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works, a large number of articles on botanical corresponding to that which tradition holds in and physiological subjects. He also wrote the his religious system. The knowledge of God, botanical part of the “Voyage de la Coquille he maintained, is intuitive. The ideal element (1831), and "Enumération des Genres des of every intellectual act is God creating creatPlantes cultivées au Muséum d'Histoire Natu- ures, ens creat existentias. The later publirelle" (1843).
cations of Mr. Brownson are “The SpiritBROWNSON, ORESTES Augustus, LL. D., Rapper" (1854), “The Convert, or Leaves an American author, born at Stockbridge, Vt., from my Experience” (1857), and “The AmerSeptember 16, 1803; died in Detroit, Mich., ican Republic" (1865). From 1844 he conApril 17, 1876. In his nineteenth year he ducted almost single-handed, in Boston and joined the Presbyterian Church at Ballston, New York, Brounson': Quarterly Reciev, deN. Y., where he was at the time attending voted especially to the defense of Roman an academy; but he afterward changed his Catholic doctrines, but also discussing politics views, and he became in 1825 a Universalist and literature. This periodical was suspended minister. He preached in different villages in in 1864, and revived in 1873, and continued to Vermont and New York, and wrote for various the close of 1875. He was invited by Dr. John religious periodicals in support of his new H. Newman and others to accept a chair in belief. His ecclesiastical position had grown the new university in Dublin, but he preferred into disfavor with him, when, making the to continue his labors in his native country. acquaintance of Robert Owen, he was fasci- Translations of several of his works and essays nated by schemes of social reform, and in 1828 bave been published in Europe, where he is he was prominent in the formation of the probably better known and appreciated than in Working-men's party in New York, the design this country. of which was to relieve the poorer classes by BUCHHOLTZ, REINHOLD, a German natupolitical organization; but he presently de- ralist, born in 1836; died April 17, 1876. He spaired of the effectiveness of this movement. received his early education in the Gymnasium Afterward the writings of Dr. Channing drew of Königsberg, and afterward in the Joachimshis attention to the Unitarians, and in 1832 he thal Gymnasium in Berlin. He then studied became pastor of a congregation of that de- medicine as his profession, and natural history, nomination. In 1836 he organized in Boston in the Universities of Berlin and Greifswalde, the "Society for Christian Union and Prog- but zoology was his favorite study. After ress," of which he retained the pastorate till graduating at Greifswalde, he settled there as he ceased preaching in 1843. Immediately practising physician, but soon went to Italy in after removing to Boston he published his order to make in Genoa and Naples thorough “New Views of Christianity, Society, and the studies on the different animals inhabiting the Church," remarkable for its protest against sea. Although he had to struggle with great Protestantism. In 1838 he established the embarrassments, he was entirely successful, Boston Quarterly Review, of which he was bringing home with him some valuable speciproprietor, and almost sole writer, during the mens of the animals of the Mediterranean. five years of its separate existence, and to He then took part in the North Pole Expewhich he contributed largely during the first dition of the Hansa, sharing all the adventures year after it was merged in the Democratic and privations of that ill-fated vessel. The loss Recier, of New York. It was designed not of his collections and instruments on board of to support any definite doctrine, but to awaken the Hansa affected him so much that in a fit thought on great subjects, with reference to of insanity he left his companions on the coast speedy and radical changes. . To this end also of Greenland. He was found among the icehe published in 1840 - Charles Elwood, or the bergs, almost frozen, and was brought home by Infidel converted,” a philosophico-religious the mate of the Hansa. He was placed in an treatise, in the form of a novel. In 1844 he asylum, where he was cured in a comparativeentered the Roman Catholic communion, to ly short time, so that he soon again resumed which he afterward remained attached. The his studies. He now wrote several articles method which he adopted in his philosophical about the expedition of the Hansa, and was system is the distinction between intuition soon after appointed professor in the Univer(direct perception) and reflection (indirect or sity of Greifswalde. In 1872, in company with reflex knowledge). The mind is unconsciously two young physicians, he went to the west intuitive; it does not, in intuition, know that coast of Africa to explore the mouths of the it has intuition of this or that truth, because as Niger. One of his companions died of yellow soon as it knows or is conscious of the intui- fever, while Buchholtz returned to Greifstion it has reflex knowledge. Reflection can walde in 1875, after having passed through a contain nothing which is not first in intuition. shipwreck on the Madeira Islands, and various In order to reflect on that which we know in- other dangers. In 1876 he was appointed tuitively, we must have some sensible sign by ordinary professor at Greifswalde, in recogwhich the mind may apprehend or take hold nition of his services. But the dangers and of it. Such a sign is language, both in the privations of his travels had been too much ordinary and figurative sense of the word, for him, and had completely undermined bis which thus bolds in his metaphysics a place health.
