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slowly and uniformly; 3, the temperature of per is removed, and a small flame is introthe oil at the beginning of the test must be at duced. Flashing-points obtained by this plan least 18° Fahr. below its flashing-point as ap- are considerably lower than those given by the proximately determined ; 4, the size and inten- former methods, and are largely independent sity of the flame or spark used to produce the of the conditions that are considered essential flash must be the same in all tests; 5, the dis- to the accuracy of the determinations by them. tance of the flash-flame or spark from the sur. Haas's method is the same in principle as Meyface of the oil must be the same ; 6, the time er's, but employs an electric spark instead of a during which the flame or spark acts must be flame, and the apparatus is difficult of conreduced to a minimum; 7, on account of the struction and costly. Both methods require practical purpose for which the tests are made, repeated shaking of the oil as the heat rises the conditions under which the vapor is formed from degree to degree, which is very inconin the tester should correspond as closely as pos- venient. Liebermann has made a simple, sucsible to those which determine its formation cessful, and practical application of the same and explosion in lamps, etc. It can not be af- principle in his tester, in which, Fig. 2, the firmed that all the conditions under which explosions in lamps are liable to occur are provided for in any single testing instrument of this class. The oil-reservoirs in our lamps differ much in size and shape, and hence have different capacities. The quantity of oil, its surface, and the amount of air in the reservoir with which the vapor mingles, are constantly changing while the lamp is in use and the danger is greatest. Moreover, it is not only in quietly-burning lamps that accidents occur. Probably half the accidents are due to upsetting or breaking, and the oil, which would have been safe otherwise, gives rise to explosion or flames under these more dangerous circumstances. It is important to employ, if possible, & test which shall indicate the lowest tempera
Fig. 2.- LIEBERMANN'S TESTER. ture at which, under any conditions, inflammable rapors can be evolved, rather than be sat saturation of air is accomplished by forcing an isfied with trusting to a method which merely from degree to degree; and the test is made
air-current through the oil as it is warmed proves an oil safe under certain arbitrary con- by bringing a small flame to the mouth of the ditions. Certain testers have been proposed, oil-holder at the same instant. based upon the principle of ascertaining the elastic force or tension of the vapor of the oil still more simple construction than this has at a given temperature: they are deceptive and been proposed. It consists, as shown in Fig. worthless, for it has been conclusively shown 3, of a glass cylinder closed at one end by a that no definite relation exists between the vapor-tension and the flashing-point of a kerosene. Another method of testing, by distilla
d tion, is exact, and has the additional advantage of defining the quality of the oil as an illuminating material. The oil is separated by the distillation into three fractions : a light oil dis
А tilling below 150° O.; illuminating oil, coming over between 150° and 270° C.; and a heavy oil which boils above 270° C. The first fractional distillate represents the dangerous constituents, and should not exceed 5 per cent. of the whole. The heavy oil affects the freedom with which kerosene burns, and should not form more than 15 per cent of the whole.
