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after provided." "Accredited as hereinafter provided” refers to section 13, which provides that associations receiving children under the act shall obtain a certificate from the State Board of Charities; and that "no child shall be committed to such association which shall not have received such certificate within 15 months next preceding."
The object of this legislation is to prevent the placing of children with irresponsible and badly managed institutions.
The certificate of the State Board of Charities is issued when the Board is "satisfied that such association is competent, and has adequate facilities to
care for such children.” A Neglected Family.
This provision seems to have been
overlooked by many judges, and counthe probation system, is fully as great in ficer, and by his friendly supervision ty supervisors who have continued to the outlying counties as in the city of could often prevent the unnecessary commit children to associations not holdChicago. The law provides a simple breaking up of the home.
ing the certificate of the State Board of and definite method of determining
Charities. The Board of Public Chariwhether a child is dependent or delin- DO NOT BREAK UP FAMILIES ties has not been technical in this matquent and makes suitable provision for
ter but has promptly issued certificates the child when the decision is reached.
to all reputable Associations which have
It has been the policy of the Juvenile applied. The law does not compel the PROVISIONS OF THE LAW. Court in Chicago, and I believe in many judges to accept the approval of the I desire to call your attention to the avoid, as far as possible, the breaking provides : of the county courts of the state, to State Board of Public Charities, but it
(Section 13) that:
"The following important features of the law
up of families. Children should never Court may require from any associaas applied to dependent children: Sec; be separated from a good mother if it tion receiving or desiring to receive tion i defines dependent and neglected
can possibly be avoided; blood is children under the provisions of this children. It will be noticed that a child thicker than water, and a good mother Act, such reports, information and statemay be defined as dependent or neglect- can do better for her children than any ment as the Judge shall deem proper; ed which “has not proper parental care,
one else. I am not a believer in out- and the Court shall in no case be reor guardianship, or whose home by reason of neglect, cruelty or depravity on
door relief, but it is wrong for a family quired to commit a child to any asso
to be broken up simply to save money ciation, whose standing, conduct, or the part of parent or guardian, or other
for the county. If a mother is fit to care of the children, or ability to care person in whose care it may,be, is an bring up her children it is wiser to pro- for the same is not satisfactory to the unfit place for such a child."
It will be observed that the benefits vide enough out-door relief to enable court." of the law are not confined to children should be sent to the new state Home her to keep them. If these children
It is a matter of great importance in of poverty, but a child may be “neglect- at St. Charles or to an industrial schoo1 selecting such associations to be sure ed” though the parents may have am- they would cost the public at least $10 such as to secure the best interests of
that their methods and management are ple means. Section 22, of the law, provides that if “The court shall find per month for each child; whereas, an
the child, because the law provides, child neglected, dependent or delin- appropriation of $10 each month to the quent, it may proceed to inquire into mother for three or four years would less otherwise ordered, become a ward the ability of the parents to support until the children are old enough to help the association,” which shall have auenable her to keep her family together
and be subject to the guardianship of an order requiring them to provide be placed out in family homes but it thority to indenture the child or to confor the child."
It will be noSection 6 provides for the appoint- with humanity or good public policy ticed that this gives entire control
does not seem to be consistent, either sent to its adoption. ment of probation officers by the court, to take children from a good mother ani of the child, during its minority, pensation of probation officers from the place them in the home of some other to such association. This control of the
child ought not to be lightly granted to public treasury. Probation officers may good woman.
every organization that comes along. be used either in the case of depend
It is important also to know that the ent children or of delinquent children.
