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CONSTITUTION OF 1850.

CONSTITUTION OF 1835.

CONSTITUTION OF 1867.

[See Art. XV, Sec. 14.] Sec. 2. The mayor and aldermen of

cities, and the president and trustees
of villages, shall be elected, and all
other officers shall be elected or ap-
pointed at such time, and in such

manner as the Legislature may direct.
ARTICLE XV..

ARTICLE XVII.
CORPORATIONS.

CORPORATIONS OTHER THAN MUNICIPAL.
SECTION 1. Corporations may be SECTION 1. Organizations for the con-
formed under general laws; but shall struction of railroads, for the purpose
not be created by special act, except of banking, insurance, mining, tele-
for municipal purposes. All laws graphing, transacting business as com-
passed pursuant to this section, may mon carriers, and religious societies,
be altered, amended, or repealed. But shall be incorporated only under gen-
the Legislature may, by a vote of two-eral laws. No special charter shall be .
thirds of the members elected to each granted, nor shall the franchises given
House, create a single bank with thereby be enlarged without the assent
branches.*

of two-thirds of the members elect to Sec. 2. [No banking law or law for each House. Every act passed pursuant : banking purposes, or amendments to this section, may be amended, alterthereof,] No general banking law* shall ed or repealed by a majority vote of the have effect until the same shall, after members elect to each House... its passage, be submitted to a vote of the electors of the State, at à general election, and be approved by a majority of the votes cast thereon at such election.

Sec. 3. The officers and stockholders Sec. 2. The stockholders of every of every corporation or association for corporation or association for banking banking purposes, issuing bånk notes, purposes, issuing bank notes or paper or paper credits, to circulate as money, credits, to circulate as money, shall shall be individually liable for all debts be individually liable for all debts concontracted during the time of their tracted during the term of their being being officers or stockholders of such stockholders of such corporation or corporation or association, equally and association, equally and ratably to the ratably to the extent of their respective extent of their respective shares of shares of stock in any such corporation stock in any such corporation or asor association.

sociation. Sec. 4. [The Legislature shall pro- Sec. 3. The Legislature shall provide by law] for all banks organized vide for the registry of all bills or notes under general laws; the Legislature shall issued or put in circulation as money, provide for the registry of all bills or by any bank organized under the laws. notes issued or put in circulation as of this State, and shall require secumoney, and shall require security to rity to the full amount of notes and the full amount of notes and bills so bills so registered, in interest-bearing registered, in State or United States stocks of this State, or of the United stocks, bearing interest, which shall be States, which shall be deposited with deposited with the State Treasurer for the State Treasurer, for the redemption the redemption of such bills or notes of such bills or notes in lawful money.. in specie. : :

I of the United States. . Sec. 5. In case of the insolvency of Sec. 4. In case of the insolvency of any bank or banking association, the any bank or banking association, the bill-holders thereof shall be entitled to bill-holders shall be entitled to prefpreference in payment, over all other erence in payment, over all other credcreditors of such bänk or association. Witors of such bank or association.

Sec. 6. The Legislature shall pass no Sec. 5. The Legislature shall pass law authorizing or sanctioning the no law authorizing or sanctioning the suspension of specie payments by any suspension of payments by any corpoperson, association or corporation. ration.

Sec. 7. The stockholders of all cor [See Art. XVII, Sec. 8.] in porations and joint stock associations shall be individually liable for all labor

: *Amendment adopted by the Legislature of 1861, ap.
proved by the people at general election, 1862; voten for,
5,067; against, 1,644.

*Amendment adopted by Legislaturo of 1889, approved by the people at general election of 1860; yoten for; 50,954; against, 15,477.

See' note to sections 1 and 2.

CONSTITUTION OF 1836.

CONSTITUTION OF 1850.

CONSTITUTION OF 1867.

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performed for such corporation or
association.