Victor Meyer has introduced an exact method of determining the minimum flashing-point
с of kerosene by saturating the air with oil-vapor at the test-temperature. His apparatus con
FIG. 3.- IMPROVED TESTER. sists of a glass cylinder which is partly filled cork, through which a small, bent tube, dcb, with oil, is stoppered with a cork through passes. Just within the cork the end of this which a thermometer passes, and is heated by tube contracts to a small orifice. The other plunging into warm water. When the tem- end of the tube connects with a small bellows, perature is reached at which the test is to be or other source of slightly compressed air, the made the cylinder is briskly shaken, the stop- flow of which can be regulated by the pinch
VOL. XXIII.—30 A
cock e. The best results by this method are than one nor more than three or four minutes obtained when the diameter of the cylinder is before the flash occurs. It is well, however, between 2 and 4 centimetres. The length is to let a very slow current of air bubble through of no consequence, provided the cylinder is al- the oil from the time that the tester is put in ways filled with oil to within the same distance the water-bath, so as to secure regularity in of the top; but different results are given when the heating of the oil. This method has the the distance of the oil, or rather of the foam advantages of simplicity in apparatus and mainto which its surface is broken by the air. nipulation, and of securing a trustworthy decurrent, is allowed to vary. Prof. John T. termination of the lowest flashing-point, indeStoddard, of Smith College, makes in “The pendently of arbitrary conditions. We have Popular Science Monthly " the following state- seen that 116° Fahr. is the very lowest flashments and directions concerning the use of this ing-point consistent with safety. The statemethod: 1. The oil-cylinder should have a di- ments so often put forth, that our best keroameter of from 2 to 4 centimetres. It may senes are “150° or 160° test” oils, are misleadbe of any convenient length, provided it holds, ing; for it bas reference, not to the flashing. when filled for the tests, not less than 50 c. c. point, but to the fire-test, or burning point, of oil. With a diameter of 24 centimetres, the which, as has been shown, gives little indicalength should be at least 16 centimetres; with tion of the character of the oil. The best a diameter of 3 centimetres, the least length oils sold flash at about 109° Fabr., while the should be 13 centimetres. A good tester may cheaper grades bave much lower flashing-points be made from the chimney of a student-lamp —at least as low as 85° Fahr. by cutting off the lower part a little above the KNIT CLOTHS. The idea of knitting other fabcontraction; or the whole chimney may be rics than hosiery is not new, but the application made to serve as an oil-cylinder by corking of the process to the production of certain kinds the large end. 2. The cylinder is filled with of cloth has been, by improved machinery, oil to a point where, when the air-current is brought apparently to perfection very recently. running, the top of the foam is 4 or 6 centi Fig. 1 (see page 467) gives a good idea of a metres below the mouth. 3. The oil is heat- machine imported from England in 1883, and ed by means of a water-bath, into which the set up in Philadelphia by John E. Hanifen & cylinder is plunged to the end of the oil. The Co. Portions of it were patented in England temperature of the oil should not rise faster by Joseph Belshaw, as long ago as 1857; and than two degrees a minute. 4. Air is forced virtually the same thing was produced by two through the oil with such velocity that about other English inventors, and by them assigned (and not less than) one centimetre of foam is maintained on the surface, and a flash-jet is brought to the mouth of the cylinder at every half degree, or oftener, in the vicinity of the flashing-point. The approach of the flashingpoint is announced by the appearance of a faint blue halo of burning vapor around the flashjet; this finally detaches itself and runs down to the surface of the oil. The reading of the temperature at this instant gives a trial flashing-point, which may be a little too high if the
FIG. 2. current of air has been running too long, or not long enough. The test should now be re- to John Kent, who patented it in the United peated with a fresh sample of oil, the air-cur- States in 1872, but his patent has been contested. rent being started in full strength, not less Fig. 2 shows (enlarged) a section of the
needles, which are really hooks with a spring in the form of a large tube, and is constantly barb. These, about 1,000 in number, are fast- drawn up and wound upon the reel overhead, ened around the edge of the circular horizon- which also revolves horizontally with the bed. tal bed, and revolve with it.
In the engraving a portion of the fabric is repAt two, three, or four points, just outside of resented as cut away, to show the stretcher the circumference of the horizontal bed, are inside. The fabric is knit with a seam runfixed groups of wheels, like those shown (en- ning its entire length, and with a knife the larged) in Fig. 3 (see page 466). The various operator cuts it open along this seam, thus threads used pass from the bobbins upward over reducing it to a flat piece of cloth, of “double hooks and then downward to and under these width.” knitting-wheels. When the bed revolves, the The most obvious advantage in the use of needles act as cogs, and turn the knitting- this machine, over a loom, is in the matter wheels. These wheels consist of wings or of speed. It has a smooth, continuous, rotary flanges, so shaped as alternately to lift and de- motion, instead of the constantly interrupted press the threads on and between the needles, alternating motion of a shuttle, and will prothus forming the stitches. The fabric is knit duce about double the amount of cloth in a
given time. It is claimed also that the fabric chine), from a smooth, hard one, to that of the is superior in smoothness of face and evenness heaviest, shaggy overcoating. Its productions of texture. Almost any kind of “ backing include stockinet, ladies' cloakings, overcoatcan be put on (all in one motion of the ma- ings, cheviots, astrakhans, and suitings.