association has the financial resources The duty of the probation officer is: The Juvenile Court law provides, which will enable it to discharge its first, to make such investigation as the (sections 7 and 9) that the court may obligations to the child. Experience judge may desire; second, to be present make an order committing the child shows that it costs from $10.00 to in court to represent the interests of the to some suitable state institution, or to $15.00 per year to exercise proper care child ; third, to watch over and befriend the care of some responsible citizen, or and supervision of a child after it is the child after the proceedings of the to the care of some industrial school, placed in a home. That means for a court. In many cases the county su- or to the care of some association, will- child placed at the age of six years an pervisor would, doubtless, be the most ing to receive it, "which association expenditure of from $120.00 to $180.00 suitable person to act as probation of- shall have been accredited as hercin- by the time it reaches the age of 18
years, when the supervision generally WHAT TO DO WITH COUNTY First: The “State Public School terminates. Many child saving organ
System"-About 30 years ago the legisizations have gone to pieces after a few
lature of Michigan passed a bill for the years, " leaving the wards whom they child should be cared for in his own dependent children. As has been already suggested, the creation of a state public school for
This school retected.
home and by his own parents if practi- ceives children of sound mind and body
cable. It is not only against public pol- between the ages of 2 and 14 years who INDUSTRIAL AND MANUAL
icy to take children from good parents, would otherwise have to go to the poorTRAINING SCHOOLS.
but it is also against public policy to house. The Act prohibited keeping The Juvenile Court Law leaves un- relieve parents unnecessarily of the care children of this class in any poorhouse. impaired the laws regulating the in- of unwanted children, unless it is clear. It provided that the state public school dustrial schools for dependent girls and ly for the interest of the child. In should not be a permanent asylum for manual training schools for dependent many cases by admonition of the Judge children but only a temporary abiding boys. The industrial schools for girls and by the wise, friendly offices of judi- place until they can be placed out in are located at Chicago, Evanston, Peo- cious probation officers homes which are carefully selected family homes, where ria, Bloomington, and Decatur. They undesirable can be renovated and im- they are watched over by agents of the are designed for girls whose parents proved, so as to make them safe and state public school and also by a county are in temporary distress and are likely proper places for the child. This is to be able to care for them again, and true particularly of truant and unruly county agents receive a per diem of $3
agent, appointed in each county. These also for girls of the older class who are children. The experience of the Ju- per day, not exceeding $100 per year not adapted for placement in family venile Court of Chicago has shown that and the agents pay their own travhomes, but need industrial training in thousands of such children can be eling expenses. This system proved order to fit them to protect themselves reclaimed and kept from becoming a
very successful, diminishing pauperism and to earn an honest living. The In- public charge through the agency of the and juvenile crime and emptying the dustrial School Act provides that girls Juvenile Court and its probation offi- poorhouses of healthy children. The committed to industrial schools by the cers; and the good effects are not con- system has been adopted by Minnesota, Courts shall be paid for at the rate of fined to the children only, but have been Wisconsin, Colorado, and some other $10.00 per month from the County almost equally noticeable in the im- states and is generally approved.
provement of the character and conduct
Even in the case of illegitimate chil-
the best child-saving agencies to insist
that the mother shall meet her maternal
through the nursing period. In this
way there has been a great reduction
in the death rate of these unfortunate
Second: State Homes for Soldiers' Treasury during their stay in the affection for the child as to cause un
necessary suffering when the inevitable Orphans—The states of Ohio, Indiana, school.
Illinois, Iowa and Kansas maintain The Manual Training Schools for time of parting comes ; but it may be a Illinois, Iowa boys are located at Glenwood and Fee good thing for the mother to suffer for homes for the orphans of soldiers of the hanville, near Chicago. The Manual her child. It is objected that the pres- war of the rebellion. These homes are Training School Act provides that restoration of the mother to respecta- children, as many of the children spend
ence of the child is a hindrance to the really state boarding schools for such Counties may enter contract with these
bility ; but can you restore a mother to their vacations at home. The state of at such rate as may be mutually agreed good womanhood by elicouraging her Kansas has enlarged the scope of the
as to upon. This rate is usually $10.00 per which can be put upon a human being? admit dependent children of all classes month. The Juvenile Court Law provides It does not follow that there must be and has become practically a state pub
public exposure if the mother is to care lic school for dependent children. This also for the commitment of delinquent for her child temporarily. She can be example might well be followed by the children to the St. Charles home for Boys and the Training School for Girls institution or in a good family home who have responsible relatives should Boys and the Training School for Girls safely sheltered with her child in a good other states mentioned. Those children at Geneva. When children are so committed they have to be delivered at the
until she has done what she could to be returned to their care and those who State Institution at the expense of the
meet her obligation, and then can go have not should be placed in family out into the world without exposure.
homes. County; after that the entire expense is borne by the State, without charge to METHODS OF PUBLIC CARE OF
Third: State Institutions for Dethe county.
