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Page Practical Annexation of England....

3 Prison Discipline. Reports of Prison Association of New-York.. 129 Papers of an Old Dartmoor Prisoner. Edited by Nathaniel Hawthorne.141, 209 Political Statistics. Oregon Treaty—Tariff Bill, and Vote thereon in the

House-Land and Treasury Note Bill, and Vote-Warehousing Bill,
and Vote-Land Graduation Bill, and Vote...

154 State Elections...

414 Congressional Elections..

495 Political Portraits with Pen and Pencil. Silas Wright, of New York,... 349 Do. Zadock Pratt, late Member of Congress from the State of NewYork..

472 Reasons Why the Aspect of Society in England and the United States

must be Radically and Permanently Different. By Junius Smith.... 25 Do. No. II..

217 Sonnets. By the Author of the “ Yemassee,” &c..47, 140, 202, 302, 391, 471 Some Translations from Uhland. By William Allen Butler...

55 Slaves and Slavery. Ist. Message of the President, transmitting to Con

gress Despatches from the American Minister at Brazil. 2d. Report of the Secretary of State, with Correspondence of S. W. Slacum, late U.S. Consul at Rio Janeiro. 3d. Parliamentary Debate on Sugar Duties.

243 Travels in North America. Travels in North America. By Charles Lyell, Esq., F. R. S..

113 The Writings of Charles Lamb: An Essay. By J. W. Shelton.. 123 The Tariff-Its History and Influence..

163 The Old Arm-Chair that Rocks so Easy.

192 The Indian Lover...

272 The Elements of Morality ; including Polity. The Elements of Morality;

Including Polity. By William Whewell, D. D., Author of the “ His

tory and Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences,” &c.... .273, 385 The Broken Heart-A Tale of Hispaniola. By S. Anna Lewis, author of Records of the Heart,"..

312 The New York Constitutional Convention,.

339 The Goddess of the Beautiful-A Bohemian Legend,

365 The Norseman's Ride,

368 The Infelicities of Intellectual Men,.

378 The Welcome Rain-Translated from the High German of Herr Niemand of Weisnichtwo.....

400 The Results,

419 The Administrations of Washington and Adams Memoirs of the Admin

istrations of Washington and John Adams. Edited from the Papers
of Oliver Wolcott. By George Gibbs,...

426 The Natural History of New-York. Natural History of New York. By Authority,..

433 The Autobiography of Goethe. Truth and Poetry; from My Life.

Translated from the German of Goethe. Edited by Parke Godwin,. 443 To the Ocean. By Mrs, J. W. Mercur..

452 Upward! By J. Bayard Taylor.

442 Which is the Fortunate Man? By Miss Anna Middleton..

48 West Point. By H. T. Tuckerman...

121 What is Truth ? 1st. Acts and Resolutions passed at the first session of

the 29th Congress of the Uniied States. Published by Authority. 2d. Sections adopted at the New York Constitutional Convention... 267

