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PRE! 1.'T.

L the present volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA Series, boruto improvenients have been introduced whii taittructiveness and trsekulness. The subjects trei!! with unusgul care, an the use of full-face type fo. i. bringa tlern out more distinctly, and renders it easie is 'l.6 1.0.0 410!? :* unice to the exact piece bof information which he seekr. Ir. -1.vieti. been given to illustration The accounts of the war in? 1.4.1 are ench accompanied by a full-page map; another "':Bisdi.. its lie annual rainfall in every part of the United States, all, a les 21. new time-system recensiy adopted; there is a larg 111 Bridge at Ningara, one of the German National Mo. ent on the

il, and one of the new Capitol a Albany; the improvem sitwill... 1.6.0'. Hectricity are fully illn brated ; and some strange an! mp!

i: the aberration of sounds used for fog-signals are gana. Portraits of the how Archbishop of Canterbur..silinja Comper, Gustave Dors, Gonion, Llicks Pasha, urr. 1:1,6,10, Seridan, Alexander Wagner the compose, iririi indoor.. appear in their proper te

The reports of the procedings of Congress has beos unnus'y full, 15 rocans of rearly reference to several subjects of nati: 11:14 rest way to be lesed in the Presidenti canvass of 1881.

A brief summary of the events of the year, in cl.rubrica oniue in a new fentire, serving to refres the readers momory as :) : erous occurrences wilch could not be treats a length in a work like ! The paper on the "Composition and Nutrite Value of Foods" and ti toote ile United States Ful Commission," with instructions for the propagat, im*tion of leli, will be found especially instructive and practical.

Mr. Alphonso A. Hopicins, Prohibition candidate iverner vi Vie York in 1882, gives a full history of prohibition, fruin en cardiest times to th... present daya subject that is rapidly making for itset a place in political a legislative stairs, while the editor of the Salvation 1. publication grida 11 enthoritative account of that strange movement in origin will. T. Fecent advances in chemistry, surgery, and other seicare are tuted, ari thon paesent condition of each of the great denominations of Crta is set forth,

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PREFACE.

In the present volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, the eighth of the New Series, some improvements have been introduced which it is hoped will add to its attractiveness and usefulness. The subjects treated have been subdivided with unusual care, and the use of full-face type for the heads and sub-heads brings them out more distinctly, and renders it easier for the reader to turn at once to the exact piece of information which he seeks. Increased attention has been given to illustration. The accounts of the wars in Egypt and Tonquin are each accompanied by a full-page map; another full-pagè map exhibits the annual rainfall in every part of the United States, and a colored map shows the new time-system recently adopted; there is a large view of the Cantilever Bridge at Niagara, one of the German National Monument on the Niederwald, and one of the new Capitol at Albany; the improvements in the use of gas and electricity are fully illustrated; and some strange and important discoveries in the aberration of sound as used for fog-signals are represented by curious diagrans. Portraits of the new Archbishop of Canterbury, Speaker Carlisle, Peter Cooper, Gustave Doré, General Gordon, Hicks Pasha, Mario the singer, General Sheridan, Alexander H. Stephens, Wagner the composer, and other celebrities, appear in their proper places.

The report of the proceedings of Congress has been made unusually full, as a means of ready reference to several subjects of national interest which will be discussed in the Presidential canvass of 1881.

A brief summary of the events of the year, in chronological order, is a new feature, serving to refresh the reader's memory as to numerous occurrences which could not be treated at length in a work like this. The paper on the "Composition and Nutritive Value of Foods," and that on the “United States Fish Commission,” with instructions for the propagation and preservation of fish, will be found especially instructive and practical.

Mr. Alphonso A. Hopkins, Prohibition candidate for Governor of New York in 1882, gives a full history of prohibition, from the earliest times to the present day-a subject that is rapidly making for itself a place in political and legislative affairs; while the editor of the Salvation Army's publications gives an authoritative account of that strange movement in the religious world. The recent advances in chemistry, surgery, and other sciences are noted, and the present condition of each of the great denominations of Christians is set forth.

