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Hudson, graduating in 1882, just prior to the removal of the college to Cleveland.
He studied law in Cleveland in the office of Williamson, Beach & Cushing, and in 1884 was admitted to the bar. After two years of practice in Cleveland he removed to Hurley, Wis., where he practiced law for ten years. In 1896 he returned to Cleveland and for three years was in the law office of Kline, Carr, Tolles & Goff. He now occupies offices in the Society for Savings building
Mr. Bushnell is a member of the Union and University clubs and is popular. He is married and has five children.
Before the enactment of our Juvenile Court law boys under 16 years of age were confined in the holdover and jail with adult offenders, and this was one of the greatest evils that law was designed to remedy. The Chief of Police, the Chief of Detectives, the jailer and other officials all have testimony to the ill effects of this practice.
The Juvenile Court law provided (section 10) that delinquents under 16 years of age must be kept "in a suitable place, which shall be provided by the county, outside of the inclosure of any jail or police station." Yet notwithstanding, for over a year after the passage of that law, children were kept over night
the holdover, or, if arrested Saturday afternoon, spent Sunday there. Although the House of Refuge constitutes the regular place of detention, its distance from the downtown district and the fact that young offenders are taken out there but once a day, and that on week days only, render necessary another secondary place of detention. One case came accidentally under the notice of the writer in June of this year, where five boys between the ages of 11 and 14 were arrested on suspicion and kept in the holdover over Sunday.
To remove young boys from the degrading associations of the holdover, a room in the matron's quarters was fitted up this summer on the third floor of the Four Courts. Inadequate as is this one small room, it is better than the holdover. Yet the fact remains that we need a downtown house of detention in place of the House of Refuge, designed for other purposes, and the secondary place of detention necessitated by its distance. We hope to have such proper provision made for our young offenders when funds are provided for a new jail and other city institutions.-Charlotte C. Eliot.
HON. T. E. CALLAGHAN, CLEVELAND
Judge Thos. E. Callaghan, of the juvenile court, died suddenly at Chicago on Nov. 29th.
judge Callaghan was born in Cleveland in 1865. He attended the Cathedral parochial school and then went to Notre Dame university at South Bend, Ind. He graduated from the law department there in 1887 with first honors and was admitted to the bar there. In October of the same year he was admitted to the bar here.
He practiced law here until 1901, when he was elected to the insolvency court for a term of five years.
Judge Callaghan will be remembered for his work in the founding and upbuilding of the juvenile court in this county. When he was elected to the bench of the insolvency court, that court was more or less of a sinecure. It had been created more for political than practical reasons, and agitation had been going on for some time for the repeal of the law creating the court.
Judge Callaghan made a study of the system of juvenile court work in vogue in Boston, Chicago, Denver and other cities, and, supported by a large number of citizens, he put into effect an elaborate and effective system of voluntary probation officers. He devoted much of his time to the juvenile side of his court, for which he had not been elected by the people, and which had only a shaky legal standing.
Only once, however, was the status of the juvenile branch of the court questioned, and that resulted in one of the most remarkable decisions in the history of the county. Judge Phillips, in effect, said that the court had little or no legal standing, but that it was doing a noble, effective work; a work that had long been needed and that a useless and wasteful court has been turned into an instrument of great good. On the ground of public policy, rather than of the law, therefore, the juvenile court was upheld, and later on its legal status was made sure by the legislature.
Through the juvenile court and its volunteer citizen-probation officers, children were kept from the city prison; from reformatories and contact with criminals. So much good was accomplished that the system has extended all over the state.
Aside from this, which will be a lasting monument to the dead judge, there was a long record of high citizenship and professional integrity and ability. Judge Callaghan was prominent in the Catholic church circles of this diocese.
Since the Indianapolis Juvenile Court was organized, now a little more than a year and a half ago, we have had before us more than 1,100 children against whom charges have been filed. The offenses charged covered the entire list of offenses known to the law, from the most trivial misdemeanor to grand and petit larcency, forgery, burglary, arson, murder, and that nameless crime for which negroes have been burned at the stake in some of the Southern States.