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The great feature of the modern islands, then indeed might the nations world is the growth and power of the of Europe have cause for alarm, were it Anglo-Saxon race. More particularly not for the peaceful nature of our since the commencement of the present institutions. The Anglo-Saxons on this century have their numbers multiplied continent are now equal in number to with a rapidity that astonishes the those in Great Britain, and in a few observer. In the 46 years which have years the latter will bear but a small elapsed since the 18th century reached proportion to the whole number. its close, the Anglo-Saxon race, properly The great improvements which have so called, have increased 120 per cent. been made in science have prodigiously Their wealth, prosperity and social increased the means of subsistence in condition have improved in a much the British islands ; and the increase of greater ratio. The race is now divided the population, great as it has undoubtinto nearly equal parts, one of which, edly been, is yet subordinate to the in the possession of great political enhanced production. The latter, by power, occupies the British islands, outrunning the population, has afforded and from them sways the commercial to the laboring classes luxuries and world. The other inhabits the conti even comforts that formerly were dent of North America, and will soon unknown to the richest lords. The absorb the whole in one vast union, from proportion of food produced in the whose bosom the British islands must British islands to the whole number of thereafter draw their supplies of food, and the people is doubtless much larger become measurably dependent for the than formerly, but at the same time elements of their power. The natural there is a larger and increasing number limits of British greatness appear to who suffer more than formerly, because have been reached; that is, the greatest the tendency of laws and the structure number of persons that her resources of society has been, to accelerate the can feed, occupy her islands, and those natural accumulation of property in the persons exercise the greatest possible hands of a few at the expense of the power that is permitted to one nation many. The population of the British in modern times. If the Anglo-Saxon islands, exclusive of Ireland, has inrace on this continent is destined to creased from 10,472,048 in 1800, reach wealth and power as much according to the census then taken, to greater than those now enjoyed by 18,664,761 in 1841, being an increase England, as the breadth of land here of about 80 per cent. in 40 years. In occupied is larger than the British the same time the number of the

French people rose from 27,349,003 occupied, and each successive tract to 34,194,875, or 25 per cent. only. overrun is apparently more fertile The United States, peopled by the same than the other. The area of Great race as Great Britain, have in a similar Britain is the same now that it ever has period multiplied their numbers of been; that is to say, 55,291,788 acres, white inhabitants from 4,304,489 to or 86,439 square miles. On this ex14,575,998, or 320 per cent., having tent of surface, as we have seen, the nearly doubled every 20 years. The population has increased 8,192,713 souls population of the United States has or 80 per cent. in 40 years, or 94 perindeed been mostly of the Anglo-Saxon sons to each square mile. Or, in other race, but it has received constant words, from a population of 118 to the accessions of French and Germans, square mile in 1800, the density has who mix with and are finally lost in the increased to 210 to the square mile in swelling numbers of the whole mass. 1840. In the United States the greatThe British Islands have lost to some est density is in that of Massachusetts, extent by emigration, and most of that eighty-six to the mile. To maintain which they have lost has been a direct this increase, the highest skill and gain to America. The decennial in- science in agriculture, added to the crease per cent of the population of the most unremitting industry and perseUnited States, as compared with that verance, has been requisite in England. of England, has been for the first 40 It is self-evident, however, that there years of the present century as follows: is a point beyond which this increase

cannot take place; that how great so1800-10. 1810-20. 1820-30. 1830-40. United States....36.2. ...31.3......33 8.....34.7

ever the productive powers of the EnBritish Islands... 14.2....17.6......15.5.....14.0 glish soil may be made through the aid

of science, ultimately the wants of the From 1810 to 1820, which embrace population, through increasing numthe period of the last war, it appears bers, must exceed those powers. This that the ratio of increase in the United appears now to be nearly the case. States diminished, while that of the Every portion of the soil of Great BriBritish islands improved. Since that tain, capable of bearing food advantaperiod the actual increase of the popu- geously, has been pressed into that lation of the United States has become service. It is true that there are still more considerable, while that of the maintained in England a large number British islands has decreased 34 per of cattle, Of horses alone there are cent., baving been for the ten years 1,330,000, on which duties are paid; to ending with 1840, slightly less than in feed which, an extent of soil equal to a similar period ending with 1810, that which will suffice for the susteduring a general war. These facts nance of 10,000,000 human beings is seem to support the theory that the required; but these horses are, to a very increase of population must always considerable extent, necessary in the depend upon the increase of food and conduct of internal business, and indisother necessaries, and can never, for pensable as yet to the trade which any considerable period, exceed that supports the manufacturing population. increase. As far as bigh science and How far those services may be supergreat capital go, England has the advan- seded by steam is a question. It is, howtage of the United States in facilities ever, probable that steam may so far for enhancing the means of subsistence; supply the place as to make an increase nevertheless her population feels annu in their numbers to facilitate a growing ally the increasing restraint upon its trade unnecessary; and, indeed, as the growth consequent upon the deficiency home supply of food has now become of food, and the existing distress mani. insufficient for the support of both anifests itself in the swelling number of mals and human beings, in consequence paupers, who now, according to a Parlia- of the excess of their demands, it would mentary statement, reach 1,500,000 seem that the maintenance of the souls. While England has thus en former would become yearly more countered in her onward progress an onerous. The surface of England may insurmountable barrier to her continued be pretty accurately divided into three advancement, the United States have sections, viz: 10 manufacturing and constantly added to the quantity of land mining counties, 13 metropolitan and