VOL. XVI.-6 A
BURRELL, Sir Percy, Bart., M. P., was further explanation and defense of his views, born in 1812; died July 20, 1876. He was he published in 1851 a work entitled “ Christ educated at Westminster and at Christchurch, in Theology,” in which he argued that sysOxford. He was a deputy-lieutenant and jus- tematic orthodoxy is not attainable, and that tice of the peace for the county of Sussex, and human language is incapable of expressing a captain in the Eighteenth Sussex Ritle Vol- with any exactness theological science. His unteers. In 1862 he was elected for the other principal works are: "Sermons for the borough of Shoreham, and kept this seat up to New Life" (1858); “Nature and the Superhis death. In politics he was a moderate Con- natural” (1858); “Work and Play (1864); servative, declaring himself in favor of “nation “Christ and His Salvation " (1864); “The al education being based on religion.” The Vicarious Sacrifice" (1865); "Noral Uses of ancestors of the family were the Burrells of Dark Things" (1868); and “Woman's SufBrooke Park, near Alnwick, one of whom frage, the Reform against Nature" (1869). He married a daughter of Sir Walter de Wodeland, also published many addresses, and was a freequerry to the Black Prince.
quent contributor to religious periodicals. BUSHNELL, Horace, D. D., an American BUTCHER, SAMUEL, Bishop of Meath, born clergyman, born at New Preston, Conn., in in 1811; died July 22, 1876. He was the sec1802; died at Hartford, February 17, 1876. He ond son of Vice-Admiral Butcher, R. N. He graduated at Yale College in 1827, was teacher received his education in Trinity College, Dubin an academy at Norwich, Conn., and in 1829 lin, of which he was elected a Fellow in 1837. became tutor in Yale College, and at the same In 1850 he was appointed Professor of Eccletime studied law, and afterward theology. In siastical History, in 1852 Regius Professor of 1833 he became pastor of the North Congre- Divinity, and in 1866 Bishop of Meath. He gational Church in Hartford, where he con was a member of her Majesty's Privy Council tinued with eminent ability until 1859, when in Ireland, a member of the Royal Irish Acadill health compelled him to resign. In 1837 he emy, and enjoyed precedence, in right of his delivered at Yale College the Phi Beta Kappa see, as premier bishop in that kingdom. He oration on the “Principles of National Great was the ninetieth holder of the see in succession ness," and in 1847 published" Christian Nurt- since its foundation in the sixth century. He ure,'' in which he discussed the subject of wrote “An Introductory Lecture on the Study religious education, and treated of the family of Ecclesiastical Literature” (1851), “Sermons as à religious institution. In 1849 appeared on the Crimean War" (1854), “On the Present “God in Christ," three discourses previously State of the Romish Controversy in Ireland" (lelivered, with a preliminary“ Dissertation on (1855), “On the Relative Value of Human Language as related to Thought.” The views and Divine Knowledge" (1857), “ On the Conherein expressed respecting the doctrine of the servative Character of the English ReforTrinity were questioned, and the author was mation" (1862), “Some Thoughts on the Sucalled upon to answer a charge of heresy be- preme Authority of the Scriptures" (1864), fore the Clerical Association, of which he was and “Two Sermons on Dr. Pusey's · Eireni& member. The charge was not sustained. In n'
CABALLERO, FERNAN, the nom de plume of many, and other European countries. She the Spanish novelist Cecilia de Arrom, born in was the founder of modern realistic romance 1797, died in July, 1876. She was born in in Spain, whose people she described with Switzerland, and was the daughter of Böhl von wonderful truth and accuracy. But in all her Faber, a German merchant. Having been works she showed herself an ardent Spaniard, elacated in Germany, she went to Spain with and her writings are of a national character, her father in 1813, where the latter had a large like those of few other writers of fiction. Her business. Having become a widow after a short object was to encourage the Spaniards to hold period of married life, she married the Marquis on to their old customs, their old faith, and to de Arco-Hermeso, and, when the latter had return to the old monarchy. In this way she died in 1835, the lawyer Arrom. As his widow expected to see a regeneration of Spain brought slie has lived in Seville since 1863. In 1849 about. Her “Cuentas Poesias Populares Andasie published her first novel, “La Gaviota," luces (1859) were the first collection of Spanwhich was followed by a number of others, ish popular tales and songs. Her principal a nong which may be particularly mentioned works were translated into English, German, ". La Familia de Alvareda,” “Clemencia," French, and Italian. “ Lágrimas,” and “Ella.” She also published CABRERA, Don Ramon, Count of Morella. several collections of smaller tales. Her works a Carlist general, born August 31, 1810; died from the beginning attracted general attention August 29, 1876. He studied theology in his in Spain, which soon spread to France, Ger- youth, but, as the life of a priest did not suit
