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places in June, but at the same time proposed maintained their positions at Bruges—where, tbe postponement of the debate.

however, they had only a majority of eightThe elections for provincial councils, held at Furnes, Namur, Marchin, Neufchâteau, Viron May 22d, resulted in favor of the Liberal ton, and Antwerp. The Catholic party gained party in Antwerp, Liége, Tournay, and Ghent, a seat at Ypres by the defeat of M. Alphonse while the Catholic party was successful in Vandenpeereboom, a Liberal, and formerly Namur, Bruges, and Louvain. The elections Minister of the Interior. On the other hand, for the House of Representatives took place it lost two seats at Nivelles, where its candion June 13th. The Liberals had hoped to obtain dates were replaced by Liberals who were re. a majority in the new House, but were disap- turned by a large majority. The Catholic pointed in this, the political situation remain- ministry had a majority of fourteen in the preing virtually unchanged. At Brussels and Liége vious Chamber. The Liberals having gained the Liberals carried the day without a contest. two seats at Nivelles and lost one at Ypres, At Ostend, Philippeville, and Arlon, they de- the Catholic loss was reduced to one seat, or á feated their opponents; and at Malines, Turn- displacement of two votes, still leaving the hout, Louvain, Courtrai, Dixmude, Roulers, Catholics a majority of twelve. Great exciteThielt, Dinant, and Bastogne, they were beat- ment prevailed in many of the larger towns on en. The Catholics, in spite of opposition, election-day. In Antwerp the people thronged

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the streets singing and hooting; blows with taining a change in the existing electoral law. walking-sticks were exchanged, and some win- The vote is now given by arrondissement, and dows broken. The same scenes took place at the consequence is, that in four large townsBrussels, but on a smaller scale. Later in the Ghent, Antwerp, Bruges, and Namur-where evening the disturbances became more serious. the great majority of the electors are Liberals, A house was demolished, and more than fifty they are swamped by the rural electors, who shots were fired by the troops of the line. At are completely under the sway of the Catholic Ghent a monster demonstration was made in clergy. The reform proposed by the Liberals front of the Catholic Club, and the windows would completely do away with this state of were broken by the mob.' The disturbances affairs, and would secure to the large cities a continued for several days. Crowds con- Liberal representation. tinued to hoot and hiss in front of Catho On February 13th the Catholic party arranged lic institutes, so that the authorities were a large demonstration in Malines for the purforced to protect them by the civic guards. pose of celebrating the election of a city counIn Brussels the rioters, to the number of many cil, and to offset similar demonstrations arthousands, marched through the streets shout- ranged by the Liberals in Antwerp and Ghent. ing, "Down with the ministry!” and attacked The Catholic associations in the kingdom had and wrecked a Catholic institution. The police generally been invited, and numerous delegacharged upon the mob, wounding several and tions, with many of the prominent leaders of arresting a large number. One result of the the party, took part in the festivities. The electoral defeat of the Liberals is, that Ant- meeting was followed by a banquet, at which werp has taken the initiative of an agitation the first toast was the Pope, and the second which is to be extended to all the large towns. the King. Upon the departure of the guests, This agitation is to be for the purpose of ob- disturbances occurred at the depot, which

formed the subject of an interpellation in the briefly, merely expressing his gratification at House. The Minister of the Interior promised the excellent prospects of the exhibition, and a thorough investigation and the punishment the pleasure he felt in opening it. The memof the guilty. In the animated debate which bers of the different committees were then ensued in the House, the Catholics held the presented to him in a reception-room which entire Liberal party responsible for the dis- had been prepared for the purpose, and afterturbances.

ward proceeded to their different galleries, where they attended the King in his inspection of each in turn. The exhibition building, which was in the park, was of rather a singular character. In order to interfere as little as possible with the ordinary condition of the park, it was made to follow the lines of the walks, and therefore consisted of a number of long buildings of different widths, meeting at the points of junction of the paths, but otherwise separate. Each country had a whole building or part of one, and was thus compelled to make the best appearance it could, without much reference to the general effect. Of the countries exhibiting, Belgium had the most space, with England following closely, these two being the largest exhibitors. France, Germany, and Russia, were well represented, while Austria, Hungary, Italy, Norway and Sweden, Holland, Denmark, and Switzerland, the other contributing countries, were not so largely, and the United States was not at all, represented.

