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CONSTITUTION OF 1835.

CONSTITUTION OF 1850.

CONSTITUTION OF 1867.

[See Art. X, Sec. 2.]

one for two years, one for four years, their office on the first day of January
and one for six years; and at each suc- next succeeding their election. The
ceeding biennial election there shall be Superintendent of Public Instruction
elected one member of such board, shall be ex officio a member and sec-
who shall hold his office for six years. retary of such board. The board shall
The Superintendent of Public Instruc- have the general supervision of the
tion shall be ex-officio a member and State Normal School, and their duties
secretary of such board. The board shall be prescribed by law.
shall have the general supervision of
the State Normal School, and their
duties shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 10. Institutions for the benefit : [See Art. XII, Sec. 2.]
of those inhabitants who are deaf,
dumb, blind, or insane, shall always be
fostered and supported.

Sec. 11. The Legislature shall en- Sec. 9. The Legislature shall pro-
courage the promotion of intellectual, vide for the support and maintenance
scientific, and agricultural improve- of an agricultural college, for instruc-
ment; and shall as soon as practicable, tion in agriculture, and the natural
provide for the establishment of an sciences connected therewith.
agricultural school. The Legislature
may appropriate the twenty-two sec-
tions of salt spring lands now unap-
propriated, or the money arising from
the sale of the same, where such lands
have been already sold, and any land
which may hereafter be granted or
appropriated for such purpose, for the
support and maintenance of such
school, and may make the same a
branch of the University, for instruc-
tions in agriculture and the natural
sciences connected therewith, and place
the same under the supervision of the
regents of the University. : .
| Sec. 12. The Legislature shall also : [See Art. XII, Sec. 4.]
provide for the establishment of at least
one library in each township; and all
fines assessed and collected in the
several counties and townships for any
breach of the penal laws, shall be ex-
clusively applied to the support of such
libraries.
[See Art. XIII, Sec. 2.] Sec. 10. The proceeds from the sale

of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to the State for educational purposes, and the proceeds of all lands or other property given by individuals, or appropriated by the State for like purposes, shall be and remain a perpetual fund, the interest and income of which, together with the rents of all such lands as may remain unsold, shall be inviolably appropriated and annual ly applied to the specific objects of the original gift, grant or appropria

tion, sisteminin [See Art. XIII, Sec. 8.] Sec. 11. All lands, the title of which

shall fail from a defect of heirs, shall escheat to the State; and the interest on the clear proceeds from the sale thereof, shall be appropriated exclusively to the support of primary schools.

[See Art. X, Sec. 4.]

[See Art. X, Sec. 2.]

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[See" Art. XVII, Sec. 1.1

ARTICLE XIII.

MILITARY DEPARTMENT. SECTION 1. The militia shall be composed of all able bodied male citizens between the ages of eighteen and fortyfive years, except such as are exempt. ed by the laws of the United States, or of this State; but all citizens of any religious denomination, who, from scruples of conscience, may be averse to bearing arms, shall, in time of peace, be excused therefrom upon such terms and conditions as shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 2. The Legislature shall provide by law for organizing, equipping and disciplining the militia in such manner as they shall deem expedient, not incompatible with the laws of the United States. 1 Sec. 3. Officers of the militia shall be elected or appointed, and be commissioned in such a manner as may be provided by law.

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[See Art. XI, Secş. 1 and 2.]

ARTICLE XIV.

FINANCE AND TAXATION.
· Sec. 1. All specific State taxes, ex-
cept those received from the mining
companies of the Upper Peninsula,
shall be applied in paying the interest
upon the primary school, university and
other educational funds, and the inter-
est and principal of the State debt, in
the order herein recited, until the ex-
tinguishment of the State debt, other
than the amounts due to educational
funds; when such specific taxes shall
be added to, and constitute a part of
the primary school interest fund. The
Legislature shall provide for an annual
tax, sufficient, with other resources,
to pay the estimated expenses of the
State government, the interest of the
State debt, and such deficiency as may
occur in the resouces.

Sec. 2. The Legislature shall provide
by law a sinking fund of at least twenty
thousand dollars a year, to commence
in eighteen hundred and fifty-two,
with compound interest at the rate of
six per cent. per annum, and an annual
increase of at least five per cent., to
be applied solely to the payment and
extinguishment of the principal of the
State debt, other than the amounts
due to educational funds, and shall be
continued until the extinguishment
thereof. The unfunded debt shall not

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[See Art. XI, Secs. 3 and 4.]

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CONSTITUTION OF 1835.

CONSTITUTION OF 1850.

CONSTITUTION OF 1867.

[See Art. XI, Sec. 5.]

[See Art, XI, Sec. 6.]

[See Art. XII, Sec. 4.]

[See Art. XI, Sec. 7.]

[See Art. XI, Sec. 8.]

[See Art. XI, Sec. 9.).

[See Art. XI, Sec. 10.]

be funded or redeemed at a value exceeding that established by law in one thousand eight hundred and fortyeight.

Sec. 3. The State may contract debts to meet deficits in revenues. Such debts shall not in the aggregate at any one time exceed fifty thousand dollars. The moneys so raised shall be applied to the purposes for which they were obtained, or to the payment of the debts so contracted.

Sec. 4. The State may contract debts to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or defend the State in time of war. The money arising from the contracting of such debts shall be applied to the purposes for which it was raised, or to repay such debts.

Sec. 5. No money shall be paid out of the treasury except in pursuance of appropriations made by law. | Sec. 6. The credit of the State shall

not be granted to or in aid of any person, association or corporation. | Sec. 7. No scrip, certificate, or other evidence of State indebtedness shall be issued, except for the redemption of stock previously, issued, or for such debts as are expressly authorized in this Constitution.

