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The landscape where there are 60,000 people to the square mile.

Where parks are needed. lot, choose to live, for our own and others' sake, where first time met on common ground, and found in each other so we seem to be most needed, rather than where the neigh much to interest, respect and attract, that a new bond of neighborhood is supposed to offer the most of social privilege borly relationship and co-operation was naturally formed. For or prestige. We are here to be all we can to the people ten years this good fellowship has deepened and spread. Parand to receive all they are to us as friends and neighbors. We ents were re-introduced both to their children and to each other, assume the full obligations and claim all the rights of citizenship and, from the natural "freemasonry" of their boys and girls, in a community with whose interests we identify ourselves, became "hale fellows well met.” A new neighborliness sponwhose conditions we share and for whose home happiness,

taneously sprang material welfare, political freedom and social privilege and

up around the progress we try to do our part. When in order to be entrusted

common center, with and legally hold the tenure of a building and its equipment

which has always for neighborhood service, a few friends of the settlement and

had a family at its community were incorporated under the laws of Illinois into

the heart of it. An the very informally organized Chicago Commons Association, its

unfailing succespurpose was formulated for the articles of incorporation thus:

sion of capable and "The object for which it is formed is to provide a center of

unpaid resident a higher civic and social life, to initiate and maintain religious,

and non-resident educational and philanthropic enterprises, and to investigate and

workers has given improve conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago."

and received charBut in the fellowship of its work Chicago Commons is as little

acter values and of an organization and as much of a personal relationship as it can be made. It seeks to unify and help all other organi

help to self help in

equal proportions zations and people in the neighborhood that make for righteousness and brotherhood. It is not a church, but is a helper

with the neighbors. of all the churches and is in active co-operation with the only

A still larger numEnglish speaking congregation among them. It is not a charity, ber of those, differing from each other in circumstances, in but aids in the organization and mutual helpfulness of all charita views and in personal interests, were here interpreted to one anble agencies. It is not a school, but it is in tributary sympathy other. Employers and employees, suburban residents and teneand action with the public schools to which it will give up any ment dwellers, radicals and conservatives, partisans and sectaripart of its work that they will take up. It is nonpartisan, but ans, exclusives and common folk came to be to each other by has been a rallying point whence the balance of political power turns nothing more nor. less than men and women. And so has been effectively wielded in aldermanic and legislative elec fellow citizens became friends. tions for nearly a decade. It is not an exclusive social circle, Out of these personal affiliations there gradually arose a but aspires to be a center and source of the best social life and series of social clubs with varying aims and methods. Their eduthe highest civic patriotism. It is not a "class conscious" group, cational value has always been real and designed. But the but refusing to be classified, strives to interpret classes to each educational purpose and method have always been held secondary, other and to mediate for a just industrial peace.

and even incidental, to their primary and most effective social Long before there was any organization or any property or aim. While the Choral Club, for instance, has steadily raised equipment to require it, the Chicago Commons household became its standard of musical taste and achievement, it has grown up a center for the simple and natural interchange of personal around the rare spirit of fraternity and service which charactervalues. Representatives of most of the twenty or more nation izes it. Its "Guild of Song for the Suffering" co-operating with alities constituting the very cosmopolitan population, for the the work of the district visiting nurse, makes music a medium


of higher worth than the study of it for its own sake could ever of the house as a neighborhood center upon individual character, be. The programs of the Woman's Club have intellectually home life, and the social relationships of the community. The developed every one of its many members who have participated few pictures, to which limited space confines our description, can in them, but the glorious good fellowship of its membership, and only faintly suggest the ways in which personal ideals are lifted, its enlistment of personal interest and help in an ever widening tastes are cultivated, pleasures are purified, labor is lightened, range of neighborhood, civic and social co-operation has far friendships are deepened as they are formed about higher intermore developed the nature, broadened the life and increased the ests, and the religion of relationship to the divine and the human practical efficiency of every woman. While the results of educa is realized. tional effort could not be more direct than those attained in the The intellectual, manual, recreative, civic, ethical and religious manual training and in the domestic science departments, for work with the multitude of small groups, centering at and maninstance, yet the reflective influence of settlement life and ser aged by the house, indoors, on playground, in park, museum and vice is educationally as effective and even wider reaching. “Camp Commons,” by no means measures its influence. For, Here students of neighboring universities and professional outside organizations using its facilities in their own or neighschools have found such valuable first-hand contact with life borhood interests are as effective as anything attempted by the that Chicago Commons has come to be an interacademic center residents. The gymnasium is at the daily disposal of the neighwhose advantages are so widely sought that a waiting list of boring Montefiore public school, whose building is pitifully inapplicants for residence affords us a wider range of choice. adequate for the neediest children to be found in the city. A settlement fellowship has been maintained here by the students