him, he entered the ranks of the Carlists, pied considerable attention. The Legislature among whom he soon became known for his of 1873–74 had provided for submitting the bravery and his cruelty, particularly for the question to a vote of the people, declaring in latter. In 1837 he took part in the expedition the act for that purpose that “a majority of of Don Carlos against Madrid, on which he re- the aggregate vote of the State cast for meniceived the title of Count of Morella, in conse- bers of the Legislature being in favor of a conquence of a successful battle at Morella. Es- vention, said convention shall be deemed to partero, who had command of the Christinos, have been called.” The provision of the conrepulsed the Carlists, whose cause from that stitution which relates to calling a convention time gradually declined. Maroto, the Carlist for its revision uses this language : “ If it shall commander-in-chief, concluded the convention appear that a majority of the electors voting of Vergara, España was murdered, and only at such election have voted in favor of calling Cabrera succeeded in maintaining himself in a convention, the Legislature shall, at its next the mountains of Aragonia. In 1840 he was defeated by O'Donnell, driven to Catalonia, and finally forced on July 6, 1840, to cross the French border. For one year he was a prisoner in the fortress of Ham, then went to Lyons, and from there protested against the resignation of Don Carlos. In 1848 he again tried to carry the standard of revolt into Spain, but was defeated and forced to flee. After the battle of Pastoral, on January 17, 1849, he was driven to France, remained there for a short time, and then went to England, where he married Miss Richards, a very rich lady. In 1850 he sought in vain to bring about complications between the kingdom of Naples and Spain, and, having been expelled from the former country, he retired entirely from the political field, taking, no part in the Carlist rising in 1854 against the rule of Espartero and O'Donnell. In the last Carlist war, session, provide by law for calling a convenwhich came to an end in 1876, he openly took tion, to be holden within six months after the the part of Don Alfonso XII., who confirmed passage of such law.” At the election of 1875 all his titles and dignities which he had re a majority of the votes cast upon the proposiceived from Don Carlos. The address which tion for a Constitutional Convention were in he issued to the Carlists, calling upon them to favor of it, but the number was much less than Jay down arms, produced but little effect, while a majority of all the votes cast at the same Don Carlos had him tried by court-martial, election for other purposes. The question, which sentenced him to death in contumaciam. therefore, arose whether the vote of the people
CALIFORNIA. The twenty-first session authorized the calling of a convention. A bill of the Legislature of California began on the for the purpose was introduced in the Senate 6th of December, 1875, and continued until and referred to the Judiciary Committee. Two April 3, 1876. The number of acts approved reports were made, a minority of the comby the Governor was 585; but scarcely any of mittee recommending that the bill pass, and these were of special importance. The lead- the majority recommending its indefinite posting subjects of consideration and discussion ponement. The minority took the ground that were finally left without any practical action. it was the intent of the constitution that a maAmong these was a general plan of irrigation jority of the electors voting on the proposition for the State, reform of the educational system, for a convention should determine whether it prevention of what was known as the land was to be held, and the majority maintained monopoly," the regulation of agricultural and that a majority of the persons voting at the moining interests, reform in the penal system, election