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CH A P. Canada was now in a most miserable Condition, VI. for while the greatest Number of their Men had

been employed in the Expedition against the Five Nations, and in trading among the far Nations, and making new Discoveries and Settlements, Tillage and Husbandry had been neglected ; and they lost several Thousands of their Inhabitants, by the continual Incursions of small Parties, fo that none durft hazard themselves out of fortified Places ; indeed, it is hard to conceive what Distress the French were then under, for tho' they were every where almost starving, they could not plant nor fow, or go from one Village to another for Relief, but with imminent Danger of having their Scalps carried away by the fculking Indians ; at last the whole Country being laid waste, Famine began to rage, and was like to have put a miserable End to that Colony.

If the Indians had understood the Method of attacking Forts, nothing could have preserved the French from an entire Destruction at this Time ; for whoever considers the State of the Indian Affairs during this Period, how the Five Nations were divided in their Sentiments and Measures; that the Onondagas, Cayugas, and Oneydoes, under the Influence of the French Jesuites, were diverted from prosecuting the War against Canada, by the Jesuites cunningly spiriting up those three Nations against the Virginia Indians, and persuading them to fend out their Parties that Way: That the Senekas had a War at the fame Time upon their Hands with three numerous Indian Nations, the Utawawas, Chicktaghicks, and Twihtwies; and that the Measures the English observed all King James's Reigni, gave the Indians rather Grounds of Jealousy than Afliftance : I say, whoever considers all these Things, and what the Five Nations did actually perform, under all these Difadvantages against the French, will hardly doubt, that the Five Nations by themselves were at that Time an Overmatch for the French of Canada.


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The History of the Five Indian Nations of Ca-

nada, from the Time of the Revolution to the
Peace of Reswick.

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CH A P. I.

The State of Affairs in New-York and Canada,

at the Time of the Revolution in Great-



E left the Five Nations triumphing over CH A P. the French in Canada, and they almost re

duced to Despair. _The Revolution, which happened at this Time in England, seemed to be a favourable Conjunction for the Five Nations ; the English Colonies, by the War at that Time declared


CH A P. against France, becoming Parties in their Quarrel : I.

For one will be ready to think, that the Five Nations being by themselves too powerful for the French, as appears by the preceding Chapter, when these were aflisted by the Utawawas, Quatoghies, Twihtwies, Chiet aghicks, Puitwatemies, and all the Western Indian Nations, and when the Englih stood neuter ; now certainly, when not only all these Indian Nations had made Peace with the Five Nations, but the English joined with them in the War, the French would not be able to stand one Campaign.

But we shall find what a Turn Affairs 'took, contrary to all reasonable Expectations, from the general Appearance of Things, and of what Importance a resolute wise Governor is to the well-being of a People, and how prejudicial Divisions and Parties are. For this Reason, it will be necessary to take a View of the Publick Affairs in the Province of New-York, and in Canada, at that Time, in order to understand the true Causes of the Alterations, which afterwards happened in favour of the French,

The Revolution occasioned as great Divisions and Parties in the Province of New-York, in Proportion to the Number of People, as it did in Britain, if not greater. The Governor and all the Officers either fied or absconded ; the Gentlemen of the King's Council, and some of the most considerable or richest People, either out of Love, or what they thought Duty, to King James, or rather from an Opinion they had that the Prince of Orange could not succeed, refused to join in the Declaration the People made in favour of that Prince, and suffered the Administration to fall into different Hands, who were more zealous for the Protestant Interest, and who were joined by the far greatest Number of the Inhabitants. After the Revolution was established, they that had appeared so warmly for it, thought that


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they deserved best of the Government, and ex-CHA P. pected to be continued in the Publick Offices ; the others were zealous to recover the Authority they had loft, and used the most persuasive Means with the Governors for that Purpose, while the former trusted to their Merit. This begat great Animofities, which continued many Years. Each Party, as they were at different Times favoured by several Governors, opposed all the Measures taken by the other, while each of them were by Turns in Credit with the People or the Governor, and sometimes even profecuted each other to Death. The publick Measures were by these Means perpetually fluctuating, and often one Day contradictory to what they were the Day before. The succeeding Governors, finding their private Account in favouring sometimes the one Party, and at other Times the other, kept up the Animosities all King Williein's Reign, though very much to the publick Prejudice ; for each Party was this while fo cager in relenting private Injuries, that they intirely neglected the publick Good.

The Constitution of Government in the English Plantations, where the Governors have no Salary, but what they can attain with the Consent of the Affemblies or Reprefentatives of the People, gave Occasion to imprudent Governors to fall upon these Expedients, as they sometimes call them, for getting of Money. And a prevailing Faction, knowing for what Purpose the Governments in America were chiefly desired by the English Gentlemen, used this great Privilege to tempt a Governor to be the Head of a Party, when he ought to have been the Head of the Government. Indeed New-York has had the Misfortune, too frequently, to be under such as could not keep their Passion for Money secret, though none found it so profitable a Government, as they did who followed strictly the true Maxims of governing, without making Money the only Rule of their Actions.


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CH A P. The frequent Changes of Governors were likewise
I. prejudicial to the publick Affairs. Colonel Slaugh-

ter, the first Governor after the Revolution, hap-
pened to die foon after his Arrival, when steady,
as well as refolute Measures, were most neceffary.
But some think, that the Occafion of all the Mis-
fortunes lay in the Want of Care in the Choice of
Governors, when the Affairs of America wanted a-
ble Hands to manage them; they think that the
Ministry had the saving of Money chiefly in View,
when, to gratify some small Services, they gave
Employments in America to those that were not ca-
pable of much meaner Offices at Home. The O-
pinion the People had of Colonel Slaughter's Capaci-
ty gave ground to these Surmises; but, if it was fo,
it happened to be very ill saved Money ; for the
Mismanagements in this country occafioned far
greater Expence to the Crown afterwards, than
would have bought such Gentlemen handsome E-
ftates, besides the great Losses they occasioned to
the Subjects.

The greatest Number of the Inhabitants of the
Province of New York being Dutch, still retained an
Affection to their Mother Country, and by their
Aversion to the English weakened the Administrati-

The common People of Albany, who are all
Dutch, could not forbear giving the Indians fome ill
Impressions of the English ; for the Mobawks, in
one of their publick Speeches, expressed themselves
thus : “ We hear a Dutch Prince reigns now in Eng-
« land, why do you suffer the English Soldiers to
“ remain in the Fort? put all the English out of
“ the Town. When the Dutch held this Country
“ long ago, we lay in their Houses ; but the Eng-
lill have always made us lie without Doors.” It
is true, that the Plantations were first settled by the
meanest People of every Nation, and such as had
the least Sense of any Honour. The Dutch first
Settlers, many of them I may say, had none of the



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