Sec. 8. The Legislature shall pass Sec. 6. The Legislature shall pass no no law altering or amending any act law altering or amending any act of of incorporation heretofore granted, incorporation granted prior to the first without the assent of two-thirds of the day of January, eighteen hundred and members elected to each House; nor fifty-one, without the assent of twoshall any such act be renewed or ex- thirds of the members elected to each tended. This restriction shall not House. No such act shall be renewed apply to municipal corporations.";.: for extended...

Sec. 9. The property of no person [See Art. XIX, Sec. 4.]
shall be taken by any corporation for
public use, without compensation being
first made or secured, in such manner
as may be prescribed by law...

Sec. 10. No corporation, except for
municipal purposes, or for the con-
struction of railroads, plank roads, and
canals, shall be created for a longer
time than thirty years.

Sec. 11. The term “corporations," as used in the preceding sections of this article, shall be construed to include all associations and joint stock companies having any of the powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. All .corporations shall have the right to sue and be subject to be sued in all courts, in like cases as natural persons.

Sec. 12. No corporation shall hold Sec. 7. No corporation shall hold any real estate hereafter acquired for a any real estate for a longer period than longer period than ten years, except ten years from the time of acquiring such real estate as shall be actually the same, unless such real estate shall occupied by such corporation in the be actually occupied by such corporaexercise of its franchises.

tion in the exercise of its franchises. No real estate shall hereafter be withheld from market for a longer period than ten years, for the use or benefit of

any corporation. [See Art. XV, Sec. 7.]

Sec. 8. The stockholders in any. corporation shall be individually liable for all labor done in behalf of such corporation during the time of their being such stockholders, equally and ratably to the extent of their respective shares in the stock of such cor

ADE.COM. The hall be ind behalf of their

[See Art. XVI, Sec. 1.7

[See Art. XVI, Sec. 2.].

Sec. 13. The Legislature shall provide for the incorporation and organization of cities and villages, and shall restrict their powers of taxation, borrowing money, contracting debts, and loaning their credit.

Sec. 14. Judicial officers of cities and villages shall be elected, and all other officers shall be elected or appointed at such time and in such man. ner as the Legislature may direct.

Sec. 15. Private property shall not be taken for public improvements in cities and villages without the consent of the owner, unless the compensation therefor shall first be determined by a jury of freeholders, and actually paid or secured in the manner provided by law.

[See Art. XIX, Sec. 4.]

CONSTITUTION OF 1835.

CONSTITUTION OF 1850.

CONSTITUTION OF 1867

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Sec. 16. Previous notice of any ap-
plication for an alteration of the char-
ter of any corporation should be given
in such manner as may be prescribed
by law.
ARTICLE XVI.

ARTICLE XVIII. .
EXEMPTIONS.

EXEMPTIONS.
SECTION 1. The personal property of SECTION 1. The personal property of
every resident of this State, to consist every resident of this State, to consist
of such property only as shall be des- of such property only as shall be des- ..
ignated by law, shall be exempted to the ignated by law, shall be exempted, to
amount of not less than five hundred the amount of not less than five hun-
dollars, from sale on execution or other dred dollars, from sale on execution
final process of any court, issued for the or other final process of any court, is-
collection of any debt contracted after sued for the collection of any debt..
the adoption of this Constitution.

Sec. 2. Every homestead of not ex- Sec. 2. Every homestead, not exceed-
ceeding forty acres of land, and the ing forty acres of land, and the dwell-
dwelling house thereon, and the ap- ing house thereon, and the appurte-
purtenances to be selected by the nances, to be selected by the owner
owner thereof, and not included in any thereof, owned and occupied by any
town plat, city or village; or instead resident of this State, not exceeding in
thereof, at the option of the owner, value twenty-five hundred dollars,
any lot in any city or village, or record- shall be exempt from forced sale for
ed town plat, or such parts of lots as the collection of any debt on execu-
shall be equal thereto, and the dwelling tion or other final process of any.
house thereon, and its appurtenances, court. Such exemption shall not ex
owned and occupied by any resident tend to any mortgage thereon lawfully
of the State, not exceeding in value obtained, but such mortgage or other in
fifteen hundred dollars, shall be exempt alienation of such land, by the owner
from forced sale on execution, or any thereof, if a married man, shall not be
other final process from a court, for valid without the signature of the wife
any debt contracted after the adoption to the same.
of this Constitution. Such exemption Sec. 3. Any resident of this State,
shall not extend to any mortgage there- owning and occupying a house on
on lawfully obtained, but such mort- land not his own, and claiming the same
gage or other alienation of such land as a homestead, shall be entitled as to
by the owner thereof, if a married such house, to the benefits provided in
man, shall not be valid without the this article, to the same extent as if
signature of the wife to the same. he were the owner of such land; but

