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would be instantly pacified as soon as the di- that a decided change had been gradually takrect rule of the Turks should cease there. This ing place in Western Europe in the feeling pacification ought therefore to be intrusted to toward Turkey, led the Servians to regard the Servia and Montenegro; and in order that the objections of the diplomatists as of secondary pacification might be a permanent one, and as importance. a consideration for the services rendered, Ser On June 23d the entire Servian forces were via should receive Bosnia and Montenegro the placed under arms, and on June 29th the Herzegovina. The prince of Servia was to Servian agent in Constantinople delivered a remain entirely, and the prince of Montenegro memorandum containing the demands of Seronly as far as the Herzegovina was concerned, via and Montenegro, mentioned in a preceding a vassal of the Sublime Porte, and both princes page. They were rejected by the Porte, as were to pay tribute from the newly-acquired had been expected, and the declaration of war territory. These demands were brought to followed immediately, and M. Magazinovitch, the notice of the great powers by a special the Servian agent, was recalled. On the same envoy sent for that purpose to Ems. But the day Prince Milan left Belgrade for the army, European diplomatists were decidedly opposed and on his way published an address to the to a war of the two principalities against Tur- Servian people. In this address he said that key. On the other hand, a great enthusiasm he had had the intention of sending an embasfor the war began to show itself among the sador to Constantinople, in order to come to Russian people. This, together with the fact an agreement with the Sublime Porte. But

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the latter showed in every possible manner The troops at the cominand of the belligerthat it did not desire an agreement, and con ent parties at the opening of the war were as tinued to send troops to the Servian frontier, follows: In the Herzegovina, on the northern ready to devastate the country with fire and boundary of Montenegro, Mukhtar Pasha was sword. This danger Servia must avert, and in command of an army corps of about 20,000 must even invade the neighboring provinces men. The troops in Scutari and Podgoritza, now in insurrection to restore to them peace south of Montenegro, amounted at the time to and order. The Prince of Montenegro had one brigade of 4,000 to 5,000 men only. The given as the cause for his declaration of war second army corps—that of the Danube—was the fact that the Turks completely blockaded in command of Eyub Pasha, and was composed the southern boundary of the principality; of about 50,000 men. In Northwestern Bos. had shown themselves hostile toward it; had nia, toward the Drina, Ali Pasha was in cominterrupted communication in the country; mand of a strong division; and in Southwestand had not been able to introduce or carry ern Bosnia Mehemet Ali, with a large brigade, out the reforms which they had promised. occupied Sienitza, Novibazar, and Nova-WaOn July 2d the prince announced to his troops, rosch, making in all 14,000 to 15,000 men. at Cettigne, that he had declared war against Another division was posted on the railroad Turkey, and placed himself at their head in from Salonica to Mitrovitza. These troops order to invade the Herzegovina.

could be immediately reënforced by Bashi

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Bazouks, which represented the unorganized 20,000 men. This left available the second ban Mustafiz or Landsturm. In addition to of the fifth and sixth divisions (Danube and these forces, 30,000 regular troops had been Shumadiya) and the entire reserve. On the moved in May from Constantinople to sup- morning of July 3d General Alimpitch crossed press the Bulgarian insurrection, of which the Drina with fifteen battalions, leaving the Abdul-Kerim, the Minister of War, had him- second ban to guard the right bank of the river self taken command. When the declaration of from its mouth to Liubovia, a distance of war came, the Porte not only called out the eighty kilometres. The column of the right redif of the first, but also that of the second wing landed at Popovo, put the Turkish adban, and even drew a large number of troops vanced guards to flight, and was afterward atfrom all the Asiatic corps. The troops already tacked in a neighboring woods. The column in Bulgaria were ordered to march still further of the left wing moved toward Janja, while north, and Abdul-Kerim Pasha was made com- the centre marched directly toward Bielina, mander-in-chief of all the troops operating soon encountering the Turkish fortifications, against Servia.

