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[See Art. XII, Sec. 4.]

[See Art. XII, Sec. 7.]

sufficient to refer to any other law to

fix such tax or object.. . [See Art. XVIII, Sec. 5.] Sec. 16. A full account of the State

indebtedness, and an accurate statement of receipts and expenditures of the public money, shall be attached to, and published with the laws passed at every regular session of the Legislature. 1 Sec. 17. The State shall not assume any indebtedness of a county, town

ship or city.
ARTICLE X.

: COUNTIES.
SECTION 1. Each organized county [See Art. XIV, Sec. 1.]
shall be a body corporate, with such
powers and immunities as shall be es-
tablished by law. All suits and pro-
ceedings by or against a county shall
be in the name thereof.

Sec. 2. No organized county shall [See Art. XIV, Sec. 3.]"
ever be reduced by the organization of
new counties to less than sixteen town-
ships, as surveyed by the United States,
unless, in pursuance of law, a ma-
jority of electors residing in each coun-
ty to be affected thereby shall so decide. /
The Legislature may organize any city
into a separate county when it has at-
tained a population of twenty thousand
inhabitants, without reference to geo-
graphical extent, when a majority of
the electors of a county in which such
city may be situated, voting thereon,
shall be in favor of a separate organi-
zation..

Sec. 3. In each organized county ... [See Art. XIV, Sec. 4.] .
there shall be a sheriff, a county clerk,
a county treasurer, a register of deeds
and a prosecuting attorney, chosen by
the electors thereof, once in two years,
and as often as vacancies shall happen,
whose duties and powers shall be pre-
scribed by law. The board of super-
visors in any county may unite the
offices of county clerk and register of
deeds in one office, or disconnect the
same.

Sec. 4. The sheriff, county clerk, [See Art. XIV, Sec. 5.]
county treasurer, judge of probate and
register of deeds, shall hold their offi-
ces at the county seat.

Sec. 5. The sheriff shall hold no [See Art. XIV, Sec. 6.]
other office, and shall be incapable
of holding the office of Sheriff
longer than four in any period of six
years. He may be required by law to
renew his security from time to time,
and in default of giving such security,
his office shall be deemed vacant. The
county shall never be responsible for
his acts. .

Sec. 6. A board of supervisors, con [See Art. XIV, Sec. 7.]
sisting of one from each organized
township, shall be established in each
county, with such powers as shall be
prescribed by law.

[See Art. VII, Sec. 4.]

[See Art. VII, Sec. 4.]

CONSTITUTION OF 1835.

CONSTITUTION OF 1850.

CONSTITUTION OF 1887.

[See Art. XIV, Sec. 8.]

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Sec. 7. Cities shall have such representation in the board of supervisors of the counties in which they are situated, as the Legislature may direct.

Sec. 8. No county seat once established, shall be removed until the place to which it is proposed to be removed shall be designated by two-thirds of the board of supervisors of the county, and a majority of the electors voting thereon, shall have voted in favor of the proposed location, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law..

Sec. 9. The board of supervisors of any county, may borrow or raise by tax one thousand dollars, for constructing or repairing public buildings, highways or bridges; but no greater sum shall be borrowed or raised by tax for such purpose in any one year, unless authorized by a majority of the electors of such county voting thereon...

Sec. 10. The board of supervisors, or in the county of Wayne, the board. of county auditors, shall have the exclusive power to prescribe and fix the compensation for all services rendered for, and to adjust all claims against, their respective counties; and the sum so fixed or defined shall be subject to no appeal. : : Sec. 11. The board of supervisors of each organized county may provide for laying out highways, constructing bridges, and organizing townships, under such restrictions and limitations as shall be prescribed by law. : ; .. ARTICLE ·XI. . .

- TOWNSHIPS. SECTION 1. There shall be elected annually, on the first Monday of April, in each organized township, one supervisor, one township clerk, who shall be ex-officio school inspector, one commissioner of highways, one township treasurer, one school inspector, not exceeding four constables, and one overseer of highways of each highway district, whose power and duties shail be prescribed by law.

Sec. 2. Each organized township shall be a body corporate, with such powers and immunities as shall be prescribed by law. All suits and proceedings by or against a township, shall be in the name thereof,

[See Art. XV, Sec: 1.)

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: [See Art. XV, Sec. 2.7

[See Art. IX, Soc. 1.]

1.3 ARTICLE XII. IMPEACHMENTS AND REMOVALS FROM OFFICE.

SECTION 1. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching civil officers for corrupt con|duct in office, or for crimes and misdemeanors; but a majority of the members elected shall be necessary to direct an impeachment. : | Sec. 2. Every impeachment shall be.

[See Art. IX, Sec. 2.]

CONSTITUTION OF 1835...

