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the Amazwazies, another of the native tribes, eral attacks; and there were, besides, many and a considerable force was organized to pro- British subjects in the territory of the republic ceed against Secocoeni. Early in July an at- whose interests and rights were injuriously aftack was made by the allies upon the Caffre fected by the hostilities. Nevertheless, the offortress at Johannesstadt. The Amazwazies fers made by the English to assist, by negotiastormed the fort with bravery, and would have tion or otherwise, were not received favorably achieved a complete success, but that the by the Transvaal authorities. A peace was conBoers, who were to have supported them by cluded with Secocoeni on February 5, 1877, he advancing from another side, did not come up. agreeing to pay an indemnity of 2,000 cattle, On the 27th of July an attempt was made to to submit to all the laws of the country, and storm the headquarters of Secocoeni, but the to obey all the decrees of the Government reallied chief Mapaslella led a part of the force garding himself and his people. Quiet has of the Government into an ambuscade, where also been restored among the Zooloos. by they suffered great loss. For this, Mapas TURKEY, an empire in Eastern Europe, lella and some of his officers were put to Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Reigndeath, his village was destroyed, and 5,000 huts ing sovereign, Sultan Abdul-Hamid II., born were burned and 169 of his people slaughtered. September 22, 1842 ; succeeded his elder brothThe course of events turned to the advantage er, Sultan Murad V., August 31, 1876. (See of Secocoeni. By the end of August the force ABDUL-HAMID.) The heir-presumptive to the of the Government was reported to be sub- throne is Mehemet Reshad Effendi, the brother stantially annihilated. The survivors fled to of the present Sultan, born November 3, 1844. Pretoria. A position was maintained at Steel The area and population were as follows, acPoort, with the help of mercenary troopscording to the latest estimates : under General Van Schlickmann. These troops have been charged with committing outrages

Population. against the women and children of the natives, the effect of which was not beneficial to the 2. Dependencies in Europe:

1. Turkey proper in Europe..

140,368 8,506,500 cause of the Government. A movement was

46,795 5,078,000

1,877,000 made, led chiefly by the English in the diamond

748,486 18,141.600 fields, to call for the intervention of the Eng Tributary principality, Sissam lish authorities at Natal, but it was not coun



4. Dependencies and possessions in tenanced by the Volksraad, which met early in September. About this time Cetchwayo,


869,391 17,000,000 the Zooloo king, announced to the Govern

Vilayet of Tripoli..
Regency of Tunis.


2,000,000 ment of Natal that he could no longer restrain his people, and threatened to move upon the

2,212,203 48,283,400 Transvaal with a force of nearly 40,000 men, and a general rising of the natives seemed im The empire is divided into vilayets, under minent. Happily these apprehensions were governors-general (ralis). They are subdivided not fulfilled. On the 17th of November Gen- into sanjaks (districts) under governors (mueral Van Schlickmann's forces attacked a minor tessarifs), and these into cazas (circles) under fortress belonging to Secocoeni, but were twice lieutenant-governors (kaimukams), and the latrepulsed, and General Van Schlickmann was ter into nahiyes (communes). The mayors of killed. After this engagement Secocoeni's peo- villages are called mukhtars. The boundaries ple assumed a bolder attitude. The course of of the vilayets are constantly undergoing events in the Transvaal country was observed changes, which, however, do not generally with solicitude by the people and governments affect the boundaries of the sanjaks, but conof the neighboring English colonies, for they sist in the transfer of one or several sanjaks apprehended that, if the natives_succeeded in to another vilayet, or in their erection into inovercoming the Boers, the other European set- dependent vilayets. In 1876* European Turtlements would be exposed to the peril of gen- key was divided into the following vilayets:


3. Possessions in Asia.




844, 428



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2. Zvornik

69,000 83,000 165,000 123,000 101.000 49,000

90,000 66,000 177,000 44,000

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4. Novibazar
5. Banialuka
6. Bihatch.