POPULATION OF ENGLAND. Counties.

1700. 1800. 1840.

partially manufacturing counties, and for food, even if the latter could con19 exclusively agricultural counties. tinue to supply the demand. The landThe official returns show that the rural owners must now reduce their profits population of England has not increased to enable England to maintain her marsince 1700, a period of 140 years, du- kets. The manufacturing greatness of ring which the other classes of society the British islands has outgrown their have increased near 300 per cent. capacity to feed the operatives. The

The population of the several divi- Anglo-Saxon race in England, like a sions of England that we have named hot-house plaat, is confined in too small are as follows:

a vessel; it has become restricted in its growth, and requires to be transplanted

to a broad and genial soil. This has been Agricoltural....... 2,029,800 2,670,337 4,059,114

done. The climate and soil of the UniManufacturing ....1,113,900 2,328,773 5,310,472 ted States were peculiarly suited to the Metropolitan.... 2,002,700 3,130,054 5,587,560

development of their vigorous growth. 5,146,400 8,331,164 14,957,146 On this continent the breadth of terri

tory and its resources are as limitless The returns of the population of the as the untiring enterprise of the peotowns and cities show that the increase ple. Their escape from the restrainof the agricultural counties has been ing limits of the narrow islands and unprincipally in the towns, so that the just laws of Britain, has been followed rural population of England, as in the by a vigor of growth never before agricultural counties of Scotland, ap- equalled by any people; and this propears not to have increased at all since gression has been marked by an acces170r, at least not materially. The sion of territory in a ratio nearly as same number of the tillers of the earth, great as that in which their numbers the productions of whose industry fed have multiplied ; that is to say, the 5,146,400 persons in 1700, is now re- white inhabitants of the United States quired to feed 14,957,146, without have increased 10,271,509, while Great counting the increase of cattle, which Britain has added but 8,192,713 to her is probably equal to five millions more population since 1800. In this period, persons. This excessive demand has

the land brought into cultivation in been supplied by pressing into the ser- Great Britain has been 3,621,770 acres, vice every possible tillable piece of as returned by the inclosure bills before ground, and calling the highest science Parliament. On this continent the to aid in its cultivation (the latter has area of the states in 1800 was 473,770 mainly compensated for the small in square miles. There has since been crease of manual labor.) The traders added, exclusive of Texas, 814,810 and manufacturers have increased seven square miles, making an area of remillions since 1700, and five millions presented states at this time equal to since 1800. These have produced that 1,288,580 square miles, or 15 times the manufactured wealth which has laid the area of Great Britain. Nearly all the world under contribution to British in land so occupied and settled is, in its dustry. The physical well-being of the natural state, of a description more fermasses of the people has not, however, tile than any which the high culture of proportionably improved. The master England can exhibit. Prairies containmanufacturers have divided with the ing millions of acres of rich black loam land-owners the whole profits of the several feet deep are but entered upon, industry of these people. What little and still waiting the physical force money the former have paid for labor, which is yet to accumulate for the culthe latter have demanded for the food tivation of vast spots, most of which, supplied from their lands. This col- after an annual succession of 200 lusion of interests worked well, as long crops, yield wheat as rankly and vigoras the manufacturers did not experience ously as in the first few years of their in third markets any active opposition. subjection to the service of civilization. But European competition has so re The people of the United States are duced the money prices of goods, that essentially agricultural in their pursuits, manufacturers can no longer pay suf- and the unrivalled advantages which ficient wages to feed their workmen at nature has afforded have by no means the old prices demanded by land-owners been neglected. The most invaluable

