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EXPENDITURES.

1. Public debt.....

Civil list..

3. Divers receipts from salines, domains, forests,

cree of September 20, 1874, authorized the mines, telegraphs, postal administration, etc.. 413,516

Minister of Finance to enter a new foreign 4. Tributes : Egypt..

150,000

debt to the amount of 825,000,000 francs, with Roumania

8,000

five per cent. interest, into the Great Book. Servia.

4,600 Samos..

800

Of this amount, 397,000,000 francs, at an issueMount Athos.

144

price of 43} per cent., with back interest from Total tributes..

163,544

June 13, 1874 (therefore real issue-price = 424

per cent.), were issued in September, 1874. A Total ordinary revenue......

4,776,583 financial report from Constantinople, dated

May 10, 1875, estimates the entire debt of the

2,978,549 Turkish Empire at 5,023,860,500 francs. In 2. Dotations :

267,551

October, 1875, the Sublime Porte decreed that Vakufs (religious establishments). 7,000

during five years, from January 1, 1876, the Pensions and presents...

124,133

interest of the public debt be paid half in cash Total dotations.

398,684 and half in five per cent. bonds. So much of 3. Restitutions

1,400

the principal as would fall due during the same 4. Ministry of Foreign Affairs,

35,000 Justice

95,794 period should be paid in like manner. For + Finance..

838,771

this purpose a law of October 20, 1875, author" the Interior.

586.755 War..

700,552

ized the Minister of Finance to issue, in the 9. Direction of the Artillery,

160,000 course of the next five years, five per cent. 10. Ministry of the Navy.

160.000

gold bonds to the total amount of £35,000,000,

5,348 Sanitary Administration..

17,078 or 875,000,000 francs, in series of £7,000,000 12. Ministry of Public Instruction..

25,411 each. 18. Public works....

157,147

The public liabilities of Turkey are officially Total expenditures..

5,785,819 divided into foreign or hypothecated debts, Deficit ...

1,009,231

secured on special sources of revenue, and inIf the floating debt, the expenses of war, ternal debts, known under a variety of names, and the payments due to the soldiers and issued at Constantinople alone, and therefore others, are added to the deficit, it swells to dependent only on a compact between the twenty-two million Turkish pounds ($94,200,- Porte and its subjects, and secured on the 000).

general credit and resources of the empire. During the year 1874 the floating debt very The following table exhibits the foreign debts largely increased, but the promise was made contracted from 1854 to 1874 (value expressed that it would be entirely consolidated. A de- in francs: 1 franc = $0.193):

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11.

Commerce.

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On July 27, 1876, the Turkish Government Russia, Greece, and Egypt, support post-office: published a decree for the issue of paper- in Constantinople. money.

The first issue in notes of five, ten, The Turkish Army is composed of the regu' fifty, and one hundred piasters, was fixed at lar, irregular, and auxiliary troops. According 3,000,000 Turkish pounds (1 Turkish pound to a law of June 22, 1869, and later decrees,

$4.39), but it was reported that more than the reorganization of the army is to be comtwice the amount had been already issued at pleted in 1878. It is to consist of 720,000 men, the end of November, 1876.

divided into the active army (about 220,000 The Turkish Empire, exclusive of the vassal men), the first reserve (80,000 men), the second states and dependencies, has 429 post-offices. reserve, and the sedentary army (correspondBesides, Germany, Austria, France, England, ing to the German Landsturm). In this case

the yearly contingent would amount to about Italians, 2,700 Turks, Poles, Tartars, and 37,500 men. The irregular troops consist of others. A recent Roumanian writer, Cretzuthe gensdarmes, the Bashi-Bazouks, Spahis, lesco, "La Roumanie considerée sous le RapBedouins, and other volunteer corps, together port physique, administratif et économique,' about 50,000 men. The auxiliary troops are in the Bulletin de la Société Geographique composed of contingents furnished by the prov- Roumaine (Nos. 1-5, Bucharest, 1876), estiinces not yet subject to the nizam (active mates the population belonging to the Rouarmy) and the tributary states, and amount to manian nationality in other countries as folabout 80,000 men. In time of peace the army lows: Hungary, 1,171,000; Transylvania, would number 157,667 men and 26,040 horses. 1,500,000; other countries of Austro-Hungary,