such exemption shall not in any way
impair or affect the rights of the owner....

of said land.
Sec. 3. The homestead of a family, Sec. 4. If the owner of a homestead
after the death of the owner there- die, or desert his family, leaving a
of, shall be exempt from the payment widow, wife or children, such home-
of his debts, contracted after the adop- stead shall be exempt from the pas-
tion of this Constitution, in all cases ment of his debts so long as the widow
during the minority of his children. shall be without other homestead of

Sec. 4. If the owner of a homestead her own, and during the minority of
die, leaving a widow, but no children, her children, or while the deserted wife
the same shall be exempt, and the shall occupy said homestead. .
rents and profits thereof shall accrue
to her benefit during the time of her
widowhood, unless she be the owner of
a homestead in her own right.

Sec. 5. The real and personal estate Sec. 5. The real and personal estate
of every female, acquired before mar- of every woman, acquired before mar- .
riage, and all property to which she riage, and the property to which she
may afterwards become entitled by may afterwards become entitled, by
gift, grant, inheritance or devise, shall gift, grant, inheritance or devise, shail .
be and remain the estate and property be and remain the estate and property
of such female, and shall not be liable of such woman, and shall not be liable:
for the debts, obligations or engage- for the debts, obligations or engage-
ments of her husband, and may be de- ments of her husband, and may be
vised or bequeathed by her as if she devised, bequeathed and alienated by
were unmarried.

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ARTICLE XVII.

MILITIA.
SECTION 1. The militia shall be com [See Art. XIII, Sec. 1.]
posed of all able-bodied white male
citizens between the ages of eighteen
and forty-five years, except such as are
exempted by the laws of the United
States or this State; but all such citi-
zens, of any religious denomination
whatever, who from scruples of con-
science may be averse to bearing arms,
shall be excused therefrom, upon such
conditions as shall be prescribed by

law.
[See Art. IX, Sec. 1.)

Sec. 2. The Legislature shall provide [See Art. XIII, Sec. 2.]
by law for organizing, equipping and
disciplining the militia, in such man-
ner as they shall deem expedient, not
incompatible with the laws of the Uni-

ted States.
[See Art. IX, Sec. 3.]

Sec. 3. Officers of the militia shall be [See Art. XIII, Sec. 3.]
elected or appointed, and be commis-
sioned in such manner as may be pro-

vided by law.
ARTICLE XII.
.. .! ARTICLE XVIII.

ARTICLE XIX.
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. 1. Members of the Legislature, and SECTION 1. Members of the Legisla- SECTION 1. Members of the Legislaall officers, executive and judicial, ex- ture, and all officers, executive and ture, and all officers, executive and cept such inferior officers as may by judicial, except such officers as may be judicial, shall, before they enter on law be exempted, shall, before they by law exempted, shall, before they the duties of their respective offices, enter on the duties of their respective enter on the duties of their respective take and subscribe the following oath offices, take and subscribe the follow- offices, take and subscribe the following or affirmation: “I do solemnly swear. ing oath or affirmation: “I do solemnly oath or affirmation: "I do solmenly (or affirm) that I will support the', swear, (or affirm, as the case may be,) swear (or affirm) that I will support Constitution of the United States, and that I will support the Constitution of the Constitution of the United States, the Constitution of this State, and that the United States, and the Constitution and the Constitution of this State, and I will faithfully discharge the duties of of this State, and that I will faithfully that I will faithfully discharge the the office of — , according to the discharge the duties of the office duties of the office of , according best of my ability.” of - , according to the best of my to the best of my ability.” And no ability." And no other oath, declara- other oath, declaration or test, shall be tion or test shall be required as a qual required as a qualification for any ification for any office of public trust. office or public trust.

