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ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA

AND

REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS

OF THE YEAR

1 8 7 6.

EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU.
MENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,

SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

NEW SERIES, VOL. I.

WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XVI.

NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

849 & 661 BROADWAY.

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PREFACE.

This volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA is the first of a new series, and the sixteenth of the whole series. It is uniform with the AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA, and will supplement the latter work so far as relates to the events of history, the records of religious movements, science, politics, literature, biography, etc. It is, indeed, a worthy and fitting complement to the sixteen volumes of the revised CyCLOPÆDIA, and is bound up in the same style. The compass of this work embraces the world's history during the year, in

every department of human activity of sufficient importance to be a matter of record. A special article is devoted to the affairs of every country, which contains a sketch of its history during the year, and all official and reliable information on area, population, religion, education, finances, army, navy, commerce, industry, military operations, the public questions agitated, and the reforms effected. Great efforts are made to secure the completest material from all parts of the world, and the superiority of this work over all other publications of a similar scope is each year more generally appreciated and recognized. It is felt that in its several departments the work may be safely consulted as the completest and most reliable book of reference.

The details of American affairs in these pages embrace the administration of the Federal Government; its finances and systems of revenue and taxation; the banking system; the currency, and public questions relating thereto; commerce, manufactures, and the general state of the country, and the important subjects that agitate the public mind; the finances of the States, their debts and resources; their educational, charitable, and reformatory institutions; the various political conventions, national and State, assembled during the year, with their nominations and platforms; the results of elections; also, commercial and other conventions, and their proceedings; the important questions before Congress, such as counting the presidential vote, amnesty, various constitutional amendments, specie payments, etc., with the debates and decisions of that body; important decisions of State and Federal courts; the proceedings of State Legislatures on the various local matters; the extension of railroads, telegraphs, and all those great improvements of every kind involved in the rapid progress of the country.

The most important feature in the international relations of the world during the year 1876 was the thickening of the impending war-cloud in the East. The efforts of Turkey to suppress the insurrectionary movements in the Christian provinces proved unsuccessful. The Government of Servia, yielding to the impetuous sympathies of its subjects with the insurrectionists, declared war against Turkey; and, although the disparity of the military forces made success impossible, yet the

excitement of the entire Slavic 'race, and especially of the Russian people, rose to fever-heat, and foreshadowed the enlargement of the seat of war by the active interference of Russia. As such an event was regarded as affecting generally and intensely the interests of all the nations of the civilized world, a last though unsuccessful attempt was made by the treaty powers of Europe, by an international conference, to avert a new Eastern war. To conciliate public opinion in Europe, the Government of Turkey deemed it necessary to proclaim a constitution conferring upon its inhabitants, of all races and religions, the principal rights enjoyed by the people under constitutional monarchies. The article “ Turkey” has, therefore, a prominent place in this volume, and presents an extensive account of the inilitary operations, of the diplomatic negotiations, and of the new constitution. A special map of the seat of the war, giving most of the places mentioned, will be found a valuable aid in following the progress of the above-mentioned military operations. Another map, on the races and religions of Turkey, will greatly facilitate a just appreciation of the dangerous crisis through which that country is now passing. The attitude of the other great powers of Europe, under the new aspect of the Eastern question, is fully set forth in the articles devoted to their respective countries. The unusual state of affairs in Denmark during the year will be found to be presented in a very clear and satisfactory manner.

The international relations of the United States are presented under the title of “Diplomatic Correspondence."

The special articles on the great religious divisions and denominations constitute, on the whole, a religious history of the year, probably the only one now accessible in the English language.

The advance in the branches of astronomical and chemical science, with new and valuable applications to various purposes, is extensively described. A notice has also been taken of the International Congresses of the adepts of various sciences.

The great engineering enterprises of the world in progress are fully described, and also numerous mechanical improvements.

The narrative of geographical discoveries in the different parts of the earth is very complete; also, under the title “Earth,” we present summaries of the area and population of the large divisions of the globe, according to the latest statistical information.

Under “ Archæology” will be found very full descriptions of the discoveries of Schliemann and Cesnola. The results of the Centennial Exhibition are presented in a summary

but

very complete manner.

The record of Literature and Literary Progress in the United States and in each of the countries of Europe is as important as during any preceding year.

The biographical department is very full, and embraces brief notices of deceased persons of distinction in State, Church, society, and literature ; there are also notices of many living persons who were distinguished during the year.

The volume contains numerous illustrations of noted cities and places in the various countries of the world, and also steel portraits of the two leading candidates at the recent presidential election in this country.

All important documents, messages, orders, and letters from officials and others, have been inserted entire..

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