tracts of land have been spread before Not only has the demand for food å fearless, enterprising, and energetic increased with the progress of manurace, almost without money and with- factures and the extension of railout price. The choicest lands of the roads throughout Europe, but the apwestern valleys have been at the com- plication of capital and science to agrimand of every man; and they have culture, and the improvement in imflocked thither to enjoy them, not only plements, have been insufficient to from our own Atlantic states, but the compensate for the decay of the land. islands of Britain and the distant coun - The constant and long cropping of tries of Europe have poured forth their the best lands in the wheat districts of thousands to occupy and subdue the Europe has, united to a barbarous sysprairies of the west. The census re tem of culture, reduced them to a turns of the United States show, that state of comparative sterility. It has of the increase of the population since long been known that the continued 1820, 80 per cent. are agriculturists; exportation of corn from any country the remaining 20 per cent. are engaged will exhaust the soil, unless there is in commerce, mining, manufactures, imported in return articles which may and trades. This is the reverse of that be converted into manure in some deprocess which has been going on in gree to compensate for the injuries so England, and also in Europe. The inflicted. Many parts of the porth of same causes which have operated so Africa and of Asia-Minor that were powerfully in England to cause the de- formerly depended upon by Europe for mand for food to outrun the local sup- large supplies of grain, are now irreply, have also been actively at work in trievable deserts. The system purdiminishing that surplus supply in Eu- sued in Prussia and Poland, of raising rope to which England formerly looked two crops of corn in succession, adminto make good her own occasional de- istering nothing to refresh the soil but a ficits. These causes are the power- fallow, will ultimately exhaust the best ful impulses that have been given to land. For near two centuries Poland manufacturing industry, by which the has continued to export large quantities number of agricultural producers has of bread-stuffs, without receiving from been diminished and the consumers abroad anything that could be converted increased. The former have also been into nutriment for the soil. The quanlessened by the number of agricultural tities exported, for periods of 25 years emigrants who leave the worn-out each, with the price at the close of lands and the profitless servitude of each period, in Dantzic has been as noble owners in Europe to tread their follows: own prolific farms in the western valleys of America. The countries of

Rye. Europe during the past year, which has

$ cts.

$ cts. indeed been one of bad harvests, have not yielded more than sufficient for their own wants. The surplus of one section has not more than sufficed for

1776-1800...30,059,840 the deficit of another; and, although the

9,181,532

1825-1846...20,000,000 demands of England, which subsequent to 1837 were annually large, were last Total....176,859,576 209,793,856 year small, the price of grain throughout Europe has been higher than per The natural effect of this constant haps ever before, and grain is now drain of corn from a district, is manifest much cheaper in the United States in the exhaustion of the soil. Accordingthan in any other country; that is to ly, Jacobs, who was sent by the English say, in the great grain markets of the government to investigate the capacity north of Europe for May, the price of of the countries of Europe to supply wheat averaged $1.40 per bushel, and grain to England, reports that in every in New-York 90 cents. At Odessa, the part of his journey through Poland the great centre of the Black Sea grain fields, whether with growing crops, in trade, it was $1.00 per bushel, and the stubble, or under the operations of the demand good to supply the wants of plough, presented the appearance of Italy and the Mediterranean.

s exhaustion from excessive cropping.”

Price.

Price.

Wheat.

bush. 1651-1675....14.397,384 1676-1700....24,978.464 1701-1725...12,159,064 1726-1750....16,124.848 1751-1775...27,087,328

busb. 36,049.976 45,416,464 34,019,976 23.754.108 39,762 824 21,608.976

26 36 32 86 1 75

60 1 50

20 30

60 105 26

1801-1825...32,052,648

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