against which it brought to bear the artillery In Servia, parts of the first ban had been and infantry. The other two columns did not called out as early as April. In the latter part arrive until two o'clock in the afternoon, when of June the entire first ban was called out, and the centre had been under fire for three hours. early in July the entire second ban was also The fire was kept up until five o'clock, when ready for action. To these regular forces of the Servians proceeded to storm the town. Servia there were added volunteer corps of The right wing succeeded in entering the forvarying strength, which increased in time, of tifications, and, without making any provisions these some, however, could be employed at for holding the captured posts, pursued the the outbreak of hostilities. These were most- retreating Turks into the streets of the city. ly composed of Bosnians, Servians from Hun- Here the Servians were received by a well-digary, Bulgarians, and members of other Slavic rected fire from the houses; disorder began in tribes. Other countries were represented only their ranks, and they in turn were driven out. in a few cases; even the Russians, who after. The disorder communicated itself to the cenward took part in the war to such a consider- tre, and Alimpitch was forced to retreat. He able degree, were represented at the beginning succeeded in restoring order, however, and rein a few isolated cases only. The first ban tained a firm footing on the left bank of the was immediately moved to the frontier, and, Drina. Ilere he began to fortify himself, and together with the regular army, was divided gradually pushed his outposts nearer and nearer into four armies, to which the second ban was to Bielina. He received in his camp large afterward added. In order to prevent the numbers of fugitives from Bosnia, among Turkish gunboats on the Danube from attack- whom were a great many capable of bearing ing Belgrade and other cities on this river, the arms. It was reported, although probably Servians intended to place torpedoes at the with some exaggeration, that up to July 12th mouth of the Timok. Austria, however, in- he had organized 6,000 Bosnians. The Turks terfered, and obtained from the Turks the as at this time abandoned Little Zvornik, which surance that they would not ascend the river was immediately occupied and fortified by with their gunboats above the mouth of the the Servians, thus placing them in complete Timok, thus removing the necessity for the use possession of the right bank of the Drina. of the torpedoes.

Alimpitch remained quiet in his camp, and by The four Servian armies were as follows: constant drilling succeeded in bringing his 1. The Army of the Drina, composed of the first division to a high degree of military usefuiand second bans of the first division, and numerous volunteer corps, principally composed On the Timok, General Lieshanin assumed of Bosnians. It numbered about 20,000 men, the offensive on July 2d. The first ban of the infantry and cavalry, and was under the com Timok division, and the “Holy Legion," a volmand of General Alimpitch. 2. The Army of unteer body, were concentrated in and around the Ibar, composed of the first and second hans Saitchar, while the second ban held the entire of the division Western Morava, and volun- Timok line. On the morning of the 2d Genteers from Southwestern Bosnia (Rascia), un eral Lieshanin crossed the Timok, with 6,000 der the Archimandrite Dutchitch; this army men, into the Turkish territory, leaving over also contained about 20,000 men. 3. The 7,000 men behind. He immediately took up principal army, the Army of the South, was the line of march for Widin. In the neighplaced under the command of General Tcher- borhood of Karaul he encountered the enemy; nayeff. It was composed of the first and sec- and as his troops displayed great difficulty in ond bans of the division Southern Morava, and being managed, they were soon put to rout, of the first ban of the divisions Danube and and in the evening he returned to Saitchar Shumadiya, and had in all about 45,000 men. with considerable loss. On the following 4. The Army of the Timok was under the morning Osman Pasha crossed into Servian command of General Lieshanin, and consisted territory, and immediately began to deploy of the first and second bans of the fourth divis- his troops. This the Servian cavalry souglit ion, and several volunteer bodies, in all about to prevent, but were forced to retire into Sai


tchar. Lieshanin, who feared to have his line had a short engagement with the enemy, and of retreat cut off, finally ordered the fortifica- seemed to have been successful in drawing the tions on the right bank of the Timok to be attention of the garrison of Nissa. Tchernayabandoned. The Servian loss on these two eff moved the greater part of his army on the days was said to have been over 1,800 men, road from Gurgussovatz to Ak Palanka, while a great number of whom were killed, while a small detachment was ordered to advance to the loss of the Turks is estimated to have the right upon Nissa by way of Gramada, to been far greater-by some as much as double watch it also on the right bank of the Morava, that of the Servians. But although Osman and thus impress the Turks with the idea of Pasha continued to harass the Servians, even an intended siege of this fortress. A detachas far south as Belgradshik, he did not intend ment on the left of the main army was ordered to, nor could he, follow up his victory in the to march toward Pirot. On July 4th Tcherproper manner; for the principal "Turkish nayeff appeared before Ak Palanka and Pirot, army was as yet by no means in the condi- and, after a short engagement before the fortion to sustain him in any forward movements mer city, entered them on the 5th. As, howthat he might make, and, besides, he was ex ever, he did not receive the aid from the Bulpecting a large addition to his forces General garians that he had expected, and as the misLieshanin had received, as early as July 7th, fortunes of Lieshanin on the Timok had cast a full brigade as reinforcements.