The work of our probation officers has been fruitful of good results. A boy who has lived in an environment of vice and degradation, who has been repeatedly sent to the nearest saloon for a bucket of beer which is consumed in his presence by the family, who listens to quarrels and often witnesses a fight between his father and mother, who is kicked and cuffed out of the house and ordered to steal coal for the kitchen stove, which sometimes affords the only heat in the house-a boy who learns to drink and fight and swear and steal, a boy who runs away from school, who becomes a loafer sleeping in sheds and basements, who learns to smoke cigarettes and shoot craps, who thinks an education is unnecessary and all kinds of work a nuisance—such a boy has a poor chance in life without some outside assistance.
But place him in charge of a kindly hearted, broad-minded man of affairs, a man of character and standing, and a new world is opened to him. He has never known that there was anything better in life for him than the treatment he is so painfully familiar with. Let such a man get the confidence of such a boy and the effect on the boy is almost electrical. If there be a spark of manliness in that boy's heart it is pretty sure to be fanned into a flame, and if the kindly, thoughtful supervision is only kept up, that boy can be saved and developed into a good citizen in nine cases out of ten, if only his appetite for cigarettes has not mastered him.
It is the personal touch that does it. I have often observed that if I sat on a high platform behind a high desk, such as we had in our city court, with the boy on the prisoner's bench some distance away, that my words had little effect on him, but if I could get close enough to him to put my hand on his head or shoulder, or my arm around him, in nearly every such case I could get his confidence. It is this close personal contact between the probation officer and the boy which we try to bring about, and it is this kindly interest taken in the boy by his probation officer that has proved to be so valuable to the boy and to the court.
Out of more than five hundred bad boys and girls—mostly boys—who have been placed on probation, less than 10 per cent of them have been brought into court again. charged with a second offense. If the delinquent children of our large cities are to be reformed and saved from becoming criminals through the agency of the juvenile court, it will be found that the best
and most effective work will be done by the volunteer probation officer.
I have said that we have had more than eleven hundred cases in the Juvenile Court in Indianapolis in little more than one and a half years. This does not include the cases of many chil. dren about whom complaint has been made, but against whom we have not allowed formal charges to be filed, so that the whole number investigated would probably aggregate more than fifteen hundred.
NEW JUVENILE BILLS FOR COLORADO. The meeting of the County Judge's association at the court house in Denver was one of the most important of the many which? quency and the placing of responsibility for the delinquency of juveniles.
If the plans of the jurists are carried out by the legislature Colorado will take another step this winter for the care, protection and reclamation of neglected or erring children.
Two years ago the juvenile delinquency laws were passed, placing the responsibility for delinquent children and providing a punishment. Now laws are being prepared relating to the dependency of children, holding those who are responsible for such dependency to a punishment which may become very severe should the facts of the case warrant.
No longer will it be possible for parents to spend their money in debauchery, neglecting their children with impunity. Parents guilty of such action under the proposed law may be punished just the same as the parent who is responsible for the delin
quency in the child—who refuses to send him to school or allows the child to frequent saloons or immoral places.
Judge Lindsey, author of the proposed measure, says of it:
"We are controlling delinquency in children pretty well by getting after those who are responsible for making embryo criminals of children. Now we must go after those who allow children to become dependent and destitute. Only last week I had a family in court where the father earns $3 a day, and he and his wife spend all the money in drink. They have three children. We found those children terribly neglected-starving. We have placed them in the state home, but the father, miserable whelp, is well satisfied. He has now no responsibility, although he brought the little ones into the world. He does not have to pay anything to their support. Under our new law we shall be able to find such a father guilty of an offense and sentence him to jail, suspending the sentence on the filing of a bond to pay the state a reasonable amount to care for and support his children for him.