Reform Both these institutions
linquent Children — State
CHILDREN. have limited accommodations and it is
Schools, State Training Schools, etc. necessary to ascertain from the Super- Several different methods of care of Nearly every northern state has an inintendent whether the quota of the dependent children by public authori- stitution of this class for boys and most county is full before sending a child. ties are followed in different states: of them have a corresponding institu
tion for girls. The early reform schools homes, but in Massachusetts and New THE POWER OF COUNTY were juvenile prisons in which the dis- Jersey they go directly into family
SUPERVISORS. cipline approximated to that of a prison, homes. Massachusetts formerly main
State legislation on this subject is not but the prison features have nearly dis- tained temporary receiving homes, simappeared. Most of these state schools ilar to the state public schools of Mich- indispensable. Each Board of County for delinquent children are without igan and other states, but the Boarding Supervisors can adopt a resolution probolts, bars and walls. It is found that Out system has rendered such receiv- hibiting the keeping of such children when a wall is built around a boy he ing homes unnecessary. The work of in the poorhouse, and can enforce it by straightway tries to climb over it, but these state placing out agencies does not requiring either that mothers with chiiwhen the gates are thrown open and differ essentially from that of the state dren above the age of two years shali the window bars are removed he loses public schools, except in the matter of leave the poorhouse with their children his desire to run away. In the best of the temporary care in the institution.
or that provision shall be made for the these institutions the cottage plan pre- Sixth: Care of Children in County mother and child by outdoor relief or vails ; good industrial training is given, Poorhouses—The keeping of children that temporary provision shall be made a sense of honor and responsibility is in county poorhouses is generally rec- tion or family; or if the mother is unfit
for the children in some suitable insticultivated. The inmates return to their ognized as an unmixed evil. The maown homes or are placed out in selected jority of the inmates of county poor shall be filed under the Juvenile Court
to have the care of them, that a petition family homes, after a brief stay, usu- houses are shiftless, and ignorant, many law and the children shall be cared for ally less than 2 years, but are released of them are vicious, profane and ob- law and the children shall be cared for
as provided for in that Act. on parole, subject to the friendly over- scene. Many poorhouses contain also, sight of a state agent. This plan has insane, idiotic and epileptic patients. A Seventh : Care of Children in County been highly successful, especially when child brought up in such surrcundings Children's Homes In the states of efficient state agents have been em- is inevitably corrupted by liis environ- Ohio, Indiana and Connecticut, homes ployed. In Minnesota and Iowa the work of the state agent is admirably performed by women.
Fourth: The Boarding Out System -In Massachusetts the plan of institutional care for children formerly prevailed. The state had a large reform school containing more than 800 boys. In 1866 the plan was adopted of boarding out both dependent and delinquent children at state expense.
This plan has been followed ever since. In 1866 the state had 2,000 children under its care, of whom 1437, seventy per cent, were in institutions, and 428 were out in families. In 1893 the state had 4,409 children under its care, of whom 1,933 were boarded in families at state expense, 1,859 were in family homes without board being paid and 642 (only 14 per cent) were in institutions. The plan of boarding out children in family homes is practiced also to a limited extent in the state of New York, and is practiced by private societies in Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania. This plan has the advantage of bringing children into the natural atniosphere of the family home. It costs no more than keeping children in in
“The Fumily in the Woods." stitutions and it saves the cost and the
The Illinois Children's Home and Aid Society received and cared for seven of these children. interest on lands, buildings, furniture, etc. It is maintained that the children ment and is likely to become a pauper,
ment and is likely to become a pauper, for dependent children are maintained do much better in this way than in in- a criminal or a prostitute.
by the several counties. Ohio and Institutions. Fifth: Placing Out and Supervision The most progressive states, like diana have each about 40 county homes.