a decided gloom over the Servian operations, General Zach, on the Ibar, crossed the bound- Prince Milan ordered him to return to Servia; ary on difficult mountain-paths at Javor, in- and on July 10th he left Ak Palanka and tending to march upon Sienitza; on his right, Pirot, and set out on his march back to SerDutchitch was to disturb the region of Nova- via. Warosch, while on his left Colonel Antitch The Montenegrins, at the beginning of the was to capture Novibazar, and, if possible, to hostilities, were divided into two corps : the threaten Mitrovitza, the terminus of the rail one on the southern frontier, opposite the road from Salonica. On July 6th General Zach Turkish positions of Medun, Podgoritza, and encountered a Turkish brigade under Mehemet Scutari, kept itself strictly on the defensive; Ali Pasha, who occupied a very strong posi- while the other, on the Herzegovinian frontion before Sienitza. He boldly attacked the tier, and openly allied with the insurgents, Turks, although having considerably less men immediately took the offensive, and marched at his command than the latter; but his losses upon Stolatz in several columns. One column were very great, and he himself was wounded, on the right, under Sotchitza, had marched so that he was finally forced to retire to Ser- toward Gatchko, taken several works before vian territory. Colonel Antitch advanced as the city, and tried to surround it. Selim Pasha far as Novibazar, fortified himself opposite to left the necessary garrison in it, and then it, and then began to bombard the city and its marched with two battalions toward Neveworks, without, however, effecting much; but signe, intending to go from there to Mostar, as Novibazar was but poorly garrisoned, he where he was to meet Mukhtar Pasha. On succeeded in maintaining his positions. On the 11th he was attacked by a body of Monhis left tank he had sent out a scouting-party tenegrins, and was only able, after several toward Mitrovitza. This party, although dis- hours' sharp fighting, to continue on his way turbing the country considerably, was too weak to Nevesigne, where he was reënforced. On to capture Mitrovitza, or to prevent the dis- July 11th the central column, said to have been embarkation of Turkish troops at this point. led by Prince Nicholas in person, appeared beDutchitch had during this time accomplished fore Stolatz, and, after a short engagement, oclittle more than taking a few old barracks cupied it, as well as the surrounding forts. called forts, each containing but a few men. A very fortunate affair for the Montenegrins General Zach took his disaster at Sienitza very occurred at this time. The Austrian Governmuch to heart. Suffering from the effects of ment closed the port of Klek to the Turks, his wounds, he fell dangerously ill, was re- thus cutting off their shortest route to the lieved of his command, and was replaced by Herzegovina. It helped them, however, but Colonel Tcholak Antitch.

little ; their forces continued to be scattered, In the south, General Tchernayeff had left even more so than at first. On the 16th they the division South Morava at Alexinatz and attacked Selim Pasha at Nevesigne, and forced Deligrad under the cominand of Colonel Mi- him to retire to Blagni, where they defeated lan Ivanovitch, with directions to cross the him again on the 17th. But now Mukhitar border on the left bank of the Morava and Pasha came up from Mostar with reserres, to threaten the fortress of Nissa. With the and on the 19th found before him but four greater part of his army Tchernayeff marched Montenegrin battalions, which he defeated afto the left, to Bania and Gurgussovatz, and ter a brave resistance. After this event the then, leaving Nissa on his right, intended to entire Montenegrin forces retired toward Gracross the border and march on Ak Palanka and bovo. Pirot. Ivanovitch, on July 2d, marched with With July 10th the offensive morements of two brigades, in two columns, toward Mramor the Servians came to an end, and their forces and into the valley of the Toplitza. Here he retired into Servia. The Turkish movements

did not begin until the last days of the month. 000 remained in Nissa, while the mobile reDuring the three weeks that intervened com serve, to an equal number, was posted along the parative quiet prevailed, but few engagements road from Nissa to Gramada; so that, for the occurring, and no movements of any account attack on Gurgussovatz, only 13,000 men were taking place.

at the disposal of the general, who was afIn the latter part of July a combined action terward but slightly reënforced from the reof the Turks against the Timok line began. serve.