"This new step in the Juvenile code will place Colorado far ahead of any other state in the Union so far as the care of her poor and neglected children go."
Great interest was displayed all day yesterday by seventeen of the county judges of the state who were present at the meeting. The work of the association has been indorsed by every judge in the state, although many have not the opportunity to be present at the meetings.
The work of drafting the bills for laws is in the hands of a committee composed of Judges Charles E. Southard of Greeley, Julius Henderson of Boulder, A. S. Frost of Cripple Creek, R. H. McCleod of Leadville, and B. B. Lindsey of Denver.
COOK COUNTY CHILD-SAVING LEAGUE
A meeting of the Child Saving Legislative League of Cook County was held on Monday evening, December 19, 1904, in the John Worthy School. Some 250 persons were in attendance.
The object of the meeting as called was “Proposed Children's Legislation." The following persons read papers:
Amendments to Juvenile Court Law, Hon. Julian W. Mack.
The school was visited from four to six o'clock at which time supper was served by Supt. Sloan. All present were highly pleased at the condition of the school and the beneficial effect on the bovs that was evidenced on every hand.
A Legislative Committee was appointed to look after the several bills that will be introduced in the Legislature in reference to children. Endorsement of present Child Labor Law and Compulsory Education Laws was voted, and those present pledged themselves to oppose any attempt to amend these laws.
The committee was as follows: Justice T. D. Hurley,
John A. Michels,
Dr. Cornelia De Bey,
E. P. Bicknell,
H. H. Hart, Clayton Mark,
Julia Lathrop, E. T. Davies,
E. Rubovitz, W. L. Bodine,
W. D. Lamont, Jane Addams,
J. J. McManaman, Harriet Van Der Vaart, Sherman Kingsley, J. J. Sloan,
Justice Caverly, E. G. Cooler,
Mrs. W. C. H. Keough, Rev. E. A. Kelly,
Leroy B. Tolman. Hon. Thom. C. MacMillan.
1. L. Bodine presided at the meeting and T. D. Hurley acted as Secretary.
In reference to the Transfer of Children T. D. Hurley read the following paper:
TRAFFIC IN CHILDREN. "The title to my paper sounds rather commercial, and yet I do not know how to better express the idea than by the title selected: that is, 'Traffic in Children,' by which is meant the transfer of children from person to person by people other than their parents or guardians. Sometimes the transfer of the child is made for a consideration, at other times simply for the welfare of the child.
“I can probably best illustrate this by citing one or two cases. Some few months ago the Visitation and Aid society was re
quested to obtain possession of three children that had been taken from their mother and sent to Wisconsin by a woman missionary. The father of the children was an unfortunate, dissipated man who had neglected his family. The mother, be cause of abuse, was weak, mentally and physically, especially mentally. On the advice of this missionary lady the home was broken up and the chil ren placed in her charge. The relatives of the mother ascertained the fact and immediately made demand for the children, and were as promptly refused by the missionary. Two of the largest charitable societies in Illinois were interested in the missionary woman, obtained transporta-, tion and assisted in the transfer of the children. No written agreement of any kind was taken from the mother or father. Demand was at once made upon the societies, and they did all in their power to recover the children. The institution which had the children refused to return them. After some negotiations and many threats of legal procedures the children were finally returned. Query: By what right did this private individual undertake to deal with the above children in a way that not even the state would think of doing?
“The second case will further illustrate my thought. The mother died, leaving a father and six little, healthy, rosy children. The father, despondent, took to drink, and in two weeks as the result of a prolonged spree was taken to the hospital where he died in a few days. An extended notice appeared in the papers the following morning after the father's death in which it was said the children had been taken to the Harrison Street Annex. The officer of the Visitation and Aid Society was instructed to take charge of the children. Arriving at the police station he was informed that arrangements had already been made by the matron in the police station to transfer them to a person who had nothing in sympathy with the parents or relatives of the children; all these arrangements being made before the burial of the father. The children at the time of the request of the officer were under the care of the police matron. Petitions were immediately filed, the children transferred to the Juvenile Court, and on complete investigation surrendered to their relatives, and are now being reared and educated by them, under the supervision of the Juvenile Court. These relatives are well to do people, in comfortable circumstances, and on receiving notice of the death of the parents immediately communicated with the court officials, and promptly took charge of the children. Second query: Why should any police matron or other person exercise the right of transferring other people's children to third parties?