CONSTITUTION OF 1850.

CONSTITUTION OF 1867.

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tried by the Senate. When the Gov-' ernor or Lieutenant Governor is tried, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall preside. When an impeachment is directed, the Senate shall take an oath or affirmation truly and impartially to try and determine the same according to the evidence. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members elected. Judgment in case of impeachment shall not extend further than removal from office; but the party convicted shall be liable to punishment according to law:

Sec. 3. When an impeachment is directed, the House of Representatives shall elect from their own body three members, whose duty it shall be to prosecute such impeachment. No impeachment shall be tried until the final adjournment of the Legislature, when the Senate shall proceed to try the same.

Sec. 4. No judicial officer shall exercise his office after an impeachment is directed, until he is acquitted.

Sec. 5. The Governor may make provisional appointment to fill a vacancy occasioned by the suspension of an officer until he shall be acquitted, or until after the election and qualification of a successor. .

Sec. 6. For reasonable cause, which shall not be sufficient ground for the impeachment of a judge, the Governor shall remove him on a concurrent resolution of two-thirds of the members elected to each House of the Legislature; but the cause for which such removal is required, shall be stated at length in such resolution.

Sec. 7. The Legislature shall provide by law for the removal of any officer elected by a county, township or school district, in such manner and for such cause as to them shall seem just and proper.

Sec. 8. The Governor shall have power, and it shall be his duty, except at such time as the Legislature may be in session, to examine into the condition and administration of any public office, and the acts of any public officer, elective or appointed, to suspend from office for gross neglect of duty, or for corrupt conduct in office, or any other misfeasance or malfeasance therein, either of the following State officers, to-wit: The Attorney General, State Treasurer, Commissioner of the State Land Office, Sec retary of State, Auditor General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, or Members of the State Board of Education, or any other officer of the State, except legislature or judicial, and to appoint a successor for the remainder of their respective unexpired term of office, and

[See Art. IX, Sec. 6.]

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CONSTITUTION OF 1835.

7. CONSTITUTION OF 1850.

CONSTITUTION OF 1867.

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ent, the and agricton) Sec. See Art. ;

potual fut, shall Watter be sold schools, poses, and

report the cause of such removal to the

Legislature at its next session.*
ARTICLE X.
ARTICLE XIII.

ARTICLE XII.
EDUCATION.
EDUCATION.

EDUCATION.
SECTION 1. Religion, morality and
knowledge being necessary to good
government and the happiness of man- .
kind, schools and the means of educa-

tion shall forever be encouraged.. [See Art. XIII, Sec. 10.] Sec. 2. Institutions for the benefit of

those inhabitants who are deaf, dumb, blind or insane, shall always be fos

tered and supported. 1. The Governor shall nominate, and Sec. 1. The Superintendent of Pubby and with the advice and consent of lic Instruction shall have the general the Legislature, in joint vote, shall ap- supervision of public instruction, and point a Superintendent of Public In- his duties shall be prescribed by law. struction, who shall hold his office for two years, and whose duties shall be prescribed by law. 2. The Legislature shall encourage [See Art. XIII, Sec. 11.]

[See Art. XII, Sec. 10.] :
by all suitable means, the promotion Sec. 2. The proceeds from the sales
of intellectual, scientifical and agricul- of all lands that have been or hereaf-
tural improvement. The proceeds of ter may be granted by the United
all lands that have been or hereafter States to the State for educational pur-
may be granted by the United States poses, and the proceeds of all lands or
to this State, for the support of schools, other property given by individuals, or
which shall hereafter be sold or dis- appropriated by the State for like pur-
posed of, shall be and remain a per- poses, shall be and remain a perpetual
petual fund; the interest of which, to-. fund, the interest and income of which,
gether with the rents of all such uno together with the rents of all such
sold lands, shall be inviolably appro- lands as may remain unsold, shall be
priated to the support of schools inviolably appropriated and annually
throughout the State.

applied to the specific objects of the
original gift, grant or appropriation.

Sec. 3. All land, the title to which [See Art. XII, Sec. 11.7...!
shall fail from à defect of heirs, shall
escheat to the State; and the interest
on the clear proceeds from the sales
thereof, shall be appropriated" exclu-
sively to the support of primary

schools. 3. The Legislature shall provide Sec. 4. The Legislature shall, within Sec. 3. The Legislature shall provide for a system of common schools, by five years from the adoption of this for a system of primary schools, by : which a school shall be kept up and constitution, provide for and establish which a school shall be maintained in

supported in each school district at a system of primary schools, whereby each school district in the State, free - least three months in every year; and a school shall be kept without charge of charge for tuition, at least four

any school district neglecting to keep for tuition, at least three months in months in the year. The instruction
up and support such a school, may be each year, in every school district in shall in all cases be conducted in the
deprived of its equal proportion of the the State; and all instruction in said English language.
interest of the public fund.

schools shall be conducted in the Eng-
lish language.