This system was at first regarded with of Children by State Boards In Indi- Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Mich
great favor, but it has not given satisana, Massachusetts and New Jersey, igan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, passed faction. The tendency is for each counState Boards of Charities, or ""State laws many years ago, forbidding the
ty home to grow in size and to accumuBoards of Guardians” have authority keeping of children of sound mind and late children who ought to be placed in to place children in family homes and body in poorhouses. It is to the dis- homes; consequently there has arisen a to maintain supervision over them. In credit of Illinois that we have no such strong reaction against the county home the District of Columbia, a District laws on our Statute books. The Ju- system. The original intention was that Board of Public Guardians exercises venile Court law, as originally drawn, the county officials should place these
In Indiana the chil- contained such a provision, but it was children in family homes but this plan dren received temporary care in county struck out by a legislative committee. las not worked well for the reason that
it locates children too near the place of less people often object to the cruelty that this system tends to multiply untheir birth and makes them too easily of preventing intercourse between the necessary institutions, to accumulate accessible to relatives and friends, who parent and the child; but if the parents thousands of children who ought to be interfere with the children and their are fit to continue communication and in family homes and to "Institutionalfoster parents and cause them to lose association with the child then the child ize" children so as to deprive them of their new homes. The care of the chil- ought not to be taken from them, but independence and to make them helpless dren in the Home is very expensive and should either remain with them or be and dependent. It is claimed also that finally many of them have to be placed temporarily cared for until they are the system imposes large unnecessary ir. homes. able to again receive it.
burdens upon the tax payers, In the state of Illinois there is, I be- We find that those who are engaged lieve, only one county home, namely, in the work of placing children in by the friends of the system that it saves
On the other hand, it is maintained that in Vermilion County, and there is homes agree almost unanimously that it no apparent tendency to adopt the coun- is impractical to allow parents to know is impractical to allow parents to know money for the tax payer because pri
vate beneficience provides the buildings ty home system. the whereabouts of their children after
and pays a part of the running expensEighth: Placing Children in Family placement,
es; that better care is secured because Homes by County and Town Officials
Ninth: Care of Children in Private the private institutions are free from the - The plan of binding out or apprentic- Institutions at Public Expense-In New control of partisan politics and enjoy ing children, or of placing them out York, California, Pennsylvania and the unpaid services of the best men anć without indenture by county and town- other states children are kept in orphan women as directors. It is claimed that ship officers is an ancient one in the asylums, children's homes, etc., which through this system parents who are United States. It is authorized by the are owned by private societies, but are in temporary distress can have their Laws of Illinois, and is practiced in supported by grants from the Public children cared for until their difficulties some counties of this state. The plan Treasury. In New York appropriations are removed, when families can be reof binding out or indenturing children are made from the state, county and cit; united. has gradually fallen into disfavor and treasuries for the support of children
The subsidy system prevails extenhas been entirely discarded by many of in private institutions to the amount of sively on the Atlantic Coast and the the best placing out agencies. The Illi- nearly three millions of dollars annu
Pacific Coast, but is not widely spread nois Children's Home and Aid Society ally. In California appropriations are in the Central States. Here in Illinois formerly indentured many children, but
we have the beginnings of the Subsidy we found that the indenture protected
System. In the city of Chicago, $44,neither the child, the well meaning fos
000 are appropriated by Cook County ter parents, nor the Society, and that
for two industrial schools and two manit often stood in the way of protecting
ual training schools, and $12,000 to a a child against the injustice or the cruel
foundling asylum making a total of ty of the foster parents. The plan of
$56,000. Other counties appropriate placing out children by county authori
to industrial schools, manual training ties, either with or without indenturing,
schools and placing out societies for presents serious difficulty: (1) It is of
the care of pauper children, perhaps ten embarrassing to the county officer
$14,000 more, making a total of $70,000 to decide for or against the application
or $75,000. of people in his own county. He may
The difference in conditions between feel that the home is not a proper one,
New York and Illinois is very marked. without being able to allege specific
We have in Illinois some 40 or 45 soreasons, and if he refuses the child he
cieties and institutions, containing all provokes the hostility of the applicant
told about 6,000 children, which are and his friends. (2) If it becomes nec
cared for at a total expense of $600,essary to remove the child' after it is
000 or $700,000. New York with a placed, local jealousies and enmities are No Trouble to find a nume fur One Like This. population one-half larger than Illinois aroused and the child is crushed be
has a large array of Children's Institutween the upper and nether millstone. made from the state treasury for the tions, containing about 30,000 children, (3) If the child has vicious or disreput- support of orphans and half orphans in who are maintained at an annual cost able parents or relatives, they readily private institutions to the amount of of about $4,000,000. California, with discover its location, and are almost cer- about four hundred and fifty thousand
about four hundred and fifty thousand a population less than that of the City tain to make trouble sooner or later. dollars annually. In Pennsylvania large of Chicago is caring for more than 4,It is touching to observe the way in appropriations are made in like manuer, 000 children at an annual cost of more which a lazy, worthless father, or a and smaller amounts are appropriated than $500,000. Those who oppose the vicious mother will revive their parental in many of the other states.