“The law is silent on the point and permits individuals and institutions to deal with children in a way that the law would not countenance for a monent if the same persons were dealing with the property of the child. The law has ever been solicitous in regard to children's property, and when the state assumes
control of the care and custody of the child it is only after a be signed, and under the Juvenile Court law they would be very careful and guarded legal procedure. Furthermore the state legal. If the parent is unwilling to surrender the child then it has made ample provisions for the care and treatment of children, is certainly not asking too much that the society or institution not only in foster homes and institutions, but has always insisted or individual go to the same expense that would be required that the parents and guardians of children should treat them to accomplish the transfer of the child's property. No person in a proper manner. , To enforce the above provisions there are or society could for a moment think of dealing in the child's to be found on our statute books at least sixty pages of law. One property, even if that property consisted only of dumb animals, would think that the first duty of the state would be to guard the without obtaining an order of court. The child should receive person of the child as well as the property'; and should not at least the same attention, when his entire future will probaonly be careful and cautious in taking possession of the child, bly be affected by his transfer, as a dumb animal would receive. but should insist on the same care and the same procedure "I hope and trust that the bill which will be presented to the where private individuals or institutions undertake to deal next legislature, embodying in substance the above provisions with other people's children.
will become a law." "Referring to our statutes, we find ample regulations for the Two bills were submitted to the meeting; they were Transcustody of children between husband and wife; care and sup
fer of Children and State Visitation of Children. Copies of port of children by those who stand in loco parentis; there are
these bills are herewith included. ample laws in reference to the prevention of cruelty to children; to the employment of children; sale of tobacco and other
A BILL. injurious articles; abandonment of children; the care and control of dependent, neglected and delinquent chrildren; and nu
FOR AN ACT TO PROVIDE FOR THE VISITATION OF merous other provisions; but nowhere in the statute is to be found any word preventing irresponsible persons or institutions
CHILDREN PLACED IN FAMILY HOMES. from dealing with children in the same way that one deals with ordinary chattels.
Section 1. Reports of children placed in homes. Be it en“In case the child inherits property of any kind the law is acted by the People of the State of Illinois represented in the solicitous in regard to the management and control of the same. General Assembly: It shall be the duty of the superintendent Any person dealing with the child's property without first ob- or secretary of every association incorporated for the purpose taining an order of court makes himself liable to severe penalty. of doing the business of caring for dependent, neglected or Even after obtaining power and authority of the court, he acts delinquent children, which is supported in whole or in part by only as the officer of the court and not as an individual, and is funds from any public treasury, to report to the State Board required from time to time to make complete reports as to his of Public Charities, on the last day of the months of March. acts in regard to the child's property. No matter how insig- June, September and December of each year, the name, age nificant or how small the estate of the child may be, nevertheless and sex of every child placed or replaced in a family home by the court takes cognizance of it and sees that it is administered such association or institution, together with the name and for the best interests of the child.
address of the family with which such child is placed; such “The person of the child, however, is not taken cognizance quarterly reports to be made on such blanks as may be prescribed of by the court unless there is an estate, and then the court is by the Board of Public Charities. very guarded in reference to the care and education and welfare It shall be the duty of any circuit or county judge, county of the child. Property seems to have been uppermost in the supervisor, overseer of the poor, or other public official, who minds of the law-makers in all times, not only in the state of shall place any child in any family home to report the same Illinois, but throughout the entire country. Thousands of vol- in like manner. umes of legal lore have been written on the property rights of It shall be the duty of every person, not a public official or an the child, little if anything is said in regard to the person of official of an association or institution, who receives public the child.
