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as it fles, the Edge always sticks in the Tree, and
near the Place at which they aim it. The Use of
Bows and Arrows are now intirely laid aside, except
among the Boys, who are still very dexterous in
killing Fowls and other Animals with them.
They use neither Drumanor Trumpet, nor any
Kind of musical Instrument in their Wars; their

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The Five Nations have such absolute Notions of Liberty, that they allow of no Kind of Superiority of one over another, and banish all Servitude from their Territories. They never make any Prisoner a Slave ; but it is customary among them to make a Compliment of Naturalization into the Five Nations ; and, confidering how highly they value themselves above all others, this must be no small Compliment. This is not done by any general Aćt of the Nation, but every single Person has a Right to do it, by a Kind of Adoption. The first Time I was among the Mohawks, I had this Compliment from one of their old Sachems, which he did, by giving me his own Name, Cayenderongue. He had been a notable Warrior; and he told me, that now I had a Right to assume to myself all the Aćts of Valour he had performed, and that now my Name would echo from Hill to Hill all over the Five Nations. As for my Part, I thought no more of it at that Time, than as an Artifice to draw a Belly full of strong Liquor from me, for himself and his Companions ; but when about ten or twelve Years afterwards, my Business led me again among them, I direct

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Food and Cookery is not agreeable to our delicate

Palates. Their Men value themselves, in having all Kind of Food in equal Esteem. A Mohawk Sachem - told

told me with a Kind of Pride, That a Man eats e-
very Thing without Distinétion, Bears, Cats, Dogs,
Snakes, Frogs, &c. intimating, that it is Womanish,
to have any Delicacy in the Choice of Food.
- I can however give two strong Instances of the Hos.
.pitality of the Mohawks, which fell under my own Ob-
fervation ; and which shew, that they have the very
same Notion of Hospitality, which we find in the
ancient Poets. When I was last in the Mohawks
Country, the Sachems told me, that they had an
JEnglishman among their People, a Servant who had
run from his Master in New York. I immmediately
told them, that they must deliver him up. No, they
answered, we never serve any Man so, who puts
himself under our Protećtion. On this I insisted on
the Injury they did thereby to his Master; and they
allowed it might be an injury, and replied, though
we never will deliver him up, we are willing to pay
the Value of the Servant to the Master. Another
Man made his Escape from the Goal of Albany, where
he was in Prison on an Execution for Debt ; the
Mohawks received him, and, as they protećted him
against the Sheriff and his Officers, they not only
paid the Debt for him, but gave him Land, over
and above sufficient for a good Farm, whereon he
lived when I was last there. To this it may be ad-
ded, all their extraordinary Visits are accompanied
with giving and receiving Presents of some Value ;

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old Times.
Polygamy is not usual among them ; and indeed,
in any Nation, where all are on a Par, as to Riches
and Power, Plurality of Wives cannot well be in-
troduced. As all Kind of Slavery is banished from
the Countries of the Five Nations, so they keep them-

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one of them. And in Case of Divorce, the Children, according to the natural Course of all Animals, follow the Mother. The Women here bring forth their Children with as much Ease as other Animals, and without the Help of a Midwife, and, soon after their Delivery, return to their usual Employment. They alone also perform all the Drudgery about their Houses, they plant their Corn, and labour it, in every Respect, till it is brought to the Table: They likewise cut all their Fire-wood, and bring it Home on their Backs, and in their Marches bear the Burdens. The Men dis. dain all Kind of Labour, and employ themselves alone in Hunting, as the only proper Business for Soldiers. At Times, when it is not proper to hunt, one finds the old Men in Companies, in Conversati

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Marks, throwing the Hatchet, Wrestling, or Run-
ning, and the Women all busy at Labour in the
Fields, -
On these Occasions, the State of Laced emon ever
occurs to my Mind, which that of the Five Nations,
in many Respects, resembles; their Laws, or Cus-
toms, being, in both, form'd to render the Minds
and Bodies of the People fit for War. -
Theft is very scandalous among them ; and it is
necessary it should be so among all Indians, fince they
have no Locks, but those of their Minds, to preserve
their Goods. - - -
There is one Vice which the Indians have all fallen
into, fince their Acquaintance with the Christians,

and of which they could not be guilty before that

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them, Male and Female, are infatuated with the Love of strong Drink; they know no Bounds to their Defire, while they can swallow it down, and then indeed the greatest Man among them scarcely de

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They never have been taught to conquer any Pasfion, but by some contrary Passion ; and the Traders, with whom they chiefly converse, are so far from giving them any Abhorrence of this Vice, that they encourage it all they can, not only for the Profit of the Liquor they sell, but that they may have an Opportunity to impose upon them. And this, as they chiefly drink Spirits, has destroyed greater Numbers, than all their Wars and Diseases put together.

The People of the Five Nations are much given to Speech-making, ever the natural Consequence of a perfeót Republican Government: Where no single Person has a Power to compel, the Arts of Persuasion alone must prevail. As their best Speakers distinguish themselves in their publick Councils and Treaties with other Nations, and thereby gain the Esteem and Applause of their Countrymen, (the only Superiority which any one of them has over the others) it is probable they apply themselves to this Art, by some

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as I am ignorant of their Language ; but the

Speakers whom I have heard, had all a great Flu-
ency of Words, and much more Grace in their
Manner, than any Man could expe&t, among a Peo-
ple intirely ignorant of all the liberal Arts and Sci-
enCeS. -
I am inform’d, that they are very nice in the Turn
of their Expressions, and that few of themselves are so
far Masters of their Language, as never to offend the
Ears of their Indian Auditory, by an unpolite Expressi-
on. They have, it seems, a certain Urbanitas, or Atti-
cism, in their Language, of which the common Ears
are ever sensible, though only their great Speakers at-
tain to it. They are so much given to Speech-making,
that their common Complements, to any Person they
respect, at meeting and parting, are made in Ha-

rangues. 2. They

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