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him both a rich man and a happy, if he would turn from the laws of his fathers; and also that he would count him for his friend and entrust him with affairs. And when the young man would in no case hearken unto him, the king called his mother, and exhorted her that she would counsel the young man to save his life. But she, laughing the cruel tyrant to scorn, spake in her native tongue after this manner: I beseech thee, my son, lift up thine eyes upon the heaven and the earth, and all things therein, and consider that God made them not of things that were: even so is the race of men. Fear not this tormentor, but prove worthy of thy brethren, and take thy death, that in the mercy of God I may receive thee again with them.

And while she was yet speaking, the young man said, Whom wait ye for? I will not obey the king's commandment, but I will obey the commandment of the law that was given to our fathers through Moses. But thou, that hast devised every manner of mischief against the Hebrews, shalt not escape the hands of God. Our brethren, who now have suffered a brief-lived pain, have now drunk of everflowing life under God's covenant; but thou, through the judgement of God, shalt receive just punishment for thy pride.

Then the king waxed wroth, and handled him worse than all the rest, being incensed that he was mocked. So this young man died pure and undefiled, putting his whole trust in the Lord. And last of all, after her sons, died the mother.

2 MACCABEES vii. (selections).

NOTES

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§ 1. The chapter from which this section is taken announces

the rejection of the Jews by God. It was probably
written by a Jewish Christian, who compiled both
it and chapter ii. from various sources (including
the Gospel). They are a later addition to 2 Esdras

(=4 Ezra), though containing old material.
as a hen gathereth .: Matt. xxiii. 37.
your solemn feast days: Isa. i. 13, 14.

your house is desolate: Matt. xxiii. 38 =Luke xiii. 35. § 2. hell: Gehenna, Matt. v. 22, 29. 8.3. thou art not fallen alone : the doctrine of "original

sin.” Whereas Esdras traces the sin of the world to its connection with Adam, Baruch asserts individual responsibility: Thackeray, The Relation of St. Paul to Jewish Thought, pp. 35 sq.; Oesterley,

Books of Apocr., p. 275. wherein (i.e., in the fruit) is fulness : cf. Ezek. xlvii. 12 § 7. The whole burden of this touchingly beautiful peni

with its parallel, Rev. xxii. 2.

choose thee life : Deut. xxx. 19. § 4. in everlastingness : cf. Isa. lvii. 15.

whose look drieth : this clause appears in Apost.

Const. vii. 7.

melt away : Mic. i. 4. § 5. The language of this section, in which Jerusalem sends

a message of consolation to her exiled children, is modelled on that of Deutero-Isaiah (the great prophet of the Exile). In Baruch the law is identi

fied with wisdom: cf. iii. 9. § 6. Arise, O Jerusalem : Isa. li. 17, lx. 4.

as on a royal throne-viz., carried in state. Reference to the restoration of the exiles, as in Isa. xlix. 22.

Note the similarity between the second half of Baruch v. and the Psalms of Solomon xi.

tential prayer,* with its deep sense of sin, recalls in places the 51st Psalm. It is assigned by scholars to post-Maccabæan times, and is perhaps “ Pharisaic” in provenance.

Its two main ideas are (1) the compassion of God, (2) the efficacy of repent

ance. host thereof : Greek our parti kbouw aŭtwv, Latin cum

omni ornatu eorum. Cf. Gen. ii. 1; Deut. iv. 19. iron band : cf. especially 2 Chron. xxxiii. 11. lowest depths, of Sheol, the shadowy underworld (not

“ hell " in the medieval sense). See Oesterley,

Immortality and the Unseen World, chap. vii. § 8. This passage contains a good many references to the

story of Ahikar, for which see Charles, Apoc. and

Pseud. ii. 715-784. turn not thy face ; if thou hast abundance : these

passages are quoted in the offertory sentences of the Church of England liturgy. St. Paul seems to have been well acquainted with Tobit: Oesterley, Books

of Apocr., p. 370. § 9. he leadeth down, etc.: Wisd. xvi. 13; Deut. xxxii. 39;

1 Sam. ii. 6. who knoweth if he will accept you ? Jonah iii. 9. stones of Ophir, possibly a seaport on S.E. coast of

Arabia; but the place is not certainly identified: Driver on Gen. x. 29. Enc. Bibl., 3.V., The bright future for Israel depicted in ancient prophecy was still a future that lay within the natural order of things (Fairweather, Background of the Gospels, chap. viii.). The marvellous and transcendental element in the future belonged to the apocalyptic

hope. § 10. timbrels, tambourines; cymbals, metal discs strapped

to the hands and clashed together (in the sacred

dance). breaketh the battles : cf. Judith ix. and Exod. xv.