Sec. 8. The State shall not subscribe to or be interested in the stock of any company, association or corporation.

Sec. 9. The State shall not be a party to or interested in any work of internal improvement, nor engaged in carrying on any such work, except in the expenditure of grants to the State, of land or other property.

Sec. 10. The State may continue to collect all specific taxes accruing to the treasury under "existing laws. The Legislature may provide for the collection of specific taxes from banking, railroad, plank road and other corporations hereafter created.

Sec. 11. The Legislature shall provide an uniform rule of taxation, except on property paying specific taxes; and taxes shall be levied on such property as shall be prescribed by law. | Sec. 12. All assessments hereafter authorized shall be on property at its cash value.

Sec. 13. The Legislature shall provide for an equalization by a State board in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, and every fifth year thereafter, of assessments on all taxable property except that paying specific taxes.

Sec. 14. Every law which imposes, continues or revives a tax, shall distinctly state the tax, and the object to which it is to be applied; and it shall not be sufficient to refer to any other law to fix such tax or object.

[See Art. XI, Sec. 11.)

[See Art. XI, Sec. 12.]

[See Art. XI, Sec. 13.]

[See Art. XI, Sec. 14.]

[See Art. XI, Sec. 15.]

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CONSTITUTION OF 1835.

CONSTITUTION OF 1850.

CONSTITUTION OF 1867.

[See Art. X, Sec. 1.]

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ARTICLE XIV.

COUNTIES. SECTION 1. Each organized county shall be a body corporate, with such powers and immunities as shall be established by law. All suits and proceedings, by or against a county, shall be in the name thereof. i

Sec. 2. No new county shall be organized without submitting the question to a vote of the electors residing therein, nor unless a majority voting thereon shall vote for the same. .

Sec. 3. No new county, containing less than sixteen towns, as surveyed by the United States, shall be organized from one or more counties, nor shall any organized county be reduced by: the organization of new counties to less than sixteen such towns, unless in pursuance of law, a majority of the votes cast by the electors residing in the county, or each of the counties to be thereby so reduced below sixteen townships, shall be in favor of such organization: Provided, That - nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to prevent the Legislature from organizing any county composed wholly of islands within the territory of the State, or discontinuing any such county, and attaching the same to the nearest county or counties on the main land.

Sec. 4. In each organized county there shall be a sheriff, a county clerk, a county treasurer, a register of deeds, a prosecuting attorney, and such other officers as may be provided by law, chosen by the electors thereof once in two years, and as often as vacancies shall happen, whose duties and powers shall be prescribed by the Legislature. The board of supervisors in any county may unite the offices of county clerk : and register of deeds in one office, or disconnect the same.

Sec. 5. The sheriff, county clerk, county treasurer, judge of probate, and register of deeds, shall hold their offices at the county seat.

Sec. 6. The sheriff shall hold no other county office, nor the office of supervisor. No person shall be eligible to the office of sheriff for more than four in a period of six years. The county shall never be responsible for his acts.

Sec. 7. A board of supervisors, consisting of one from each organized township, shall be established in each county, with such powers as shall be prescribed by law. | Sec. 8. Cities shall have such representation in the board of supervisors as the Legislature may direct; and one or more additional representatives on the board may be allowed by the Leg

[See Art. X, Sec. 4.]

[See Art. X, Sec. 5.]

[See Art. X, Sec. 6.]

[See Art, X, Sec. 7.]

CONSTITUTION OF 1835.

CONSTITUTION OF 1850.

CONSTITUTION OF 1867.

[See Art. X, Sec. 8.]

islature to townships containing not less than three thousand inhabitants.

Sec. 9. No county seat, once established, shall be removed until the place to which it is proposed to be removed shall be designated by a majority of the members elect of the board of supervisors of the county, and two-thirds of the electors voting thereon shall have voted in favor. of the proposed location, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law...

[See Art. X, Sec. 9.]

[See Art. X, Sec. 10.]

any county may borrow, or raise by tax, a sum not exceeding one and onehalf mill upon the dollar, of the assessed valuation thereof, for constructing or repairing public buildings, highways or bridges; but no greater sum shall be borrowed, or raised by tax, for such purpose, in any one year, unless authorized by a majority of the electors of such county voting thereon.

Sec. 11. The board of county auditors, in the county of Wayne, and in such other counties as may be authorized by law to elect county auditors, and in every other county the board of supervisors, shall, except as otherwise provided by law, have power to prescribe the compensation due for all services rendered for, and adjust all claims against their respective counties, and such determination and adjustment shall be subject to no appeal. Supervisors and county auditors shall receive for their services such compensation as shall be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE XV.
TOWNSHIPS.

[See Art. XI, Sec. 1.]

[See Art. XI, Sec. 2.]

nually, on the first Tuesday of March, in each organized township, one supervisor, one township clerk, ono township treasurer, one school inspector, one commissioner of highways, not exceeding four constables, one overseer of highways for each highway district, and such other township officers as the Legislature may by law provide, who shall hold their offices until their successors are elected and qualified, and whose terms of office, powers and duties shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 2. Each organized township shall be a body corporate, with such powers and immunities as shall be prescribed by law. All suits and proceedings, by or against a township, shall be in the name thereof. ..

ARTICLE XVI.

CITIES AND VILLAGES. SECTION 1. The Legislature shall provide for the incorporation of cities and villages, and shall restrict their powers of taxation, borrowing money, contract|ing debts, and loaning their credit.

[See Art. XV, Sec. 13.]

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