for any purpose was necessary. The and other matters, which occupied a large majority report was finally adopted. A bill share of attention, and were the subjects of originating in the Assembly for the same purreports and bills, but of no enactments. The pose was passed by that body, but defeated in sabject of retrenchment in government expenses the Senate. An act was passed recommendwas referred to a special committee, which ing the electors of the State to vote at the next made an elaborate report, pointing out where- election on the amendments of the constituin the expenditures were extravagant, and tion, proposed by the Legislature of 1873–74. could be reduced, but nothing was done either The subject of regulating railroads occupied in the appropriations or tax-levy to diminish a very large share of attention during the sesmaterially the cost of administration.
sion. No fewer than four bills were introduced The question of calling a convention for the and debated at considerable length. They were revision of the constitution of the State occu- all referred to a committee, which made an
elaborate report on the general subject of rail Among the bills which were prominent in road legislation, and recommended the passage the deliberations, but which failed to pass, was of an act, originating in the Senate, known as one to simplify the school system, one repealthe “O'Connor bill.” This was passed, and ing the compulsory education law, one comreceis che approval of the Governor on the pelling publishers of libels to make retraction, 3d of April. It provides that the Governor and one requiring the signature of the writer shall, on or before the 15th of May, 1876, ap- to be appended to all newspaper articles. point three competent persons as Commission- Among the other acts passed was one to reguers of Transportation, who shall be in no way late the practice of medicine, requiring all connected with or interested in railroad busi- practitioners to have a diploma, either from ness, and who shall serve two years, or until some medical institution or from a board their successors are appointed. They must of examiners authorized and established by qualify by taking an appropriate oath, and en the act; one abolishing the Board of Tide tering into bonds of $10,000 each for the faith- Land Commissioners; one repealing the act to ful performance of their duties. Each com- permit the voters of every town or city to missioner is to be paid $3,000 per annum, and vote on the question of granting licenses for a secretary may be employed, at a salary of the sale of liquor; and one establishing a So$1,800. It is made the duty of the commis- ciety for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. sioners to inspect railroads and require them A comunittee of the Assembly, appointed to to be kept in a safe condition. All companies examine into the affairs of the State Landare required to file with the commissioners Office, having reported unfavorably on its copies of their tariffs of charges, their rules, administration, a commission was provided regulations, and instructions to employés in to inquire more thoroughly into all matters force on the 1st of January, 1876, and to make relating to the sales and disposal of the pubno changes in them. The president, or other lic lands of the State. Its report was made to executive officer in charge of each railroad the Governor on the 14th of October. This company, is required to furnish detailed infor- showed that the fees of the office of Surveyormation of its affairs, sixty-three items being General and Register of the Land Office from designated of the information to be given, cov December 4, 1871, to December 6, 1875, ering the amount of stock and debts of the road, amounted to $74,713.36, of which $42,499.97 cost and equipment, characteristics, operations was unaccounted for. The Surveyor-General of the last year, earnings, and expenses. Neglect during that period claimed to have expended to furnish this information is made punishable $31,004.07 for extra clerk-hire, maps, certifiby fine of $100 to $1,000. Authority is given to cates, postage, expressage, and traveling-exthe commissioners to examine the books and penses. Allowing these items, there was stil! papers and the officers and employés of any $11,211.32 unaccounted for. Besides the fees railroad company in order to ascertain its con- of the office, there had been expended by it dition and management. In case of dispute the $65,565.60 drawn from the State Treasury. commissioners may fix the route of any new The