money, as above stated, who may place any child not his or “This loose system has been instrumental in interesting many her own offspring, in any family home to report the same in persons and institutions in child-saving work. Many of them like manner. are prompted by the highest of motives, others are interested Section 2. Record of children placed in homes. The State only because of the revenue and income that is to be derived Board of Public Charities shall cause to be kept in its office, from the work. One does not need the sanction or the approval by a card catalogue system, a complete record of all children of the state or any public or private body, nor even the name reported as aforesaid. This record shall not be a public record, of a society or institution to enable them to engage in this line and it shall be unlawful for any agent of said board, or any of work, by which they may take charge of children that come other person, to disclose the name or address of any child so under their notice. Being able to make some showing as to the placed or of the family in which it may be placed. work they are doing, a willing and generous public usually sup- Section 3. Appointment of visitors. It shall be the duty of ports the individual or institution financially. As the result of the State Board of Charities to appoint visitors, not exceeding this same system societies and institutions are duplicated, and five (5) in all, who shall receive such compensation as shall work which could and should be properly performed in well be fixed by the said board, not exceeding seventy-five (75) regulated homes and institutions is only partially performed by dollars per month in addition to their actual and necessary well meaning but in many cases ignorant persons and institu- traveling expenses. These visitors shall be discreet men and tions.
women, selected with a special view to their wisdom and fitness "This child-saving work cannot be successfully performed un- for visiting such children; and in case the Legislature shall less the state takes charge of it in its entirety, and, beginning enact a civil service law to control the appointment of State at the foundation, huild a complete system that will regulate the employes, then the visitors provided for in this act shall be entire work. Certainly the child being the ward of the state, subject to the provisions of such civil service law. it is the duty of the state to assume this responsibility. Fortu- Section 4. Duties of visitors. It shall be the duty of the nately for us in Illinois little more legislation is required to visitors provided for in section three (3) to visit children complete the system. We have proper institutional facilities; placed in homes and said visitors shall act under such rules we have sufficient regulations for societies and institutions that as may be prescribed by the State Board of Public Charities. come within the provisions of the law. We now require state Every child reported to said board in accordance with the visitation of children where institutions and societies are unable provisions of section one (1) of this act shall be visited within to visit the same, and finally we need state regulation in regard a period of six months after being so reported, unless otherwise to the transfer of children. No exacting nor drastic laws will ordered by the State Board of Public Charities. be required for this latter work. A law requiring the written The State Board of Public Charities may, in its discretion, consent of the parents of the child that the same may be placed allow the child to be visited by an agent of the association or in a foster home, and the further provision that when children institution by which the child may have been placed in a are committed legally by the courts to institutions or individ- home, and may accept the report of such agent, provided that uals, that the order of commitment provide that the institution such visit shall be made in accordance with the rules estblished or individual he authorized to place the child in a family home, hy said State Board of Public Charities, and shall have been would accomplish this reform. This order by the court would reported on the blanks provided for in this act. be entered only after a complete and exhaustive research into After a child shall have been legally adopted in accordance the child's antecedents, and upon a proper hearing. The law with the laws of the State of Illinois, then said child shall no should not and would not require that the person or institution longer be subject to the visitation provided for in this act. placing the child should be obliged to give the location of the Section 5. Blank form of reports. Visits to children made in child when placed.
accordance with the provisions of this act shall be reported on "It seems to me that no well regulated society or institution blanks to be furnished by the State Board of Public Charities. could offer any objection to these provisions. If the parent Such blanks shall be printed on heavy paper, 33 by 842 inches is willing to surrender the child proper surrender blanks may and shall read as follows:
STATE OF ILLINOIS. BOARD OF PUBLIC CHARITIES.
REPORT OF VISIT TO A CHILD,
or address of a child, or of the family in which it may be placed, in violation of section two (2) of this act, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.