The Turkish Navy consisted, in 1874, of 19 360,100 ; Servia and Turkey, 1,600,000; Ruslarge iron-clads, carrying 120 guns; 17 screw- sia, especially in Bessarabia, 1,000,000; but steamers, of 640 guns; and about 80 other other writers give the number of Roumanians steamers: total, 150 steamers, carrying about in Turkey proper at only 200,000, and in Ser1,600 guns. The navy was manned by 30,000 via at 127,000.

ailors and 4,000 marine troops. The crews The population of the largest cities is given are raised in the same manner as the land as follows: Bucharest, 221,805; Jassy, 90,000; forces, partly by conscription and partly by Galatz, 80,000; Botoshani, 40,000 ; Plöesti, voluntary enlistment. The time of service in 33,000; Braila, 28,272; Byrlat, 26,568; Krathe Navy is eight years.

yova, 22,764; Ismail

, 21,000; Giurgevo, 20,866; The total length of railroads in operation in Foktchany, 20,323 ; Piatra, 20,000.

In the 1875 was 1,530 kilometres (1 kilometre = 0.62 budget of the year 1876 the revenue and the mile) in Europe, and 274 kilometres in Asia. expenditure were estimated each at 97,894,The length of telegraph-lines, in 1874, was 28,- 427 lei (1 lei $0.193). The public debt on 038, and of the wires 46,730 kilometres. The January 1, 1877, amounted to 620,710,213 lei. number of offices was 393, and the number of The aggregate strength of the permanent army dispatches sent and received 910,130.

and the “territorial” troops (which are localROUMANIA.—The Turkish dependency of ized in their respective districts) is 1,613 offiRoumania was, in 1875, governed by Prince cers and 62,158 men, with 14,921 horses. The Charles I., son of the late Prince Charles of navy consists of 3 steamers and 6 gun-sloops. Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen. Prince Charles The imports, in 1874, were valued at 92,363,was born April 20, 1839; elected Prince of 000 lei, the exports at 135,858,000 lei. The Roumania, May 10, 1866; married, November most important article of export is grain, es15, 1869, to Elizabeth, Princess of Neuwied. pecially wheat and maize. The movement of A new ministry was formed on July 24, 1876, shipping in the most important ports, in 1875, which was composed as follows: Presidency of was as follows: the Ministry and Finance, J. C. Bratiano; War, Colonel J. Staniceano; Foreign Affairs, N. Jonesco; Justice, E. Statesco; Public Instruction and Worship, J. Chitzu; Agriculture,

681,541 Commerce, and Public Works, D. Sturdza. The area is 46,795 square miles. The popula- Giurgevo.

8,902 tion was, at the close of 1873, estimated at

834,977 3,887 333,814 5,073,000, of whom 2,618,136 were males and

11,977 | 1,464,946 11,459 | 1,582,182 2,454,864 females. The movement of population from 1870 to 1873 was as follows:

In 1875 the length of the railroads in opera

tion was 1,231 kilometres, and that of the teleSurplus (+), graph-lines 3,820; that of wires, 6,842 kiloStillborn. or Deficit (-)

metres. There were 236 post-offices; the number of private letters mailed was 5,072,

686; the number of official letters, 966,479. 3,409

DANUBE COMMISSION.—The European Dan85,972 144,172 187,596

+ 6,576 29,257 145,304 146,031 4,019

ube Commission, which was established in pur

suance of Article XVI. of the Treaty of Paris, The great majority of the people (4,529,000) and embraces the representatives of the seven belong to the Greek Oriental Church. The treaty-powers (Germany, France, Great BritRoman Catholics number about 114,200; the ain, Italy, Austria, Russia, and Turkey), has Protestants, 13,800; the Armenians, 8,000; its seat at Galatz. It is not subject to the the Lipowans, 6,000; the Israelites, 400,000; Roumanian Government, but has sovereign the Mohammedans, 2,000.

power over the lower course of the Danube About 85 per cent. of the population belong down from Isaktchi; it manages the police, to the Roumanian nationality. Of non-Rou- publishes regulations which have legal power, manians, there are about 400,000 Israelites, levies taxes, contracts loans, and disposes of 200,000 Gypsies, 85,000 Slavi, 39,000 Germans, its revenue for the furtherance of works of 29,500 Hungarians, 8,000 Armenians, 5,000 public usefulness. According to a new treaty, Greeks, 2,000 French, 1,000 Englishmen, 500 adopted by the Pontus Conference on March

VOL. XVI.-48 A

ENTERED,

CLEARED.

PORTS.

Vessels.

Tons.

Vessels.

Tons.

Braila..
Galau

3.933
8,266

876

501.954 469,594 108,421

3.435
8,264

872

459,856 156,941

Other ports..