Subsidy System maintain that the exaffection when the boy or girl becomes This plan of subsidizing public insti- cess in numbers and expense in New old enough to earn something. (4) If tutions from the county treasury has York and California is due to the prevthe child remains unmolested by parents been bitterly attacked and warmly de- alence of the Subsidy System. or relatives the story of their disrepute fended. Objection is made that it is Tenth: The Care of Children by often follows the child to cloud and against public policy and the fact is Placing-out Societies, with Assistance embitter his later years.
pointed out that many state constitu- from the Public Treasury – This plan In view of these considerations, it is tions forbid such appropriations from is pursued in New York, Pennsylvania, our practice, in the majority of cases, state treasuries. For many years the Maryland and Oregon through Chilto remove the child from its early en- system of national subsidies to private dren's Aid Societies and in the states vironment and to select a home at such institutions for Indian children has been of the Union through the twenty-six a distance and with such secrecy as to attacked and Congress finally passed Children's Home societies, which are protect it from these dangers. Thought- laws to abolish this system. It is claimed from the federation known as the Na
tional Children's Home Society. The ing children in family homes but we When the child has been successfully National Children's Home Society is a do many other things for children. We placed in a home, the expense is just federation of 26 state societies, extend- try first to find out what ought to be begun. The society has become responing from New Jersey on the East, to done and then to do that thing or to sible for the care of the child during its California on the West. Of these So- get someone else to do it if possible. minority. If the placement proves uncieties the oldest and largest is the Illi
successful, the child must be received
METHOD OF SELECTING HOMES. nois Children's Home and Aid Society,
back, kept in the receiving home until which has cared for 5,300 children in
Applications are received on a printed a new home is found, and replaced. the past 21 years, has 2,200 children form in the applicant's own hand writ- Then the child is to be visited from time now under its guardianship in family ing, stating church relations, location, to time and correspondence is to be homes and handles over 500 children financial ability, kind of child wanted, maintained. Sometimes legal expenses yearly in its placing out department.
etc. If the application seems promising, are incurred, amounting to from $5.00
confidential letters are sent to at least to $100.00. These subsequent expenses POLICY AND PRACTICE OF THE ILLINOIS three reliable citizens in the locality of may be fairly estimated as follows: CHILDREN'S HOME AND AID SOCIETY.
the applicant, asking pertinent quesThe Illinois Children's Home and tions as to the character, standing, fam- Average cost of replacing (oneAid Society has always cared for many ily, means, etc., of the applicant. Form- half of our children have to be county children. For a portion of these erly, we were accustomed to place chil- replaced)
...$ 15.00 children the County Boards of Super- dren on written recommendations, but Average cost of supervision visors have made appropriations, usu- we found that such recommendations, (average 6 years @ $10).... 60.00 ally, $50.00 for each child. It was even from good people, were unreliable, formerly estimated that an appropria- partly from lack of knowledge of all
$75.00 tion of $50.00 would cover the entire of the facts and partly from the unexpense incurred by the society in re- willingness to make adverse reports.
