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'Now, in matter of the knowledge of the works of nature, 1 would have you to study that exactly; that so there be no sea, river, nor fountain, of which thou dost not know the fishes; all the fowls of the air; all the several kinds of shrubs and trees, whether in forest or orchard; all the sorts of herbs and flowers that grow upon the ground; all the various metals that are hid within the bowels of the earth. Let nothing of all these be hidden from thee. But because, as the wise man Solomon saith, wisdom entereth not into a malicious mind, and that knowledge without conscience is but the ruin of the soul; it behoveth thee to serve, to love, to fear God, and on him to cast all thy thoughts and all thy hope, and, by faith formed in love to cleave unto him, so that thou mayest never be separated from him by thy sins.'Letter from GARAGANTUA to his son PANTAGRUEL.


Qui curiosus postulat totum suæ
Patere menti, ferre qui non sufficit
Mediocritatis conscientiam suæ,
Judex iniquus, æstimator est malus
Suique naturæque; nam rerum parens,
Libanda tantum quæ venit mortalibus,
Nos scire pauca, multa mirari jubet.'

Quiescet animus, errabit minus
Contentus eruditione parabili,

Nec quæret illam, siqua quærentem fugit.
Nescire quædam magna pars sapientiæ est.'





Πρῶτον χόρτον, εἶτα στάχυν, εἶτα πλήρη σῖτον ἐν τῷ στάχυϊ.

NE of the chief sins of our time is hurry: it is


helter-skelter, and devil take the hindmost. Off we go all too swift at starting, and we neither run so fast nor so far as we would have done, had we taken it cannily at first.

This is true of a boy as
Not only are boys and

well as of a blood colt. colts made to do the work and the running of fullgrown men and horses, but they are hurried out of themselves and their now, and pushed into the middle of next week where nobody is wanting them, and beyond which they frequently never get.

The main duty of those who care for the young is to secure their wholesome, their entire growth, for health is just the development of the whole nature in its due sequences and proportions: first the blade -then the ear-then, and not till then, the full corn

in the ear; and thus, as Dr. Temple wisely says, 'not to forget wisdom in teaching knowledge.' If the blade be forced, and usurp the capital it inherits; if it be robbed by you its guardian of its birthright, or squandered like a spendthrift, then there is not any ear, much less any corn; if the blade be blasted or dwarfed in our haste and greed for the full shock and its price, we spoil all three. It is not easy to keep this always before one's mind, that the young 'idea' is in a young body, and that healthy growth and harmless passing of the time are more to be cared for than what is vainly called accomplishment. We are preparing him to run his race, and accomplish that which is one of his chief ends; but we are too apt to start him off at his full speed, and he either bolts or breaks down-the worst thing for him generally being to win. In this way a child or boy should be regarded much more as a mean than as an end, and his cultivation should have reference to this; his mind, as old Montaigne said, should be forged, as well as indeed, I would say, rather than -furnished, fed rather than filled,-two not always coincident conditions. Now exercise-the joy of interest, of origination, of activity, of excitement— the play of the faculties, this is the true life of a boy, not the accumulation of mere words. Wordsthe coin of thought-unless as the means of buying something else, are just as useless as other coin

when it is hoarded; and it is as silly, and in the true sense as much the part and lot of a miser, to amass words for their own sakes, as to keep all your guineas in a stocking and never spend them, but be satisfied with every now and then looking greedily at them and making them chink. Therefore it is that I dislike-as indeed who doesn't?—the cramming system. The great thing with knowledge and the young is to secure that it shall be their ownthat it be not merely external to their inner and real self, but shall go in succum et sanguinem; and therefore it is, that the self-teaching that a baby and a child give themselves remains with them for ever— it is of their essence, whereas what is given them ab extra, especially if it be received mechanically, without relish, and without any energizing of the entire nature, remains pitifully useless and wersh. Try, therefore, always to get the resident teacher inside the skin, and who is for ever giving his lessons, to help you and be on your side.

Now in children, as we all know, he works chiefly through the senses. The quantity of accurate observation of induction, and of deduction too (both of a much better quality than most of Mr. Buckle's); of reasoning from the known to the unknown; of inferring; the nicety of appreciation of the like and the unlike, the common and the rare, the odd and the even; the skill of the rough and the smooth

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