L LANSDOWNE, Henry Charles Keith Petty Fitz- General of Canada. He married, in November, maurice, Marquis of, Governor-General of Can- 1869, the youngest daughter of the Duke of ada, born in England, Jan. 14, 1845. He re- Abercorn, and has two sons and two daughceived his education at Eton, and at Balliol ters. College, Oxford, and became a captain in the LASKER, Eduard, a German statesman, born Yeoman cavalry of Wiltshire. His father, the in Jaroczin, Posen, Oct. 14, 1829; died in New fourth marquis, died July 5, 1866, and he suc- York, Jan. 5, 1884. He was the son of a Jewceeded to the titles and estates. His minor
ish merchant, was admitted to the bar in Bertitles are: in the peerage of Great Britain, lin, and passed three years in travel. On reEarl of Wycombe, of Chipping Wycombe, turning, he took a place in the Berlin City county Bucks; Viscount Oaln and Calnstone, Court in 1856, and in 1858 became associate county Wilts; and Lord Wycombe, Baron of justice. He resigned this post in 1870, to Chipping Wycombe, county Bucks; in the practice as an attorney. Later he accepted peerage of Ireland— Earl of Kerry and Earl the post of syndic in the mortgage registry of Shelburne; Viscount Clanmaurice and Fitz- office of Berlin. He was elected deputy in the
Prussian Chamber in March, 1865, and reelected in July, 1866. In 1866 he left the Progressive party and became, in association with Karl Twesten, the founder of the NationalLiberal party. From 1868 to 1873 he represented Magdeburg in the House of Deputies. From 1875 to 1879 he was member for Frankfort-on-the-Main. From 1866 till his death he was a member of the Reichstag.
During the nineteen years of Lasker's parliamentary activity there was no important legislative work in which he did not take part, and which does not bear the impress of bis knowledge and acumen. His activity centered in the Reichstag. The unification of the German Empire on a representative basis was the aim of his life. In the civil consolidation of the empire he bore as conspicuous a part as Count Bismarck in the sphere of dynastic and international politics. The great NationalLiberal party, of which he was the chief founder and parliamentary leader, united the liberal thought and hopes of the country in favor of the policy of Bismarck, until the time when by its support the latter had overcoine the particularist elements and was able after the French war to repudiate the constitational
doctrines which he had temporarily professed. MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE.
A great part of Lasker's work was inconspicumaurice ; Baron of Kerry, Lixnaw, and Dun- ous. He was regularly placed on the comkerron. His mother is Baroness Nairne in her mittees, in the Reichstag and the Prussian own right; holding the title once held by the Landtag, which were appointed for the elaboScottish poetess who wrote “The Land o' the ration of legislative projects, and was almost Leal,” though she is not her descendant. invariably intrusted with the preparation of
The Marquis was one of the Lords of the the report. In taking so prominent a part in Treasury from 1868 to 1872, and then became the practical work of legislation, however, he Under-Secretary for War, which office he held became the most frequent speaker and propotwo years. He was appointed Under-Secre- nent of motions in the legislative halls, and tary for India when Mr. Gladstone became thus was a familiar figure before the public. Premier in 1880, but retired at the end of two Next to the ideal of German unity, the cause months, because he disagreed with the Gov- of legality and the abolition of arbitrary police ernment's Irish policy. In October, 1883, he powers was nearest to his heart. In this sense succeeded the Marquis of Lorne as Governor- the Prussian local administrative regulations
were amended through his efforts. The same motive he came to America late in the summer idea underlay the German industrial laws of of 1883, and made a tour of the United States. 1869, one of the greatest works of his life. In After visiting bis brother in Texas, he returned 1870 he introduced in the Reichstag the propo- to New York. On the evening of his death he sition to incorporate Baden in the North Ger- dined with Mr. Seligman, the banker, and was man League. In 1871 and the following years taken with heart-disease while walking back he advocated the proposition to extend clause to his boarding place, dying in a stable, into 13 of the fourth article of the German Consti- which he was taken, directly after the arrival tution to the civil law, i. e., to unify the laws of a physician. of the German states into a single imperial LAW, CONSTITUTIONAL. International Arbitrasystem. In this most important part of the tion.-- An important opinion on this subject process of transforming the league into a na- was rendered by tbe United States Supreme tion, the chief share of the labor fell to him, Court on Jan. 7, 1884, in the noted Weil and and it remains a monument of his historical La Abra cases. In 1868 a convention between services and juristic genius. The imperial ju- the United States and Mexico was concluded diciary, which was introduced in October, for the arbitration and payment of claims of 1879, the common code of procedure, and the citizens of either country against the Governcodification of the civil laws, were the labori- ment of the other. These claims were to be ous fruits of this period of his life.