commission concluded that “lamentable line, determine the compensation to be made extravagance (to use the mildest possible lanby one railroad to another for transportation, guage) " had “characterized the official conand determine the time-tables, accommoda- duct of the ex-Surveyor-General.” tions, etc., required by the public. Awards by The subject of Chinese immigration was the cominissioners are subject to revision in the taken up by the Legislature and an investigacounty courts, with the right of appeal to the tion by a commission of the Senate ordered Supreme Court. Extortion and discrimination to take place during the recess. The following are defined and prohibited under penalties, to resolutions were also adopted: be exacted by the commissioners. The sub Whereas, It is the duty of the General Government stance of the definition of extortion is demand- to promote the welfare of its citizens by the enacting or receiving more than the regular specified ment of wise laws, and to advance their material inrates for fare, freight, storage, or delivery, and foreign nations, by conceding to their subjects such discrimination is demanding or receiving more rights as they allow our citizens to enjoy in their or less of one person than another for a like territories; andservice. The issue of free passes is restricted Whereas, Our present treaty with China grants to to the directors, officers, and employés of the her subjects privileges for which in return we rerailroads, with their families, the officers and bring to our shores large numbers of her people,
ceive no corresponding advantages, but which agents of other railroads, and of telegraph many of whom come among us to pursue an immoral companies, destitute persons, the State Com- vocation, which has made certain quarters of our missioners, and their employés traveling on
towns and cities localities where human degradation official business, public messengers, troops and is seen in its most abhorrent forms; and
Whereas, The laboring element that is brought persons entitled by existing laws or contracts
among us from China by organized companies of to free transportation. There is a penalty of capitalists is not of a desirable character as resi$100 for issuing free passes to others than dents, because, owing to the low standard of living those designated. It is made the duty of the
on which it can subsist, it deprives our own workingcommissioners to investigate violations of the people of employment in industries which they have
learned only by a long apprenticeship; andlaw and prosecute suits therefor.
Whereas, Pauper wages for our own working
classes, who have wives and children depending on and violent character who live upon their countrythem for support, result from the maintenance of the men by levying black-mail, and exacting tribute from treaty with China, which largely contributes to fill all classes of Chinese society. our poor-bouses and hospitals with unwilling inmates as the only shelter they can obtain from pov
The address closed with the following resoerty and sickness caused by loss of work; and - lutions, which were adopted by the meeting:
Whereas, It is against public policy that under any present pretext whatever encouragement should be
Resolved, That the sentiments embodied in the given by treaty stipulations, or otherwise, to the im- foregoing address are expressions of the opinion of migration of a servile laboring element among us:
this assemblage, and in view of the facts therein set therefore, be it
forth we earnestly recommend the Congress of the Resolved by the Senate, the Assembly concurring, United States to give this matter of Chinese immiThat our Senators be instructed, and our Represent- gration its immediate and earnest attention. atives requested, to use their influence to have Ar Resolved, That the people of California, in their ticles V. and VI. of our treaty with China modified, 80
perfect loyalty to the Government and the law, recas to discourage the further immigration of Chinese ognize their duty to the Chinese now among us, to our shores, by appropriate action on the part of promising them protection and all their rights, and the Federal Government.
a guarantee of all the privileges to which they are Résolved, That his Excellency the Governor be re
entitled under existing laws. quested to forward a copy of the foregoing preamble
Resolved, That in relation to the continuing immiand resolutions to our Senators and Representatives gration of Chinese, we claim the right, from our suin Congress at as early a day as possible.