3 (“ he breaketh wars in pieces; the Lord is his

name”: LXX). Asshur=the Assyrians: they would come by way of

Damascus (“ from the north ”). * The full title of the piece is “ The Prayer of Manasses, King of Judah, when he was held captive in Babylon."

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Persians : the author appears to have forgotten that

the invaders were Assyrians. For the Medes (the Greeks called the Persians Medes) cf. Driver on

Dan. ii. 31. runagates, fugitive slaves. sacrifice is too small : the right spirit in sacrifice is

what really counts. $ 11. The end of righteousness is immortality; but un

righteousness ends in destruction. The sinner

cannot escape, for God knows his very words. judges of the earth : the rulers of the Jewish colony

in Alexandria, the centre of the Jewish Dispersion: Fairweather, Background, chap. viii.; Oesterley,

Books of Apoc., chap. i. discipline : including the idea of instruction: cf. g 15. upholdeth all things : the Stoic idea of a world-soul: Hughes, Ethics of Jewish Apocryphal Literature,

pp. 92-99. § 12. the ungodly : possibly a reference to those Hellenized

Jews who had adopted Epicurean doctrines; or the

writer may be controverting Ecclesiastes. reason is a spark: cf. Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 19, “ Zenoni

Stoico animus ignis videtur.' This opinion was

taken over by the Stoics from Heracleitus. it is fast sealed-viz., the end is preordained. rosebuds : cf. Herrick,

Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,

Old Time is still a-flying. § 13. chastised : Heb. xii. 6.. All suffering on the part of

the righteous is remedial: cf. Judith viii. 27. It is the unbarrowed heart that bears no fruit to God”

(D. M. Panton).
visitation =deliverance (“ salvation "); cf. Ps. cvi. 4.
judge nations, in the Messianic Kingdom. One is

reminded of Paul's words in 1 Cor. vi. 2,
saints shall judge the world.” Cf. Dan. vii. 22

(και την κρίσιν έδωκε τοις αγίοις). 8 14. his life madness, because he refused to buy " material

66 The

advantage at the price of apostasy (Holmes). Cf. Plato, Phæd. 96, “ Is there not one true coin for which all things ought to be exchanged, and that is wisdom ?”

59

we knew it (heeded it) not. Cf. the noble words of

Emerson: “ Punishment is a fruit that, unsuspected, ripens within the flower of the pleasure

that concealed it." § 15. For this section cf. Prov. viii.

to think upon her : for a discussion of “ contempla

tion in its relation to the true life of man, see

Dean Inge, Philosophy of Plotinus, ii. 77 sq. her truest beginning, etc.: an instance of a logical

figure known as chain-inference. A good example of this figure occurs in Plutarch (ad princ. inerud. 780Ε) δίκη νόμου τέλος εστί, νόμος δ' άρχοντος έργον, άρχων

δ' εικών θεού. § 16. effulgence, åtaúyaoua : see Westcott on Heb. i. 3.

remaining in herself: no changes in the phenomenal

world can affect the divine wisdom, which, like

God, is immutable: cf. James i. 17. friends of God : so in Plato, Laws 716, “ The wise man

is a friend of God.” § 17. presseth down the soul: cf. the old dictum owua onua

(the body is a tomb). The inherent evil of matter was an ancient doctrine: cf. the Phædo of Plato 81c. But the author of Wisdom does not hold the view that the body is the seat of evil; that which hinders the design of wisdom is moral evil (Hughes, Ethics J.A.L., p. 182; Thackeray, Relation of St. Paul to

Jewish Thought, p. 131); cf. Slav. Enoch xxiii. 5.

holy spirit-viz., Wisdom herself. § 18. A grain in the balance : cf. Isa. xl. 15.

that they should repent : God's mercy has the sinner's

change of heart (uetávola =repentance) as its object:

cf. Rom. ii. 4. abhorrest nothing : cf. the words of the collect for

Good Friday, and of Clem. Alex. Strom. vii. $ 69, “ God is creator of all things, and there is no

existing thing that he does not love." lover of men's souls : we may remember the opening

line of C. Wesley's hymn, " Jesu, lover of my soul.” $ 19. Prepare thy soul : cf. James i. 2-4, 12 (with Mayor's

nn.). constantly endure : so our Lord's words, “ He that

endureth to the end shall be saved.”

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