Section 9. Appropriation. There is hereby appropriated from any funds in the State treasury, not otherwise appropriated, for the use of the State Board of Public Charities, in carrying out the provisions of this act, the sum of seven thousand two hundred dollars ($7,200) for the year ending June 30, 1904, and seven thousand two hundred dollars ($7,200) for the year ending June 30, 1905.
Condition of the child as to health
Name and address of pastor
Condition of home as to cleanliness..
Observe relations between child and foster parents.
ing General observation as to condition and welfare.
FOR AN ACT TO REGULATE THE SURRENDER, PLAC
ING AND THE TRANSFER OF CHILDREN. Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Ilinois represented in the General Assembly: This act shall apply to all neglected, dependent, truant and delinquent children under the age of sixteen years: The word child or children may
one or more children; parent or parents, one or botl: parents, and persons standing in the relation of parents, association, a corporation or association of persons or firm whether incorporated or not.
Section 2. No person or association engaged in the business of caring for or placing in homes children coming within either of the classes to which this act applies shall place in any family home such child without first having obtained the written surrender or consent from its parents or some person having the right to control the custody of such child, unless the child has been committed to such person or association by a competent court.
Section 3. Before any such person or association shall place in any family home any such child, such person or association shall provide himself or itself with a book to be known as “Juvenile Record," in which shall be entered the name, sex and age of eacii child placed, and any transfer if one is made, the date of surrender, and the name and address of the person surrendering the child, and as far as can be ascertained the names, addresses and occupation of the parents or persons surrendering the child, and the names, ages and addresses of its brothers and sisters. No entries shall be made in said book except such as pertain to the children thus dealt with. Such juvenile record shall be subject to inspection by any person or persons appointed for that purpose by any court having jurisdiction over children.
Section 4. Whoever coming within the terms of this act shall violate any of the provisions thereof shall forfeit and pay to the People of the State of Illinois the sum of not less than twenty dollars ($20.00) and not exceeding two hundred dollars ( $200,00), to be recovered in action of debt before a justice of the peace or any competent court for the benefit of the school fund of the district in which the recovery is had.
Have you any recommendations to offer?.
What suggestions, if any, were made to the foster parents?.
PITTSBURG JUVENILE COURT
Section 6. Care and removal of children. It shall be the duty of the State Board of Public Charities to furnish to the association, institution or individual that may have placed a child in a family home a copy of the report of the visit of said board, within thirty (30) days after said child shall have been visited. If the visitor shall find that the child is cruelly treated or is not receiving suitable school advantages, or that for other good reason the home is not a suitable place for the child, it shall be the duty of said State Board of Public Charities to notify forth with the association, institution or individual that may have placed such child, furnishing them wth a copy of such report. If said association, institution or individual shall not take suitable action in the case, within fifteen (15) days, the said State Board of Public Charities may cause the said child to be removed from the home in which it had been placed, and may return the child to the said association, institution or individual, or to the circuit or county court in the county from which said child was originally received; and the actual and necessary expenses of such removal shall be paid by the agency that originally placed said child.
Section 7 Visitation of wards of other associations and institutions. The State Board of Public Charities shall have authority to place any association or institution. embracing in its work the placing of children in family homes, on the list of institutions subject to the provisions of this act, on application of the board of trustees or directors of such association or institution. When any association or institution shall have been so placed on the list it shall be subject to the provisions of this act and the children placed in homes by such association or institution shall be subject to the visitation of the State Board of Public Charities until further action of said State Board of Public Charities.
Section 8. Penalty. The agent of any association or institution, or any person who shall violate the provisions of section one (1) of this act, or any person who shall disclose the name
Jails and reformatories are recognized as schools for young criminals through contact with older ones. The juvenile court laws recently passed provide for the separate trial of all boys and girls under 16 years of age, and their detention while awaiting trial and release under the control of probation officers who investigate into each case. The judges of our county courts have approved the law. Judge Marshall Brown says:
"The juvenile court act of 1903, for the care, treatment and control of dependent, neglected, incorrigible and delinquent children under the age of 16 years, is the most humane statutory provision within the legislative history of Pennsylvania.”