perior knowledge of the results of this immigration
and our observation of its practical workings, and as Before the Senate commission entered upon Clare our unalterable hostility to it, to say that the
an intelligent part of the American people, to deits inquiry, a public meeting was held in San bulk of this immigration is pure
e peonage. Francisco for the expression of the sentiment Resolved, That the majority of the immigrants are of the people on the subject. Governor Irwin coolies, in bondage to secret organizations more powaddressed the meeting, declaring that the influx erful than our courts, and held in servitude for debt of the Chinese threatened a subversion of our
-a slavery only terminable at the will of masters
over whom our laws have no control. civilization and the degradation of American
Resolved, That this system is immoral and brutallabor. An address was adopted setting forth izing-worse than African slavery; It involves systhe extent of Chinese immigration, its effect tematic violation of our State and municipal laws, apon industry, morals, and health, and the ne and is attended by murder, false and forcible imcessity of some action to put a check upon it. prisonment, perjury, subornation, kidnapping, and Among the statements of the address were the the sale of women for the purpose of prostitution.
Resolved, Thut the presence of these people in our following:
midst has a tendency to demoralize society and minAltogether they cannot be made more than in a
ister to its worst vices; it aids to corrupt and departial degree amenable to the laws of the several
bauch our youth, and the labor of this servile class States they have invaded; they, iy effect, constitute
comes in direct competition with the labor of Ameri
cau citizens. It degrades industrial occupations, a vast secret society, governed by laws and controlled by officials of their own; beyond the reach and paupers, and is a menace to Christian civiliza
drives white labor from the market, multiplies idlers of the legally constituted authorities of the land, tion." It these things be true-and we challenge they are for the most part so singularly regardless their successful denial—then we have a right to deof the laws of health in their mode of living and so
mand of Congress that it shall investigate, and then difficult to be brought within sanitary regulations, legislate for the abatement of this evil: thereforeespecially as to proper ventilation in their crowded abodes, as to constitute wherever
they are found in meeting in charge shall appoint, the mayor of the
Resolved, That the general committee having this numbers a startling menace to public health. They will never acquire our language except for
city approving, not to exceed five reputable citizens
of San Francisco, intelligent upon this Chinese the purpose of perfecting themselves for certain em
question, who shall proceed to Washington, and, ployment. Their civilization is not in accordance having submitted this address and these resolutions frith ours. Their numbers make them as formidable, and their habits as destructive, as the locusts legislation as may be necessary to meet the require
to the Houses of Congress, shall earnestly urge such of Egypt or the grasshoppers of Kansas.
ments of this occasion, We look upon them with fear and alarm. No superiority of race or intelligence can resist such su
The Senate commission pursued its investiperiority of numbers. They are not of us, and we invoke the protection of the General Government gation for several weeks during the months of against the invasion now upon us and with which we April and May, and took a large mass of testiare threatened.
mony concerning the character and effects of The committee give their denial to the sentimental Chinese immigration. In the latter part of the error that the Chinese are distinguished for the pe- year a committee of the Federal Senate visited a law-abiding and inoffensive population. The the State for the
purpose of inquiring into the truth is, that in the city of San Francisco there are same subject. The official reports have not not less than ten thousand Chinese belonging to the yet been made public. criminal classes, and number among them the most There was no State election this year, but abandoned and dangerous of criminals: that they conventions of the political parties were held are more difficult to manage by the police authorities than the same class among the white people, for the purpose of appointing delegates to the and are entirely out of the pale of any possible refor national conventions. That of the Republimation,
cans took place at Sacramento, on the 27th of The committee are informed, upon intelligent Chinese authority, that this class is dangerous, and April. The following resolutions were unania constant source of terror to their own people, em
mously adopted : bracing as it does gamblers, opium-eaters, hangers Resolved, That we have undiminished faith in the op upon dens of prostitution, and men of abandoned integrity of the Republican party of the nation; thit