submitted to a mixed commission, which was Lasker's greatest popular success was his to take testimony and hear counsel. The treaty speech in the Prussian Diet on Feb. 7, 1873, in stipulated that "the President of the United which he laid bare the jobbery of promoters States and the President of the Mexican Reand the corruption of officials in connection public hereby solemnly and sincerely engage to with railroad concessions and the establish- consider the decision of the commissioners conment of fraudulent joint-stock companies. His jointly, or of the umpire, as the case may be, proposal of an investigating commission was as absolutely final and conclusive upon each approved; and, although the results of the in- claim decided upon by them or him respectvestigation were not equal to the expectations, ively, and to give full effect to such decision the law officers of the Government kept a without any objection, evasion, or delay whatcloser watch, the commercial schemers and ever.” It was then provided that the aggretheir aristocratic accomplices took alarm, and gate of all the amounts awarded to citizens no such scandals have occurred again.
of one country should be deducted from the Lasker's literary labors were confined to aggregate awarded to citizens of the other, contributions in Oppenheim's “German Year- and that $300,000 of the balance should be Book” on Prussian constitutional history (1875). paid by the debtor to the creditor Gorernment He wrote the report of the National-Liberal within twelve months from the close of the party for the legislative period of the Reichs- commission, and that the rest should be paid tag, Customs Union, and Prussian Diet ending in yearly installments, not exceeding $300,000 in 1870, which was printed in Hirth's “An- each. It was further stipulated : nals” (1870). His most noted oratorical efforts
The high contracting parties agree to consider the outside the legislature were a commemoration result of the proceedings of this commission as a full, address on Karl Twesten.
perfect, and final settlement of every claim upon either In support of Prince Bismarck's policy, Las- Government arising out of any transaction of a date ker advocated fixing the military budget
for prior to the exchange of the ratifications of the present seven years in advance. He also co-operated whether or not the same may have been presented to in bringing about the Prussian administrative the notice of, made, preferred, or laid before the said law. Yet as soon as the aims of the Chancellor commission, shall, from and after the conclusion of ran counter to his political principles, he op- the proceedings of the said commission, be considered posed the Government with such energy that and treated as finally settled, barred, and thenceforth it often came to parliamentary duels between the two. Their differences were repeatedly When the work of the commission ended, it composed, until Bismarck's economical and was found that the balance against Mexico was tax-reform projects separated them completely, about $1,200,000, and annual payments were Lasker upheld the free-trade principle, and duly made by that Government in accordance withdrew from the National-Liberal party. In with the terms of the convention. Among the the sitting of May 2, 1879, be declared that by claims presented to the commission by citizens the economical policy of the Government be of the United States was one of Benjamin Weil was driven into the opposition. He was fol- for cotton alleged to have been seized in Mexico lowed in August, 1879, by Forkenbeck, Stauf- and confiscated by the Mexican authorities in fenberg, and Bamberger, and the Secessionist 1864, and one by the La Abra Silver Mining fraction became the most vigorous antagonists Company for the loss of a mine in the State of of the Chancellor.
Durango, which the owners alleged they were Dr. Lasker's health was broken for two or forced to abandon in consequence of illegal three years before his death, and he visited acts on the part of Mexican officers. On Oct. Switzerland several times, with the object of 1, 1876, an award of $489,810 was made in recuperating his strength. From the same faror of Weil against Mexico, and on December