Sec. 5. A school shall be maintained
in each school district, at least three
months in each year. Any school dis-
trict neglecting to maintain such
school, shall be deprived for the ensu-
ing year, of its proportion of the in-
come of the primary school fund, and
of all funds arising from taxes for the

support of schools. 4. As soon as the circumstances of [See Art. XIII, Sec. 12.] Sec. 4. The Legislature shall prothe State will permit, the Legislature

vide for the establishment and mainshall provide for the establishment of

tenance of a library in each township, libraries, one at least [in] each town

and of at least one in each city. And ship, and the money which shall be : *Amendment adopted by Legislature of 1861, approved all moneys belonging to the public

nl by the people at general election of 1862, ... Votes tor, I derived from paid by persons as an equivalent for 5,980; and

fines, penalties, forfeit- ..

again

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1.

exemption from military duty, and the

ures or recognizances, imposed or taken clear proceeds of all fines assessed in

in the several counties, cities or townthe several counties for any breach of

ships, for any breach of the penal laws the penal laws, shall be exclusively ap

of the State, after deducting the actual plied for the support of said libraries.

costs of collection, shall be apportioned in the same manner, as is the income of the primary school fund, and paid over to the several cities and townships of the county in which such mon

ey accrued, for the support of such ... libraries: Provided, That the Legisla

ture may authorize any township, by a vote of its electors, to apply its portion of said money to the direct sup

port of its primary schools. 5. The Legislature shall take meas- Sec. 6. There shall be elected in Sec. 5. There shall be elected eight: ures for the protection, improvement each judicial circuit, at the time of the regents of the University, whose term or other disposition of such lands as election of the judge of such circuit, a of office shall be eight years, two of have been or may hereafter be reserved regent of the University, whose term whom shall be elected in every second or granted by the United States to this of office shall be the same as that of year, on the day of the annual township State for the support of a University; said judge. The regents thus elected election, so as to succeed the regents and the funds accruing from the rents shall constitute the board of regents now in office, as their several terms or sale of such lands, or from any of the University of Michigan.) . There shall expire. When a vacancy shall other source for the purpose aforesaid, shall be elected in the year 1863, at the occur in the office of regent, it shall shall be and remain a permanent fund time of the election of a Justice of the be filled by appointment by the Govfor the support of said University, with Supreme Court, eight regents of the ernor. The chief justice of the Susuch branches as the public conven- University, two of whom shall hold their preme Court shall be ex officio a memience máy hereafter demand for the office for two years, two for four years, ber of the board of regents. promotion of literature, the arts and two for six years, and two for eight years. sciences, and as may be authorized by They shall enter upon the duties of their the terms of such grant; and it shall office on the first of January succeeding be the duty of the Legislature, as soon their election. At every regular election

for the improvement and permanent after, there shall be elected two regents
security of the funds of said Univer- whose term of office shall be eight years.
sity. . . .

When å vacancy shall occur in the
office of Regent, it shall be filled by ap-
pointment of the Governor. The re-
gents thus elected shall constitute the
board of regents of the University of
Michigan.*

ty, and their successors in office, shall sity, and their successors in office, shall continue to constitute the body cor- continue to constitute the body corpoporate, known by the name and title of rate, known by the name and title of “the regents of the University of the regents of the University of Michigan.”

. Michigan.” Sec. 8. The regents of the University Sec. 7. The regents of the University shall, at their first annual meeting, or as shall, as often as necessary, elect a pressoon thereafter as may be, elect a ident of the University, who shall be president of the University, who shall ex officio a member of their board, be ex-officio a member of their board, with the privilege of speaking, but not with the privilege of speaking, but not of voting. He shall preside at the of voting. He shall preside at the meetings of the regents, and be the meetings of the regents, and be the principal executive officer of the Uni- ;. principal executive officer of the Uni- versity. The board of regents shall versity. The board of regents shall have the general supervision of the have the general supervision of the University, and the direction and con- . University, and the direction and con- trol of all expenditures from the Unitrol of all expenditures from the Uni-) versity interest fund. versity interest fund. . - Sec. 9. There shall be elected at the Sec. 8. There shall be elected three general election in the year one thous- members of a State board of educaand eight hundred and fifty-two, three tion, whose term of office shall be six members of a State board of education; years, one of whom shall be elected in

every second year, at the time of the *Amendment adopted by the Legislature of 1861, ap. election of regents of the University. proved by the peoplo at general election of 1862-ýotes min for, 4,883; against, 1,901.

They shall enter upon the duties of

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