Alumni associations of three public schools regularly meet here, and professors of the University of Michigan for the past eight

as does the "Sisters" School Club of St. Stephen's Roman years. The Fellow of the College Settlements Association is Catholic parish. The Armenian colony unites its diverse internow in residence. Whole classes, with their instructors, ests under our roof; the nationalists, the old Gregorian church are frequently in attendance upon regular or special occasions. In

and the Protestant mission, meeting separately and sometimes itiative was given by this settlement to the Institute of Social Sci

together. The alumni and other associations of Lutheran ence and Arts, the training school for philanthropic and social

churches, and also a Catholic temperance order are equally at service, which has recently been established in this city by the co

home on this common ground. Pleasure clubs, athletic associaoperation of experts at the head of specialized agencies with the tions, private musical and elocution classes share the hospitality

of the house. University of Chicago. In addition to directing these departments of instruction at the University of Chicago, the Chicago Theo

The telephone exchange girls through a self-governing club logical Seminary and the settlement, the warden during the ten

supply other settlement organizations with entertainment proyears of his residence has so constantly responded to widely • grams and assist in other features of the work. scattered calls for popular teaching that an extension lectureship

Public school teachers and district nurses come to it for their has informally developed with more regularly recurring op

noon day rest. The Chicago Daily News free public lecture portunities for brief courses at educational and other centers

course, for the adult constituency of the school district, is held throughout the country than can possibly be taken advantage of

. in our auditorium. All political parties hold their mass meets By a more direct medium of exchange than money, industrial ings there. The Tabernacle Church has the use of the whole values have interchanged at Chicago Commons. Without fear new building reared on its old corner for its services, Sundayor favor men have expressed themselves, and have been inter school, Children's church and weekly appointments, which are preted to each other across the lines of industrial cleavage and independent of and distinct from settlement occasions. class antagonism. Extreme radicalism has well nigh disap The fire-light-story evening in the club room, the Saturday peared through the safety valve of free speech. The "free-floor" night socials around the open-hearth of the neighborhood parlor, discussions, having fulfilled their function in establishing respect and the "family resort" provided at the Pleasant Sunday Afterfor individual convictions and freedom of personal expression, noons in the auditorium cheerily round out the equipment for have been superseded by a club of neighborhood men, for social household pleasure and profit which is added to every home fellowship in the study and practice of good citizenship. Such

by this neighborhood house. The response of the neighbors has been the confidence inspired by the sometimes costly impar to the advantage thus offered is partly measured by the numtiality of the settlement's independent attitude, that the services bers using the house, and by the share they bear of the cost of of its warden are sought for the arbitration of industrial disputes.

maintenance. The permanent settlement groups include 2,500

regular attendants. The weekly attendance in the Tabernacle The contrast between the politics of the ward and its repre

Church groups numbers over 800. The total number of those sentatives in the City Council before and after the balance of thus regularly coming to the house is over 3,200. Some weeks political power began to be wielded by its independent vote, em the outside groups and special occasions add from 500 to 1,000 phasizes as nothing else can the value of such centers for pro

more people using the building.

The financial co-operation of the neighborhood groups yields moting and perpetuating good citizenship. For years this ward

about $1,800 per annum toward maintenance, to which all of regularly furnished its full quota to the "gang" majority in the them contribute something. But some of them give liberally to council chamber, which numbered fifty-eight over against an hon the common cause in ways not registered upon settlement acest minority of only ten. After eight years of struggle, in which


