Esther J. Mercer, Financial Secretary.
by placing you in a cell and behind high walls where Heads of Departments
the hardened offenders are ready to make you one of Finance
them. Somebody is interested in you."
This is preventive charity of a high order.
It is pouring water in at the top of the barrel but it
.T. D. Hurley
stops first the flow at the stop cock. It is effort of the Institutions
kind that counts, and not merely palliative.
It has been well said by Judge Hurd who drew up
the Illinois law, that “The probation officer is the right
JUVENILE COURT MOVEMENT.
PROBATION WORK. The Juvenile Court movement had its first fruit in
There are now as far as is known, 26 Juvenile Courts 1899. For some time previous to that, propaganda work in the United States. Practically all the large cities have in its favor was being done in different parts of the coun
them and public opinion all over is demanding their try notably by the Visitation and Aid Society which
establishment where they do not already exist. The reintroduced a bill in the Illinois Legislature in 1891.
ports of a number of them, which we print in this issue
indicate that thousands of children have in the past year Chicago is proud of the distinction of having established
come to their notice. They have extended to these unthe first court and of having ever since furnished an fortunates, the guiding hand of a parent, the admoniobject lesson to many other cities of how to treat tion of the teacher, the encouragement of a big brother; child delinquents. The movement has spread rapidly
this is in substitution in very many cases, for the old in the less than six years of its existence until now n'ne
time branding with the criminal's mark by sentence and
commitment behind iron bars. teen states have Juvenile Court laws and twenty-six cities
So young is this movement that one dare not speak have the courts. Vany more commun ties are agitating much about results. Statist.cs are not mature enough the question and it will be only a short time when we and will not be unt'l a generation hence. But if read shall see in every city of fair size a tribunal separate from between the lines these reports show us a vast amount of that for adults.
"resuit-making'' endeavor, of activ'ty of the finest sort, The facts and statistics which were used in the argu
because dealing with human beings, with human beings
in the making, full of possibilities for helpful and useful ments by the various people advocating the establishment
life or destroying and useless life. of Juvenile Courts in different cities and other parts of These accounts bespeak enthus'asm on the part of the