Osman Pasha commanded the operaThe troops participating in this action were tions against Saitchar, having at his disposal the corps of Achmet Eyub Pasha, from Nissa, about 18,000 troops of the regular army. For reënforced on its right wing by the newly-ar- the attack on the Timok line the Turks had, at rived division of Suleiman Pasha and the strong the most, 35,000 men of the regular army, to division of Osman Pasha from Widin. The which were added thousands of Bashi-Bazouks. two principal points of the Servians on the On July 28th Osman Pasha attacked the adTimok line were Gurgussovatz and Saitchar, vanced post of Lieshanin at Weliki Iswor, with their surroundings. Eyub Pasha marched forcing it to retreat to Saitchar. Large numagainst Gurgussovatz. On his right wing Sulei- bers of the inhabitants of this city now began man Pasha advanced on the line Pirot-Pandi- to leave, and, after a short engagement on ralo, while on the left wing Hafiz Pasha led August 5th, General Lieshanin ordered the the advanced guard on the line Gramada-Der- city to be abandoned. The remainder of the went; this was followed by the reserve under inhabitants then left, and in the evening GenAchmet Eyub himself. The entire force of eral Lieshanin, with the garrison, retreated Eyub Pasha at this time was estimated at toward Paratchin. He did not, however, go 33,000 men, of whom, however, at least 10,- as far as the valley of the Morava, but made a

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halt in the defiles of Bolyevatz and Lukovo, Eyub himself came on to assume the chief his rear guard even at Planinitza, only thirty- command of the troops in the attack on Tresifive kilometres west of the Timok. On the baba. Horvatovitch continued to defend this 6th the Turks entered Saitchar, and, as there position on the 3d and 4th, but was forced on were no inhabitants on whom to practise cru the latter day to abandon it to the vastly-suelties, they contented themselves with burning perior enemy, as well as, on the 6th, Gurgussonearly the whole town. While these events vatz, where he would have been in danger of were occurring on the lower Timok, Hafiz being completely surrounded in case of longer Pasha, on July 29th, attacked the Servians delay. He retreated to the defiles of Bania, at Gramada. "The latter defended themselves and left his rear-guard at Tchitluk and Zerobravely here, and at Derwent, on July 30th and vitza and entered into close communication 31st, but were forced to retire on Gurgusso- with the camps of Alexinatz and Deligrad. vatz; all the more so since Suleiman Pasha had During these events on the Timok, Tchernayeff, also entered Servian territory by way of Pan on August 5th, had dispatched a division of diralo, and could be prevented from marching the troops in Alexinatz against Mramor, and on by Horvatovitch only with the greatest diffi- into the Toplitza Valley. At Mramor this culty. On August 2d Horvatovitch was forced division encountered the forces under Ali Sato abandon all his advanced positions on the hib and the garrison of Nissa, and was forced border, and then assembled his entire forces, by them to retreat. The Turks, however, havabout 6,000 men, in the position of Tresibaba, ing gained this advantage on the Timok line, south of Gurgussovatz. Hafiz and Suleiman did not follow it up, but soon after abandoned Pasha now united their forces, and Achmet their positions again; so that, on August 18th,


IIorvatovitch again entered Gurgussovatz. Zitkovatch, on his right wing, but particuThey then concentrated all their forces at Nis- larly strengthened his left wing, so that his sa, for a combined attack on the positions intention to seize the pontoon-bridge of BogoAlexinatz-Deligrad, on the southern Morava. viste, and thus interrupt the communication These operations were under the chief com between Alexinatz and Deligrad, became apmand of Abdul-Kerim Pasha, the Minister of parent. This he did not accomplish, although War. On August 19th Ali Sahib attacked the the Servians were forced to retire to the right Servian positions on the left bank of the Mo- bank of the river. Tchernayeff then reen