The Health Congress, which was held as an appendix to the exhibition, was in session from September 27th to October 4th, and was attended by delegates from all European countries. The Congress divided itself into five sections, which held their sessions in the mornings, while in the afternoons all the sections united to a common session. Of the common sessions, six were held. In the first the important question of laborers' dwellings was discussed. The debate limited itself to the question

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Brussels was the seat of several important international conferences during the year. The Health Congress, held in September, was preceded by an international exhibition of objects relating to public health and safety. The exhibition was opened by the King on June 26th. Upon arriving at the entrance the King was received by the Count of Flanders and the chief members of the executive and the various committees, including M. Warocque, the President of the Chamber of Representatives, General Renard, Lord Alfred S. Churchill, and Major Burgess, chairman and secretary of the British Committee. The opening ceremony was of a very simple character. An address to the King and Queen was read by M. Warocque, who dwelt on the difference between this and other exhibitions, explaining its objects and intentions, and expressing the whether it was preferable for the laborer to gratification of the executive at the aid they possess his own cottage, or to be a tenant. had received from other countries. The ad- Most of the speakers advocated the former dress concluded with a few we especially proposition, while among the few who advoaddressed to the Queen, and referring to the cated the opposite side M. Rolin-Jacquemyns, interest she is known to take in the Belgian of Ghent, made some telling arguments. The Red-Cross Society. The King responded very two following sessions of September 29th and


30th were devoted to a consideration of the position of a density of twelve inhabitants to question of the safety of the einigrants, the es- the square mile, and an area of 165,800 square tablishment of the cause of death and proper miles, at about 2,000,000. At an area of 106,modes of interment. In its last three sessions 750 square miles the same density would givo the Health Congress considered the question a population of only 1,250,000. Major-General of the best manner to check the excessive use Obrutches, however, estimates the total popuof liquor by the laboring classes, the measures lation in 1868 at only 1,000,000, which gives a to be employed for the organization of aid so- density of about nine to the square mile.* cieties for sick and wounded in war, and the The Bolan Pass, a defile in the mountains of best system of cleaning large cities.

Northwestern Beloochistan, on the route beA Geographical Congress was opened in tween the Lower Indus and the table-land of Brussels on September 12th by the King in per- Afghanistan, is not only one of the most reson. In his opening address he pointed to the markable mountain-passes of the world, but growing interest taken in the civilization and has of late gained a considerable political imexploration of Africa. He stated that for some portance for the British rule in India. time past the persons engaged in this task had recognized the necessity of a closer union between all explorers for the furtherance of their common efforts, and that for this reason the . Congress had been called. He then emphasized the necessity of organizing stations for - scientific purposes at the boundaries of the unexplored parts of Africa, and for the execution of this work proposed the establishment of an international committee. The Congress then elected the King its president, who thereupon took the chair, this being the first time that a king presided at another than a political congress. The Congress was addressed by the African explorers Nachtigal, Schweinfurth, Rohlfs, Lieutenant Lux, Commander Cameron, and Colonel Grant, on the results of their explorations. Commander Negri, of Italy, reported on the misfortunes of the Italian expedition to Central Africa, and Minister Baron Hofmann, of Austria, on Gessi's and Piaggla's latest journeys in the territory between the Albert Nyanza and the Victoria Nyanza. The question of establishing stations for scientific purposes in the interior of Africa was then discussed. Sir H. Rawlinson made particular

