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“ We have a hundred and forty Men out-skulking “ about Canada ; it is impossible for the French to at

tempt any Thing, without being discovered and ha“ raffed by these Parties : If the French shall attempt

any Thing this Way, all the Five Nations will come " to your Afliftance, for our Brethren and we are but

one, and we will live and dye together. We have " desired a hundred Men of our Brethren of Boston to « affitt us here, because this Place is most exposed; but “ if the Governor of Canada is so strong, as to overcome

all united together, then he must be our Master, 4 and is not to be refifted; but we have Confidence in “ a good and just Cause; for the great God of Heaven s knows how deceitfully the French have dealt with us, 6 their Arms can have no Success. The Great God u hath sent us Signs in the Sky to confirm this. We " have heard uncommon Noise in the Heavens, and “ have seen Heads fall down upon Earth, which we “ look upon as a certain Presage of the Destruction " of the French: Take Courage! On this they allim“mediately joined in singing and crying out, Cou“rage! Courage!


An Account of a general Council of the Five Nations at

Onondaga, to consider the Count De Frontenac's

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N the 27th of December 1689, two Indians CHAP.

came to Albany, being sent by the Onondaga III. and Oneydo Sachems, with seven Hands of Wampum from each Nation, to tell their Brethren in New York and New-England, that three of their old Friends, who had been carried Prisoners to France, were come with Proposals from Canada ; that there was a Council of the Sachems appointed to meet at Onondaga, and that they therefore desired the Mayor of Albany, Peter Scheyler, and some others of their Brethren,


CHA P. to come thither, to be presentand to advise on an AfIII.

fair of so great Confequence ; for they were resolved to do nothing without the Knowledge and Consent of all those that were included in the Chain with them.

The fame Messenger told them, that some Letters were sent to the Jesuit at Oneydo; and that they would neither burn, nor suffer those Letters to be opened, till the Brethren should first see them.

All that the Magistrates of Albany did on this important Occasion, was to send three Indians with Instructions in their Name, to dissuade the Five Natious from entertaining any Thoughts of Peace, or yielding to a Ceffation of Arms.

On the 4th of January one of the chief Mohawk Sachems came to Albany, to tell the Magistrates, that he was to go to Onondaga, and desired the Brethren's Advice how to behave there ; on which the Magistrates thought it necessary to send likewise the publick Interpreter, and another Person to affift at the general Meeting, with written Instructions; but no Person of Note, that had any Infuence on the Indians, went.

When the Messengers arrived at Oneydo, they difcoursed privately with one of the Prisoners that had returned from France, and found that he had no Love for the French; but it is impossible but that Indians, who had seen the French Court, and many of their Troops, must be surprised at their Grandeur: he complained however of the ill Usage he had met with. The French chose, on this Occasion, to fend first to Oneydo, because of the Assistance they expected the Jesuit, that resided there, would give to their Negotiation,

I believe it will not be tedious to the Reader, that defires to know the Indian Genius, if I give a circumItantial Account of this general Council or Parliament of the Five Nations, that he may see in what Manner a People that we call Savages behave on such important Occasions.


On the 22d of January the general Council.was CHAP. opened at Onondaga, consisting of eighty Şachems III. in the first Place Sadekanagbrie, an Onondaga Sachem, rising up, addressed himself to the Messenger of Abany, saying,

Four Messengers are come from the Governor of Canada, viz, three who had been carried Prisoners to France, and a Sachem of the Praying Indians that live at Montreal.

The Governor of Canada notifies his Arrival to us, that he is the Count de Frontenac, who had been formerly Governor there ; that he had brought back with him Tawerabet a Cayuga Sachem, and twelve Prisoners, that had been carried to France; then taking the Belt of Wampum in his Hand, and holding it by the Middle, he added, what I have said relates on ly to one Half of the Belt, the other Half is to let us know, that he intends to kindle again his Fire at Cadarackui next Spring, and therefore invites his Children, and Dekanafora, an Onondaga Captain in particular, to treat there with him about the old Chain. Then Adarahta the chief Sachem of the praying Indians stood up, and said, with three Belts in his Hand, I advise you to meet the Governor of Canada as he desires; agree to this, if you would live, and gives one Belt of Wampum

i Taweraket sends you this other Belt, to ‘nform you of the Miseries, that he and the rest of your Country: men have suffered in their Captivity, and to advise you to hearken to Yonondio, if you desire to live.

