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Egypt, France, Germany, Hawaiian Islands, Haiti, Honduras, Italy, Kongo Free State, Korea, Japan, Madagascar, Morocco, Netherlands (and colonies), Nicaragua, Orange Free State, Paraguay, Persia, Peru, Portugal, Prussia, Roumania, Russia, Salvador, Servia, Spain, Switzerland, and Tripoli. In those countries consuls of the United States are entitled to claim as full rights and privileges as have been granted to consuls of other nations.

INVIOLABILITY OF THE ARCHIVES AND PAPERS OF THE CON

SULATE.

79. This is secured by treaties with Austria-Hungary, the Argentine Republic, Belgium, Bolivia, Colombia, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Germany, Greece, Haiti, Kongo Free State, Maskat, Netherlands (and colonies), Orange Free State, Peru, Portugal, Roumania, Salvador, Servia, Sweden and Norway, and Switzerland.

INVIOLABILITY OF THE CONSULAR OFFICE AND DWELLING.

80. This is secured by treaties with Belgium, Bolivia, France, Germany (of consuls not citizens), Italy, Kongo Free State, Korea, Maskat, Morocco, Roumania, Salvador, and Servia; but the dwelling can not be used as an asylum. It is agreed with Colombia that the persons and dwellings of consuls are to be subject to the laws of the country, except as specially exempted by treaty. The consulates in Germany are not to be made asylums for the subjects of other powers.

EXEMPTION FROM ARREST.

81. By convention with Belgium, Germany, Italy, Kongo Free State, Netherlands, Roumania, and Servia, the consul is exempted from arrest, except for crimes. By treaty

Treaty of November 22, 1894, which goes into effect July 17, 1899.

with Turkey he is entitled to suitable distinction and necessary aid and protection. In Maskat he enjoys the inviolability of a diplomatic officer. In Austria-Hungary and France he is to enjoy personal immunities; but in France, if a citizen of France, or owning property there, or engaged in commerce, he can claim only the immunities granted to other citizens of the country who own property or to merchants. In AustriaHungary and Roumania, if engaged in business, he can be detained only for commercial debts. In Colombia the consuls of the United States have no diplomatic character. In Great Britain, Liberia, Netherlands (as to colonies), Nicaragua, and Paraguay they are regarded as appointed for the protection of trade.

EXEMPTION FROM OBLIGATION TO APPEAR AS A WITNESS.

82. This is secured absolutely by convention with France, and, except for defense of persons charged with crime, by conventions with Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, Roumania, Salvador, and Servia. In such case the testimony may be taken in writing at the consul's dwelling. If the consul claims this privilege, he should, in such case, offer to give his evidence in the mode prescribed by the particular convention, and should throw no impediment in the way of the proper administration of justice in the country of his official residence.

EXEMPTION FROM TAXATION.

83. When a consul is not a citizen of the country in which the consulate is situated, and does not own real estate therein, and is not engaged in business therein, he is secured against the liability to taxation by treaties or conventions with Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bolivia, Colombia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Germany, Haiti, Hawaiian Islands, Italy, Kongo Free State, Netherlands (and colonies), Orange Free State, Persia, Peru, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Salvador, Servia, and Switzerland. In Germany the official income of a consul not taxable. In general, if a consular officer engages in business or owns property in the country of his official residence, he can not claim exemptions in respect of such business or property other than those accorded to citizens or subjects of the country.

EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY BILLETINGS OR SERVICE AND

PUBLIC SERVICE.

84. If consuls are not citizens of the country of their consular residence or domiciled in it at the time of appointment, exemption from military billetings or service is secured by conventions with Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Kongo Free State, and Netherlands. Exemption from all public service is secured by treaties with Colombia, Denmark, Germany, Peru, Salvador; and in Colombia the exemption also extends to officers, secretaries, and attachés, and in Servia and Roumania to all citizens of the United States.

INFRACTION OF TREATIES. 85. The right of consuls to correspond with the local authorities in case of any infraction of treaty is secured by conventions with Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Colombia, France, Germany, Italy, Kongo Free State, Netherlands (and colonies), Roumania, Salvador, and Servia; and in case the local authorities fail to give redress and there be no diplomatic representative, they may apply to the government of the country in which they, respectively, exercise their functions. USE OF THE NATIONAL ARMS AND FLAGS ON OFFICES AND

DWELLINGS. 86. The right to place the national arms and the name of the consulate on the offices is given by treaties with AustriaHungary, Italy, and Netherlands (and colonies); on their

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offices and dwellings by treaty with Belgium and Germany; the right to place the national flag on their dwellings, except where there is a legation, by treaties with Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Germany, Roumania, and Servia; the right to place the arms, name, and flag on their offices or dwellings by treaties with France and Salvador; and the right to place the name and flag on their dwellings by treaty with Colombia. The treaty with the Kongo Free State confers the right to raise the flag on the consular office.

DEPOSITIONS.

87. The right to take depositions is secured by conventions with Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Colombia, France, Germany (of American citizens), Italy, Kongo Free State, Netherlands, Roumania, Servia, and Salvador.

JURISDICTION OVER DISPUTES BETWEEN MASTERS, OFFICERS,

AND CREWS.

88. Exclusive jurisdiction over such disputes in the vessels of the United States, including questions of wages, is conferred by treaties or conventions with Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Colombia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Kongo Free State, Netherlands (and colonies), Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Salvador, Sweden and Norway, and Tripoli.

RIGHT TO RECLAIM DESERTERS.

89. The right to reclaim deserters from the vessels of the United States is conferred by treaties or conventions with Austria-Hungary, Bolivia, Belgium, Colombia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Great Britain, Greece, Germany, Hanseatic Republics, Haiti, Hawaiian Islands, Italy, Kongo Free State, Japan, Madagascar, Netherlands (and colonies), Peru, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Salvador, Sweden and Norway, and Siam; but if a deserter has committed a crime against local law the surrender will be delayed until after punishment.

SALVAGE AND WRECKS.

90. The powers of consuls to adjust damages suffered at sea and in matters of wrecks and salvage are settled by treaties with Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bolivia, Borneo, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaiian Islands, Ilonduras, Italy, Japan, Korea, Liberia, Madagascar, Maskat, Morocco, Netherlands (including colonies), Ottoman Porte, Paraguay, Roumania, Salvador, Siam, Spain, Sweden and Norway, Tripoli, and Tunis. In Maskat and the Ottoman dominions they have the right, in the absence of the owner or agent, to receive the property of American citizens wrecked or captured from pirates.

PERSONAL EFFECTS OF DECEASED CITIZENS OF THE UNITED

STATES.

91. In Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Germany, Italy, and Netherlands (and colonies) the local authorities are required to inform consuls of the death of their countrymen intestate or without known heirs. In Germany, Roumania, and Servia consuls have the right to appear for absent heirs or creditors until regularly authorized representatives appear. In Maskat, Morocco, Persia, Peru, Salvador, Tripoli, and Tunis they may administer on the property of their deceased countrymen. In Colombia they may do so, except when legislation prevents it. In Costa Rica, Honduras, and Nicaragua they may nominate curators to take charge of such property, so far as local laws permit. In Paraguay they may become temporary custodians of such property. In Germany they may take charge of the effects of deceased sailors.

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