The values entering into individual lives and becoming a part the Community Club became the live-wire of the Municipal Vot

of community interests transcend those which are to be calculater's League, its aldermen have been among the ablest and most

ed by the use of the center whence they emanate. Facts and figaggressive constituents of an honest majority of fifty-five, easily ures, groups and occasions, cannot tell the whole story. For the controlling the remnant of fifteen "gray wolves" still surviving larger and better part of it lies in the hidden history of human

hearts, and in those pervasive influences which go forth not only the killing-off of the pack. The judge presiding over the election

directly, and through co-operation with the district nurse, the commissioners declares that in as many years of service he has

charity bureau, the department of health, the building and street never known the voters of a district better to understand the inspectors, the juvenile court and the police station house, the election law and more fearlessly and independently to enforce it. aldermen of the ward, the public schools, the universities, the The citizens, thus emancipated, take more intelligent interest

labor unions, employer's associations and the churches, but also

by that more subtle uplift and unification of the common life in the departments of city administration and their work in the

imparted by the mere existence and success of such an effort. ward, in the progress of the schools over whose public occasions Estimated by the cost of the building and its equipment, their aldermen now preside, and in the municipal policy with $72,000 (on which $9,175 remain to be paid), and the $10,650 rereference to street railways and other questions of common

quired to maintain it and the work, the dividend declared, in the

gratuitous service of the resident and non-resident workers and concern.

in the steadily rising personal, neighborhood, civic, and still These wider aspects of the settlement work, although of most wider social values rates the investment among preferred public interest to the general reader, do not even indicate the influence securities,



SUNDAY EVENING, DEC. 18th, 1904.

straightened out the boy, and helped the sick. This boy came out, all right. Nobody can argue that a system that causes men of ability and judgment to help in such cases is wrong.

"In another case wherein two boys once out on probation, but later replaced in the John Worthy School, juvenile officers were sent to the home. They found filthy conditions there. The mother was a drunkard. The boys practically had no home. In some way or other the reform of the mother was accomplished. The home was cleaned up. Conditions that were wrong were changed. Attention was instantly diverted from the boys to the home itself and as a result both were reformed."

"I plead with you to arouse public sentiment to the point that the state must treat your boy as you would treat him. Make the child the ward of the court, and make it the court's duty to lift him up."

This was the keynote of the address of Judge T. D. Hurley of Chicago upon the necessity of a juvenile court law in Minnesota at the Church of the Redeemer last night.

Judge Hurley presented the advantages of the juvenile court system from the standpoint of humanity, economy, expediency and fairness. From each of these viewpoints he drew lessons which he left as seed for possible future legislation in Minnesota.

He argued that the law which disposes of the case of a hardened criminal is not applicable and fit for child offenders as a class, and that the condition should be remedied. Then he used illustrations showing that the modern system is economical, that it has resulted in great savings in states where it has been operated; and lastly that it is fair and effectual beyond comparison with other systems.

COOK COUNTY FIGURES. "Speaking of the advantages of the juvenile court law in point of cost,” said Judge Hurley, “I will give you some Denver figures. A total of 454 boys, taken care of in court by the usual criminal machinery, occasioned a cost of $105,475. Under the juvenile method 454 boys were handled at a cost of $14,648. These figures show a saving to Denver of $90,821. Since the new law has become effective the cost in the Criminal Court in Chicago, Ill., in child criminality has been reduced 20 per cent.

"Nobody,” said Judge Hurley, "whether opposed, friendly or indifferent to the law can contend that it does not mean a saving in dollars and cents.

MORAL RESULTS. “With reference to moral results, the figures are just as strongly in our favor. In Chicago we have fifteen districts, in each of which there is a special juvenile court officer. The officer is in most cases a woman, and what compensation she receives is paid by the women's club. The officers, by virtue of their positions, are the moral guardians of all children who are obliged to appear in court from their respective districts.

"And right here begins the basic work of the law. The child is brought into court. The offense is named. Then the court, in conjunction with the guardian, decides upon the best method of procedure, with particular reference to that child. The idea is to start and keep the child going right, regardless of other considerations.

"In doing this it may be necessary to interest a priest, employers, parents, friends, neighbors, teachers or others. Sometimes all of them are used; sometimes a part; no rule is followed, and the immediate circumstances and conditions surrounding the case always inspire that particular method of treatment."

PERSONAL EXPERIENCES. Judge Hurley illustrated this point by several incidents coming under his personal observation. One pertained to a small boy bootblack, who was employed in the Palmer house. The lad went wrong and was brought into court.