This third Belt is from * Thurenfera, + Obguelle, and || Ertel, who say by it, to their Brethren: We have interceded for you with Yonondio, and therefore ad

* Thurensera signifies the Dawning of the Day, and was the Name given by the Indians to the Jesuit Lambervilli, who had formerly resided at Onondaga. + Monír. Le Morne, the Word figni- . fies a Partridge. || Erfel signifies a Rose, the Name of some other French Gentleman, for whom the Indians had an Eiteen.


CH A Pxxise you to meet him at Cadarackui in the Spring, beIII. *cause it will be for your Advantage.

When this Sachem had done speaking, the Mohawk Messenger sent from Albany delivered his Message Word for Word, as he had received it, without omitting the least Article. The Interpreter, while the Indian was speaking, read over a Paper, on which the Message was set down, left any Thing Thould have been forgot.

After this Canneboot a Seneka Sachem stood up, and gave the general Council a particular Account of à Treaty made last Summer, between the Senekas and the Wagunha Messengers, (one of the Utawawa Nations) who had concluded a Peace for themselves, and seven other Nations, to which the other four Nations were desired to agree, and their Brethren of New York to be included in it. He said the Proposals made in several Propofitions were as follow.

1. We are come to join two Bodies into one. Delivering up at the same Time two Prisoners.

2. We are come to learn Wisdom of you Senekas, and of the other Five Nations, and of your Brethren of New York. Giving a Belt.

3. We by this Belt wipe away the Tears from the Eyes of your Friends, whose Relations have been killed in the War, and likewise * the Paint from your Soldiers Faces. Giving another Belt.

4. We now throw aside the Ax, which Yonondio put into our Hands, by this third Belt.

5. Let the Sun, as long as he shall endure, always shine upon us in Friendship. Here he gave a red Marble Sun as large as a Plate.

6. Let the Rain of Heaven wash away all Hatred, that we may again smoke together in Peace, giving a large Pipe of red Marble.

* The Indians always paint their Faces when they go to War, to make themselves look more terrible to the Enemy. A Soldier in the Indian Language is expressed by a Word, which fignifies a Fair-fighter.

7. Yonondio

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7. Yonondio is drunk, but we wash our Hands CHAP, clean from all his Actions. Giving a fourth Belt. III.

8. Now we are clean washed by the Water of a Heaven, neither of us must defile ourselves by hearkening to Yonondio.

9. We have twelve of your Nation Prisoners, who shall be brought home in the Spring; there he gave a Belt, to confirm the Promise.

10. We will bring your Prisoners when the Strawberries shall be in blossom, * at which Time we intend to visit Corlear, and see the Place where the Wampum is made. (New-York.)

The Speaker added, we will also tell our Friends the other Ulawawa Nations, and the Dionondadies, who have eleven of your People Prisoners, what we have now done, and invite them to make Peace with you.

He said further, we have sent three Messengers back with the Wagunhas, in order to confirm this Peace with their Nation.

After the Seneka Speaker had done, the Wagunha Presents were hung up in the House, in the Sight of the whole Assembly, and afterwards distributed among the several Nations, and their Acceptance was a Ratification of the Treaty. A large Belt was given also to the Albany Messengers as their Share.

The Belt of Wampum fent from Albany was in like Manner hanged up, and afterwards divided.

New-England, which the Indians call Kinson (that is a Fish) fent likewise the Model of a Fish, as a token of their adhering to the general Covenant. This Fish was handed round among the Sachems, and then laid aside to be put up.

After these Ceremonies were over, Sadekanabtie, an Onondaga Speaker, stood up, and said, Brethren,

* The Indians in this Manner distinguish the Seasons of the Year, as the Time of planting Corn, or when it is ripe, when che Chefnuts bloffom, &c.


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