10. Prisrend.

12. Dibra
18. Scutari.
14, Janina..
15. Prevesa


19,000 225,000 89,000 82,000 144,000 43,000 26,000 S8,000 75.000

17. Berat.


If we add to these figures the islands in the ancient Illyrians. The northern boundary of European waters—Samothrace, Imbros, Lem- the territory inhabited by them embraces the nos, and Hagiostrati, which in 'an administra- south and the east of Montenegro, and almost tive point of view belong to an Asiatic vilayet extends to the Bulgarian Morava, while the of 402 square miles, with 27,800 Christians and southern boundary-line separates it from Hel1,874 Mohammedans: total, 29,674 inhabitants las. The Roumanians in the principality of —we obtain for European Turkey an area of Roumania also belong to the Græco-Latin fam140,368 square miles, with 4,820,243 Chris- ily. Some colonies of Roumanians are also tians, 3,611,480 Mohammedans, and 75,165 found in the midst of the Bulgarians, the SerJews: total, 8,506,888 inhabitants.

vians, and in the Dobrudja. As the boundaries According to W. Jakshitch, chief of the sta- of the sanjaks are generally undisturbed by the tistical bureau of Belgrade, Servia, the inhabi- changes made in the vilayets, the following tants of Turkey proper in Europe were divided table, giving the number of Christians and Moin regard to nationality into 3,732,300 Slavi hammedans in each sanjak, is of permanent (1,871,800 Servians, 1,860,500 Bulgarians), value: 1,024,200 Gre 1,229,200 Albanians, 199,600 Ronmanians, and 2,210,800 Turks. Compar

Vilayets. ing the number of Turks with the number of Mohammedans as given above, it appears that Constantinople..

121,000, 183,000 the Turkish race constitutes less than two

1. Serayevo.. thirds of the Mohammedan population of Eu 8. Travnik.. ropean Turkey. The remainder is made up of Mohammedans, Bosnians, Bulgarians, and Al

105,000 72,000 banians. In Bosnia, in particular, the entire 7. Herzegovina Herzegovina 142,000 43,000 nobility has embraced Islamism, in order to re

6. Monastir (Bitolia).... Monastir (or Bi

tolia)... 250,000 126,000 tain its feudal privileges, and, while strictly ad 9. Korytza..

53,000 hering to its nationality and language, has re

105,000 291,000 11. Ushkub..

119,000 110,000 peatedly shown a fanatical opposition to all concessions which the Porte has made or in

Scutari. tended to make to its Christian subjects. In

18,000 three only of the thirty-three sanjaks—Rust- 16. Argyro Kastro chuk, Tultcha, and Varna (in the vilayet of

32,000 109,000 18. Trikala

149,000 23,000 the Danube)—the Turkish race constitutes the

19. Salonica.

70,000 bulk of the population. The Turks are also 20. Seres..

133,000 86,000

18,000 94,000 numerous in the Rhodope Mountains, on the

22. Adrianople.

Adrianople boundary between the Bulgarians and Greeks 23. Philippopolis. (the vilayets of Adrianople and Salonica). On

75,000 the coast of the Ægean Sea and the Sea of Mar 26. Gallipoli

77,000 61,000 mora, as well as on the southeastern coast of 27. Rustchuk.


284,000 331,000 the Black Sea, they live in the midst of the more numerous Greeks, but they disappear 30. Ternova..

223,000 150,000

297,000 more and more the nearer we approach Con- 81. Widin


53,000 stantinople. On all the coasts mentioned the 83. Nissa.

213,000 Greeks have a numerical preponderance. They inhabit in compact masses the sanjaks on the in the budget for the Turkish year 1291 (from

The estimates of revenue and expenditure Ægean Sea and the Sea of Marmora, those on March, 1875, to March, 1876) were as follows the Black Sea up to the river Kamtchyk, the island of Crete . The Slavic Bulgarians (value expressed in purses: 1 purse = 500

$0.0432): live south of the Danube, and their territory is piasters; 1 piaster bounded by the Danube, the Timok, and a line

REVENUE, passing through the cities Nissa, Prisrend, Och


635,000 rida, Kastoria, Niaghusta, Salonica, Adrianople, Ground-tax, patents, revenue of ConBurgas on the Black Sea, Slivno, and Rasgrad.

stantinople Military exemption

160,000 Sporadically they are found among the Albanese, the Greeks, the Wallachians, and in the


825,70 Dobrudja. The other of the large Slavic tribes

1,392,000 of Turkey, the Servians, inhabiting the princi 25 per cent. additional.

Tax on sheep. pality of Servia, Bosnia, the Herzegovina, and Montenegro, occupy the territory between the

11,000 Bulgarian Morava, the Save, and the Dalmatian



415,000 frontier as far as Albania. On the right bank of the Bulgarian Morava they are living inter Tapou (transfer-duty).

Stamps... mixed with the Roumanians. The Albanians,

Tax on contracts.

10,000 whom the Turks call Arnauts, while they call themselves Skipetars, are of Græco-Latin

Miscellaneous taxes..

95,800 origin, and are regarded as descendants of the


24. Slivno
25. Rodosto

230.000 117.000 816,000 208,000 90,000 81,000


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28. Tultcha..
29. Varna,

83,000 186.000 32,000 69,000

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