Total......

YEAR.

Marriages.

Births, in

cluding Stillborn.

Deaths.

of Births.

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+ 85,589
+ 80,434

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VESSELS CLEARED,

FLAGS.

Number.

Tonnage.

Greek..
Italian.

810 426

57 117 599 8S 77 70

79,754 16,551 49,529 45,315 25,965 16,949

Inen.

Turkish.
French
Russian
Others..

Total..

13, 1871, the Danube Commission is to be graph-lines was, in 1872, 1,376 ; that of the continued for twelve years, and the works telegraph-wires, 2,051 kilometres. The numexecuted by it shall remain neutral. Its in- ber of private letters passing through the posicome for the year 1875 amounted to 1,567,145 office was 740,838; the number of officiai letfrancs, and its expenditures to 1,216,890. The ters, 431,275. following exhibits the movement of shipping MONTENEGRO.—The principality of Monteat the Sulina mouth of the Danube, during negro, which was formerly a tributary state of the year 1875 :

Turkey, must now be regarded as an entirely independent state. It has an area of 1,701 square miles, and a population of about 190,000, nearly all of whom belong to the Greek

Oriental Church, and the Servian nationality. English

259,750

All the men from seventeen to sixty, who are

able to bear arms, constitute the national Austro-Hungarian

army, which numbers from 25,000 to 27,000

The country is divided into eight mili

tary districts, at the head of each of which is 24,892

a sedar. The districts are subdivided into 1,714 521,735 forty tribes, with a captain at the head of

each. Subordinate to the captain are chiefs Servia.—The present ruler of Servia, the of one hundred and of ten men. In time of other dependency of Turkey in Europe, Milan war every captain takes independently the Obrenovitch IV., was born in 1854, and suc- necessary steps, until he can receive the orders ceeded to the throne by the election of the of the sedar or the prince. The military orServian National Assembly, after the assassi- ganization is so complete that all the ablenation of his uncle, Prince Michael Obreno- bodied men of the principality can be concenvitch, June, 1868; was crowned at Belgrade, trated in one place within seventy-two hours. and assumed the government, August 22, The note of Count Andrassy of December 1872. He was married, on October 17, 1875, 30, 1875 (see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875), to Natalie de Kesho, the daughter of a Rus was delivered to Reshid Pasha by Count Zichy, sian nobleman. Offspring of the union is a the Austrian embassador at Constantinople, on son, Prince Alexander, born August 14, 1876. January 31, 1876; and on the same day the The Servian ministry, in November, 1876, was embassadors of England, Germany, France, composed as follows: Presidency and Foreign Italy, and Russia, declared that they supported Affairs, Ristitch; Interior, Miloikovitch; Fi- the Austrian propositions in all their points. nance, Ivanovitch; War, General Nikolitch; On the 5th of February Reshid Pasha informed Worship, Wassilyevitch ; Justice, Gruitch; the embassadors verbally, that a new firman Public Works, Stevtcha. The legislative au- decreeing reforms would be issued immediately thority is exercised by the Skupshtina. The for Bosnia and the Herzegovina. On the 20th, former Senate has been changed into a Council Reshid Pasha delivered to Count Zichy, as an of State, which prepares the laws. The Skup- answer to the Andrassy note, a memorandum shtina is composed of delegates chosen by the promising to carry out the measures supported people, at the rate of one deputy to every by the powers in Bosnia and the Herzegovina, 2,000 electors, and consisted, in 1875, of 134 immediately as to four points, and as soon as members, of whom 33 were appointed by the possible as to the fifth point. Previously, on prince and 101 elected by the people. Ac- the 11th of February, an iradé liad been issued cording to the budget for the years 1875–76, for the institution of certain reforms in these the revenue was 35,256,000 tax-piasters provinces. (The tenor of this iradé is given (1 piaster = 4 cents), and the expenditure in another place in this article.) 34,806,000 piasters. The area of Servia is The Prince of Montenegro had, about the 16,817 square miles; population, at the close 1st of January, expressed a desire to the Czar of 1874, 1,352,522, of whom about 5,000 are of Russia to be allowed to begin active operMohammedans, 1,500 Jews, 360 Protestants, ations. The Czar advised him on no account 3,400 Roman Catholics, and the remainder to depart from the policy of neutrality, and members of the Orthodox Greek Church. The the prince gave assurances that he would be capital, Belgrade, had, in 1874, a population of governed by this counsel. Nevertheless, reports 27,605, exclusive of the garrison. The army prevailed during the month that Montenegro actually under arms consists of 4,720 men, had negotiated a loan, and had made purchases all infantry with the exception of 200 cavalry at one time of 10,000 rifles and 60 muskets, and a small artillery corps. The strength of and at another time of 15,000 muskets. In the reserves is 150,490 men. The imports consequence of the threatening attitude of were valued, in 1872, at 27,400,000 francs; the Turkey, it was represented, January 9th, that exports at 27,300,000 francs. There were, in 3,000 Montenegrin guards had been armed with 1875, not yet any railroads in Servia, but the breech-loaders and sent to the frontier. A few construction of a road from Belgrade to Nissa days later a war-council of senators and miliwas begun; the aggregate length of the tele- tary officers, summoned by the prince, resolved