"We talked to the youngster and persuaded him to go to his employer asking for another trial. As far as the boy knew he was solely upon his own resources when he asked to be reemployed. But we had a talk with the employer, consequently he got another chance. It was the boy's understanding that he was fighting it out alone, but we were helping him. There was a complex political system behind him, as there is behind all boys who are tried under the juvenile court law. Today the boy that was helped is the proprietor of the bootblacking stand in the Palmer house.

DO NOT GO BACK. Denying statements that a large per cent of youngsters who are released from the house of juvenile detention in Cook county eventually find their way back there, Judge Hurley said:

‘During the first two years of the operation of the law in County county approximately 1,200 boys were sent to the John Worthy school. Of about 1,100 of those released upon probation only twelve per cent were returned.

"Results like these are accomplished because the juvenile law goes further than the regular criminal law. The juvenile law contemplates the formation of the child. By means of its special officers. the men and women. employers, teachers, etc., who may have influence in the child's home, are sought out. Their influence is set to working. The child is made to feel a responsibility in his own behalf. He is put to work upon his own salvation. If the conditions surrounding him are wrong they are made right.”

NO CONFLICT WITH LAWS. Relative to the possible conflict of present laws with proposed juvenile laws, Judge Hurley said:

“No repeal or even revision of the present criminal laws is needed. The juvenile provisions are simply additional. There need be and is no confliction. While there is hope for the child, the juvenile law is used; where there is no hope, the criminal law is used as the last resort."

Judge Hurley said that there had been some difficulty in making provisions for the salary of the necessary officers, regardless of the fact that the total cost of children's care is reduced by his plan.

“In Illinois, for instance, private persons have interested themselves in a financial way, and the work in many senses is in the nature of a private enterprise.

"It is our effort to secure state help, and there is promise of success in several states. Eventually these obstacles will be removed. So plainly successful is the law that it cannot fail; it will become national in its effect."

WORK IN MINNESOTA. Judge Hurley was asked as to the possibility for work along this line in Minnesota, pending desired legislation. He replied that as much could be done in Minneapolis as has been done in Chicago. He said that if individuals and societies here became enthusiastic to the degree that they would help in a monetary way, as Cook county people and organizations have helped, the work would go on here as it has there. He believes that there are indications that a movement in this direction is forthcoming:

He said that until the matter was taken up by the legislature it might be conducted privately without conflict whatever with state laws. He characterizes the juvenile effort as the most humane movement that has been undertaken in America, and believes that a similar opinion is held by a sufficient number of Minnesota people to warrant the launching of the plan in this state.

NOTHING COMPLEX. "There is nothing complex about this law," he said. “It is simple. The child is taken as a child. He is not thrown with hardened criminals. The court regards him as a child rather than a man. The officers and guardians who are watching him regard him as a child. And briefly, his formation is sought rather than a useless and poisoning punishment."

Judge Hurley said that he hoped to return to Minneapolis in two or three years or earlier on a mission similar to the object of his present visit.-- Minneapolis Times.

STOLEN SACK OF CORN. "Another boy had stolen a sack of corn. The investigation showed that the other members of the family were sick and that the youngster was practically driven to it. A state Senator became interested in this case and I made him the personal guardian in the premises. He devoted time to the family. He

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Again the Chicago & Alton comes to the front. This time it is an improvement in operation. The new plan has just been put in effect, and with its adoption the Chicago & Alton becomes theoretically at least, the safest railway in the world. The innovation consists of three specific safeguards against accidents, namely-usual telegraphic train orders, automatic electric block signals and "station block" signals. Heretofore no railway has ever applied these three precautions simultaneously. Some railways run their trains by telegraphic train orders; some abandon train orders and trust wholly to block signals, while other lines have a combined plan of train orders and "station block.” The Chicago & Alton now combines the triple precautions, and in addition to train orders and auto block signals, has established a complete system of "station blocks." These so-called "station blocks” are formed by a continuous service of telegraph operators-day and night shifts—at each station, providing by human power a system of signals which must corroborate the safety testimony of the automatic signals before the train may proceed. This trinity of precautions in train operation is so far in cffect only upon the Chicago & Alton Railway, making that line, theoretically at least, the safest railway in the world.

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