This makes a total estimated expense ceiving, moving, boarding, placing, replacing, visiting and supervising the sending an experienced paid agent than over the actual expense, if the We have therefore adopied the plan of of $112.00 per child on the average, and
I believe that this will be under rather child, from the time of its reception un- to visit the home, if the references retil it reaches its majority or otherwise port favorably. This agent is ex
work of the society is faithfully done. passes from the guardianship of the pected to obtain information in reply to
The Illinois Children's Home and society.
about 80 questions, relating to the home, Aid Society has been acting as the Boards of County Supervisors have its comforts, conveniences, sleeping ac
western agency of the New York Jutaken the view that this arrangement commodations, books, newspapers, pic- veniie Asylum, in caring for 400 chilwas a profitable one for the county. If tures, surroundings, etc.; the
dren in western homes during the past the child remained in the poorhouse it his character, habits, standing, treat- 16 months. The actual expense to the would cost the county at least $1.50 per ment of employes, etc.; the woman, her New York Juvenile Asylum for this week or $75.00 per year. If the child disposition, habits, house-keeping, etc.; been $6,300, or about $15 for each child,
work during the past 12 months has was sent to an industrial school or a
the general fitness of the home for a manual training school, it would cost child and the kind of a child for which instead of the $10 given in the foregothe society $2.50 per week, or $130.00 it is adapted.
ing estimate. per year, whereas by a single payment This society accepts appropriations COUNTY APPROPRIATION NOT DEMANDED. of $50.00 the county escapes all further from the county treasury to aid in carresponsibility for the child. ing for county children. If such ap
The impression has prevailed in some Many county boards have taken the propriations are made, we expect that quarters that this society would not acview that this society, with its long ex- the amount will be $50.00 per child. We cept a child unless money was given perience, its corps of trained workers, would rather take a child without any with it. That is a mistake. The Illiits system of district superintendents in appropriation from the county than to nois Children's Home and Aid Society different parts of the state and its 640 take a child with $25.00, for the reason will accept every county child which is local advisory boards, and with its 25 that if $25.00 is accepted, the public is a suitable object for its care, as far as affiliated societies through which chil- led to suppose that a child can be cared its means allow, whether any appropridren can be placed if necessary in disfor with that amount, whereas no so
ation is made for it or not. The sotant states could do this work to better ciety can do its duty by a child with ciety, cannot accept children who are advantage than county officials, with that sum. The following is a conserva- feeble-minded or incurably diseased or their multiplied duties and their limited tive estimate of the cost of caring for a incorrigible, because such children are territory. child by a placing out society:
not placeable in family homes. The soSome county boards have been un
ciety will not accept a child which has willing to appropriate so much as
a good mother living without first ex$50.00 per child, but have offered $25.00 Salary and expenses of agent, hausting every effort to enable the per child. In some cases, new and com- investigating and receiving mother to care for her own child. The peting societies desirous of obtaining child,
.....$ 7.00 society will not accept a nursing babe children and money, have made bids to Board of
Board of child in receiving unless the mother will care for it durreceive children at $25.00 each.
home, (6 weeks)
15.00 ing the nursing period if possible; but The Illinois Children's Home and Expense of finding and proving the society will provide for both the Aid Society is devoted exclusively to
up home, .
5.00 mother and child, if necessary. the work of caring for homeless and Clothing and outfit for child.... 4.00
After we have decided to accept a neglected children. It is the rule of Expense of sending child to home 3.00 child we will leave it to the county authis society that anyone in Illinois who Pro Rate share of expenses of thorities whether they are willing to is in trouble about a child may apply to central office
3.00 make an appropriation to aid in the subthe society and the effort will be made
sequent care of the child, or not. to solve that trouble. Total expense of receiving and
If we accept a county child, it is The chief work of the society is plac- placing child
$37.00 understood that the child is accepted
ESTIMATED COST OF CARING FOR A CHILD.