2. The Legislature shall pass no act of incorporation, unless with the assent of at least two-thirds of each House.. - 3. Internal improvements shall be encouraged by the government of this State; and it shall be the duty of the Legislature, as soon as may be, to make provision by law for ascertaining the proper objects of improvement in

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- . [See Art. XIX, Sec. 4.1

waters; and it shall also be their duty to provide by law for an equal, systematic, economical application of the funds which may be appropriated to these objects. i.

Sec. 2. When private property is taken for the use or benefit of the public, the necessity for using such property, and the just compensation to be made therefor, except when to be made by the State, shall be ascertained by a jury of twelve freeholders, residing in the vicinity of such property, or by not less than three commmissioners,

CONSTITUTION OF 1835.

CONSTITUTION OF 1850.

CONSTITUTION OF 1867.

appointed by a court of record, as
shall be prescribed by law: Provided,
The foregoing provisions shall in no
case be construed to apply to the action
of commissioners of the highways in
the official discharge of their duties as
highway commissioners.*

Sec. 3. No mechanical trade shall
hereafter be taught to convicts in the
State prison of this State, except the..
manufacture of those articles of which
the chief supply for home consumption
is imported from other States or coun-
tries.

Sec. 4. No navigable stream in this [See Art. XIX, Sec. 5.]
State shall be either bridged or dam-
med without authority from the board
of supervisors of the proper county,
under the provisions of law. No such
law shall prejudice the right of indi-
viduals to the free navigation of such
streams, or preclude the State from the
further improvement of the navigation

of such streams. .. 4. No money shall be drawn from

See Art. XIV, Sec. 5.]

[See Art. XI, Secs. 7 and 16.]. the treasury but in consequence of ap- Sec. 5. An accurate statement of the propriations made by law, and an ac- receipts and expenditures of the public curate statement of the receipts and moneys shall be attached to and pubexpenditures of the public money shall lished with the laws, at every regular be attached to and published with the session of the Legislature. laws annually.

Sec. 6. The laws, public records, and Sec. 2. Judicial and legislative prothe written judicial and legislative ceedings shall be conducted, and the proceedings of the State shall be con-laws and public records promulgated ducted, promulgated and preserved in and preserved in the English lanthe English language.

guage. 5. Divorces shall not be granted by [See Art. IV, Secs. 26 and 27.] . .[See Art. V, Sec. 32.] the Legislature; but the Legislature may by law authorize higher courts to grant them, under such restrictions as they may deem expedient.

6. No lottery shall be authorized by this State, nor shall the sale of lottery tickets be allowed. 7. No county now organized by law [See Art. X, Sec. 2.]

[See Art. XIV, Sec. 3.] shall ever be reduced, by the organization of new counties, to less than four hundred square miles. 8. The Governor, Secretary of State,

[See Art. X, Sec. 2.] Treasurer, and Auditor General, shall keep their offices at the seat of government. 9. The seat of government for this

[See Art. II.]

[See Art. I, Sec. 2.] State shall be at Detroit, or at such other place or places as may be prescribed by law, until the year eighteen hundred and forty-seven, when it shall be permanently located by the Legislature. [See Art. I, Sec. 13.]

Sec. 7. Every person has a right to [See Art. II, Sec. 16.] bear arms for the defense of himself

and the State. : ::
[See. Art. I, Sec. 14.]

Sec. 8. The military shall, in all [See Art. II, Sec. 17.]
cases, and at all times, be in strict sub-
ordination to the civil power;

**** of the State shall be con- sav

*Amendment adopted by the Legislature of 1859, ap. proved by the people at general election of 1860; poter for, 82,963; against, 8,054.

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