His object was to gain ground close to forced the exposed outposts Djunis and Kaothe left bank, so that a bridge could be built nik, and at the bridge which covered the road across the river, and thus establish an easier from Krushevatz to Deligrad. At the same mode of communication between his army time he occupied the entire right bank of the corps and that of Achmet Eyub than that pre- Morava, from this bridge to Alexinatz. The viously used by way of Nissa and Mramor. retreat of the Servians to the right bank had At first he was successful, and drove the Ser- been attended by considerable disorder, so that vians back; but on the following day the Ser- at the time it seemed that the Servians had revians not only held their own, but attacked ceived their death-blow. But the Turks havthe Turks. On the 21st, Achmet Eyub attacked ing, according to their custom, burned all the the Servian positions on the right bank. This villages on their way, with the provisions in forced the Servians to divide their attention, them, and not having money to procure any and on this day the Turks held the town of from without, were forced, against their will, Teshitza. On the 22d the Turks began to build to allow Tchernayeff to reorganize his forces. a bridge at this place; and although the Ser. This he did), and, leaving but a few battalions vians attacked the Turks during this and the in Alexinatz, concentrated his main force on following day, they were unable to prevent the road from Deligrad to Djunis, with his the completion of the bridge, and on the morn- headquarters in Deligrad. After having let ing of the 24th the Turks began the main at- th week pass by quietly, the Turks, on Septack on Alexinatz. The infantry succeeded in tember 7th, 10th, and 11th, made four different taking several Servian trenches, but were here attempts to obtain a strong position on the left so exposed to the enemy's fire that they were bank between Korman, Adrovatz, and Bogosoon forced to retreat, with great loss. On the viste, and there to gain the right bank beleft bank, both the Servians and Ali Sahib tween Deligrad and Alexinatz by erecting a kept very quiet during this day. On the bridge. All these attempts failed; and tbe evening of the 24th Abdul-Kerim received the same was the case with an attempt of Colonel news that Horvatovitch, who had occupied Horvatovitch to cross to the left bank, in the Gurgussovatz on the 18th, was on his way to rear of the Turkish forces, and attack them. the scene of action, and would in all proba. At the other points, on the Drina, Ibar, and bility attack the Turkish right wing at St. Timok, comparative quiet prevailed during this Stephan on the following morning. This, it is period, the only operations of any importance said, induced him to give up the operations being those of Colonel Despotovitch and 2,000 against Alexinatz on the right bank of the Bosnians, who, having been sent out by AlimMorava; and on the same evening the Turks pitch from Popovo to revive the insurrection, retreated upon Katun. The losses of the Ser- gathered about him the remaining bands of invians in the six days' battle of Alexinatz were surgents, and captured the fort Petrovatz, be9 officers and 371 men killed, and 38 officers tween the Unna and Sanna, on August 14th, and 1,195 men wounded; in all, 1,613 killed and, on September 8th, the city of Glamosh. and wounded: that is, 3.1 per cent. of the en When the Montenegrins began their retreat tire army. The losses of the Turks, although before Mukhtar Pasha, on July 20th, they not definitely known, exceeded those of the went by the way of Nevesigne, Gatchko, and Servians considerably. After the failure of Korito. Mukhtar Pasha, who followed on these operations, Abdul-Kerim determined to more westerly courses, intended to get ahead unite his entire army on the left bank, effect a of them and cut off their retreat to Montenegro. greater extension toward the west, to pass by At the same time, the Turkish corps of AlbaAlexinatz and Deligrad, and, if possible, to de- nia was to attack the southern border. On July scend into the valley of the Morava on the left 27th Mukhtar Pasha arrived at the Convent bank. Achmet Eyub was therefore ordereil of Plana, twelve kilometres north of Bilek, to cross over to the left bank of the river on and from there intended, on the 28th, to march the bridge at Teshitza, while on the right bank to the left and attack the Montenegrins in the there remained but a few bodies of irregular rear. He therefore ordered the commander of troops. These, in order to cover the crossing Bilek to take a position to the east of the city of Achmet Eyub, attacked Alexinatz on the and to await further orders, so that he might 28th, and then retired again. On August 30th, be able to assist Mukhtar Pasha, if necessary. Abdul-Kerim had gathered his main army on At the same time, the commandant of Trebigne the left bank, near Teshitza. On the morning was ordered to send up a train of provisionsof September 1st he began to move forward, which was certainly a difficult order to fulfill, surprised some advanced Servian positions at considering that he had very scant provis

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