The articles “Failures in Business," " Financial Review of 1883,” and “United States Finances," show clearly what has taken place in the monetary world. These and the numerous other articles, most of which, being subjects treated every year, need not be specially enumerated, constitute substantially the world's chronicle for 1883. Those who have just lived that year amid the crowding occurrences of our hurrying age, will realize, as they glance over the record, how letters in their simplest and humblest capacity, if they can not bring back the past, at least may double memory, and thereby lengthen life.

An index to the eight volumes (including the present) of the New Series will be found at the close of the book. An effort has been made to give it sufficient fullness to render all the information easily accessible, and yet not to overload it with needless entries that obscure the very things the reader is look

ing for.

In its proper place will be found a portrait and brief sketch of the late William J. Tenney, who edited this work from its beginning, in 1861, up to and including the volume for 1882.

New York, April 11, 1884.

THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

A

AFGHANISTAN. Abdurrahman Khan, since the Oxus. This great province, embracing the he was set up by the British as Amir of Af- rich region on the northern slope of the Hindoo ghanistan, has struggled vigorously to con- Koosh, was given into the hands of the Amir's solidate the Afghan state and maintain his cousin, Isa Khan, as a reward for his fidelity rule over the loose league of turbulent clans to the cause of Abdurrahman while he was which form the Afgban nation. After the still living as an exile in Samarcand. Isa Khan withdrawal of the British army from Afghan- objected to the appointment of his former subistan, there was no hope of preserving a close ordinate, Kudus Khan, to the governorship of control over Abdurrahman, for as a puppet of Herat, which post he desired for his brother, England he would immediately become impos. Mohsin. Abdurrahman would have been glad sible. As the British nominee, he was left in to please his cousing and displace the dangeran exceedingly difficult position. The policy ous officer who had implanted himself too firmof the Imperial Government was, to attempt ly in Herat, but he dared not put his authority do dictation and make no exhibition of British to the test. This caused an alienation between power in Afghanistan, nor even inquire too the Amir and his viceroy in Turkistan. Both closely into the loyalty and friendship of the the northern divisions of the country are thus Amir, yet to supply him liberally with money ruled by governors who are able and ready to and war materials, at the expense of the lo- defy the commands of the Amir. The advancdian revenue, so as to enable him to buy oring influence of Russia finds there a field which compel the submission of his vassals. “A the misdirected efforts and sacrifices of the strong, peaceful, and friendly Afghanistan” British have helped to prepare for it. was the aim of this policy, the friendship to In the southern parts of the country Abdurbe won by large gifts and the renunciation of rahman has been but little more successful in British claims to domination, which would consolidating his power. In Cabool he rules in encourage the Afghans to apply their united state with the aid of British gold, and Candastrength to resist Russian encroachments. Ab- har he holds with a tolerably firm hand. But durrahman gained possession of the fortress the maintenance of civil order in garrisoned of Herat, which is the bulwark of Afghanistan towns is a different thing from keeping in subon the west, by a prompt military movement. jection and restraint the Afghan people, which His energy, or that of his lieutenants, broke is composed of warlike clans who have not up the seemingly forinidable power of his yet passed out of the tribal organization of cousin and rival, Ayub. Yet the undivided society, and who will accept none of the bur. authority of the Amir was not established in dens and pay none of the duties of civil govHlerat, nor can the Heratis be counted upon ernment, except to unite in repelling a foreign in future complications to remain true either enemy. In 1883 the Shinwarris, a tribe in to their allegiance to the Amir, or to their habiting the eastern side of the Sufed Koh political union with Southern Afghanistan. range, rebelled against the authority of the Gen. Abdul Kudus Khan, who took possession Amir. Abdurrahman sent a force to reduce of Herat in the autumn of 1881, after the them to subjection, but the military operations defeat of Ayub, established himself there as accomplished nothing except to spread disunlimited ruler, and by the mildness of his affection, and the rebellious agitation extended government won the affections of the Herati to the neighboring clans, the Afridis and Mopeople. Abdurrahman quickly re-established munds. The Government of British India the sovereignty of the Amir in Turkistan, or came to the aid of the Amir with arms and Northern Afghanistan, as soon as he crossed ammunition. Some of these were intercepted

TOL, XXIII.—1 A

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