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that, if the concentration of the Turkish forces gents into a valley, fought and defeated them. on the frontier was to take such proportions Raouf Pasha retired from the command of the as really to carry into effect a repeated plan of Turkish force at the end of 1875, and was sucblockading Montenegro on that side, it would ceeded by Mukhtar Pasha, a nephew of the be considered a casus belli, and the prince Sultan Abdul-Aziz. The new commander arshould summon all Montenegrins liable to duty rived at Klek on January 1, 1876, and proand march into the Herzegovina ; and that, in ceeded directly to Trebigne, where he estabthe mean time, Montenegro should keep an lished his headquarters. The situation was attitude of caution, but not disturb the peace, not encouraging to the Turks. Since August, if Turkish operations developed nothing more at least 30,000 men had been sent to the Herserious than the present situation. An envoy zegovina, of whom not more than 15,000 was sent by Ali Pasha to Cettigne, requesting were fit for duty, and these were suffering for the prince to recall Pico Paulovitch, the in- the lack of money, transportation, and medisurgent commander, and to prevent the Mon- cal supplies. An engagement occurred on the tenegrins from joining the insurrectionists. 18th of January, between the insurgents and The prince received the envoy coldly, and de- the Turks, on the road from Ragusa to Trebigclined to interfere.

ne, in which the insurgents claimed that they An article appeared in the Montenegrin had defeated the Turks and inflicted a severe official gazette during January, stating that loss upon them. The Turks claimed to have Turkey was determined to make war upon gained the advantage in another engagement. Montenegro, justifying the insurrection, and on the 11th of February the Porte issued the denouncing the cruelty of the Turks. It de- following iradé, promising reforms in the disclared that Montenegro had so far conformed affected districts: to the requirements of international law. If Turkey acted differently, Montenegro would vailing in the Herzegovina and Bosnia, and in ac

The Sultan, with the object of ending the evils prebe freed from all restraint, and forced to adopt cordance with the friendly advice of the great powers, any measures calculated to protect herself and confirms the provisions of his recento firman, and

orders the execution of the following special reforms in the insurgent districts:

1. Complete liberty of worship:

2. Reform in the system of taxation.

3. Sale of waste lands to needy inhabitants, witla facilities for payment.

4. The 'institution of mixed commissions in the capitals of Herzegovina and Bosnia, to insure prompt execution of reforms.

5. Augmentation of the sums applied to works of public utility in a proportion to be fixed by the advice of the mixed commissions.

These special reforms are granted for the welfare of those who, having beer misled by perfidious counsels, desire to return to obedience. For these persons a general amnesty is

proclaimed. secure the future of the Servian race. The BOSNIA.-Haidir Effendi, formerly an emarticle concluded: "No regard for any one or bassador, was appointed president of the Bosany thing will fetter our action." The atten- nian Mixed Commission, and Varsa Effendi, an tion of the northern powers was called to this Albanian, president of the Commission for article, and they again remonstrated with the Herzegovina. prince for countenancing the insurrection and In connection with this iradé, the Turkish allowing the article to appear.

Government addressed a circular note to its The close of the year 1875 was signalized representatives at the courts of the great by a brilliant operation on the part of Raouf powers, communicating to them the tenor of Pasha, the Turkish commander in the Herze- the Andrassy note. The circular also enumergovina, in the relief of Nicsic, whose garrison ated the reforms which the Sultan had ordered had been reduced to their last rations. Two by his last iradé, as a complement to the divisions were detailed to march into the Duga favors previously granted, corresponding with Pass from the north and south respectively; the proposals of Count Andrassy, and which wbile a third division, diverting the insur were to take effect without exception through

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BELGRADE.

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