During last year, of 487 cases before court, only 38 were sent to the reformatories. The other 449 were cared for in institutions or private families, or returned to their parents on probation. This has saved the county thousands of dollars.
The county commissioners have provided the finest rooms of detention in the state, and matrons to care for children awaiting trial, but no provision was made in the act for paying the probation officers. Six hundred cases are now under their care, and the court has about 25 new cases a week. Several additional probation officers should be employed. The women's clubs of the county assumed this work, but it has grown too large for them.
Money is needed to support the probation officers, the work requiring about $5.000 a vear. An appeal is now made to the public and their love of the children to carry on this work. Give liberallv. Send subscriptions to Mrs. Richard R. Quay, treasurer, Allegheny National bank.
A SOCIAL CENTER OF CIVIC CO-OPERATION
BY GRAHAM TAYLOR, RESIDENT WARDEN America needs discovering over again. A new America is themselves were divided more and more by the very intensity coming to be. It is being made of all the old peoples, but in of religious conviction, they became less and less able to rally combination so new that their life together is almost as unknown the whole community for united action. The towns fast and far and strange as the land was to the discoverers. Ships were not outgrew the political possibilities of the Town Meeting. But the more necessary to the explorers in finding the new world, than more effective party caucus, primary and convention were sorry and centers of population were to the colonists in founding the new divisive substitutes for its social co-operation. The public school
remains not only all that it was planned to be, but with far more possibilities of neighborhood helpfulness than was even dreamed of until very recently.
Meanwhile in America as nowhere else in the world a common denominator is needed to solve the problem of our increasingly cosmopolitan population and complicated life. The lesson of living and working together which our forefathers learned so well under their simple conditions, we must learn over again
in a complexity of life hitherto unequaled in any land or age. To recover some sort of a center and bond of fellowship and cooperation, under the changed conditions of life and labor in all our cities, many of our smaller towns and even in country places, has become more and more of a social, political and moral, not to say human, necessity. For it is just those populations which have lost or never had their centers of neighborly and patriotic co-operation that have been the worst prey of corrupt politics and the boss, of class distinction and the demagogue, and of a sectarianism suicidal to religion. To restore the spirit and bond of neighborship is the need of the hour. To beget the consciousness of each other, a respect for each other's characteristic differences, and enough of a give-and-take good
nation. At the geographical centers of their original towns our New England forefathers forged three links of association for the common interest. Their "center” church was like the flag staff of the commonwealth which kept floating high over the heads of all, their ideals of life, individual and social. Closely allied with it was the free school, the bulwark of the state and the buckler to the citizen, in being a common possession to which all had more equal right than to anything except the village green. Under-girding both and representing the whole community was the Town Meeting, where freemen met on an equality never realized before.
But our populations no sooner became diverse in race and religion and subdivided in industrial occupations and interests,
The Kindergarten gets its first look at the milk supply. fellowship to live and work with each other has become as imperative as the instinct of self-preservation.
This call out of the great deep of the common life was answered out of the depth of some individual lives. A heart hunger for a larger share of the race life, a greater part in real things, a conscious identity with the common life sprang up here and there among those who, for one reason or another, felt more or less apart from human kind. So, more by an instinctive impulse than by any concerted movement, groups of men and women, at first only from the universities, but more and more from other and equally adequate sources of supply, took up their residence among and became a part of the residential population in the industrial districts of the cities,
Thus social settlements arose almost spontaneously, just where the density of population and complexity of life most lacked and demanded the ideal, the initiative and the common ground which, in part, at least, are supplied at these co-operative centers. We, who are at Chicago Commons to share the common
than they began to lose these centers of association. The churches continued to hold up the common ideals of religion and generate the power for self-sacrificing service. But as they