BOLAN PASS. reference to the military stations of Colonel Gordon on the Upper Nile, and Sir Fowell A rebellion against the Khan of Kelat, which Buxton to the stations of the English Mission- had broken out in 1875, and continued during ary Society, which penetrated farther into the a part of the year 1876, led to a British diplointerior every year. Sir Rutherford Alcock matic mission to Kelat. Emil Schlagintweit in particularly proposed the erection of a strong the Augsburg Gazette, No. 58, 1876) gives the station on the east coast opposite Zanzibar. following report on the disturbances: “AcAfter resolving to advocate the erection of cording to the British scouts, the sovereign is such stations, the Congress adjourned on Sep- the sole cause of the civil war now raging in tember 14th. On October 5th the permanent Kelat, on the western border of India. His opcommission for the measurement of a degree pressions had caused the high dignitaries of the assembled in the Royal Academy. The con- country to forget their old feuds, and to unite ference was opened by the Minister of the In- against the Khan. Nasr'ed-din and Tadsh Moterior, and adjourned to meet in Stuttgart in hammed, Princes of Las, the southern province September, 1877.

of Beloochistan, became the leaders of the BELOOCHISTAN, a country of Asia, bound- rebels. As the Khan did not succeed in coned north by Afghanistan, east by British India, quering his enemies in the open field, he presouth by the Indian Ocean, and west by Persia. tended friendship, enticed them to his capital The government is under several rulers, of in the fall of 1875, and there had them murwhom the Khan of Kelat is the most impor- dered. But the cause of order was but little tant. After deducting the territory in the aided by this deed, and the Khan and his West, which has been ceded to Persia, the area chiefs were much farther from an understandamounts, according to the latest calculations, ing than before. Disorders increased, as the to 106,750 square miles. The population was

* For a more detailed account of the population of Belooestimated by Dieterici in 1859, under the sup- chistan, see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875.


trade with Inilia was completely at a standstill. A second expedition set out in October for The Indian Government now resolved to send Kelat from Simla, the residence of the Viceroy, off a commissioner to establish peace, and se- bearing dispatches for the Khan. The object cure safe escorts for caravans. The commis- of this mission was to prepare the Khan for sioner, Major Sandeman, left British territory the visit of the Viceroy, who expected to make in December, and was received with great at a trip through Sinde, and wished to have a tentions by the Khan. The latter also promised meeting with the Khan. safe escorts for the caravans from India, and BERTRAND, Félix, a Senator of France, showed himself inclined to treat with the reb- born in 1808; died May 27, 1876. After holdels. But the murder of his chief opponents ing different offices in the tribunals of Sainthad irritated the people against him to such a Flour, and Ambert, and in the courts of appeal degree that the British commissioner saw but of Riom, Grenoble

, and Bastia, lie succeeded, little prospect of bringing about the desired in 1858, his uncle, as president of the Tribunal result. In the mean while the commissioner of Saint-Flour, his native town. He resigned of Sinde, Sir William Merewether, was ordered this position a short time before the senatorial to proceed to the border, that he might be elections of 1876, in order to be eligible as nearer to the scene of action. He accord- senator, and was elected conjointly with M. ingly made his headquarters in the border Parieu from the department of Cantal. He fortress of Jacobabad, whose garrison, con called himself a liberal conservative. sisting in part of 1,410 men, was considerably BLAIR, FRANCIS PRESTON, an American increased.,

journalist, born at Abingdon, Washington Major Sandeman, with his escort of 1,000 County, Va., April 12, 1791; died at Silver men, met the Khan and his rebellious chiefs at Springs, Md, October 18, 1876. He was eduMastung, and succeeded in bringing about a cated at Transylvania University, Kentucky, peace. In August the Khan signed a treaty, and studied law, but never entered upon the the principal provision of which is the security practice. He early took part in politics, and in of the Bolan Pass. The Sirdar Alladina Kurd 1824 supported Henry Clay for the presidency, is intrusted with guarding the pass and keep- bit dissented from his views, especially in reing it open. For this he receives from the lation to the United States Bank. When in Indian Government 1,000 rupees per month. 1829 the nullification movement was developed The Khan is to receive a certain sum for every in South Carolina, Mr. Blair published an articamel that crosses the pass, while the tribes cle against it in a Kentucky newspaper, which living in the pass are also to receive a certain attracted the attention of General Jackson, who

These dues are to be collected by a per- invited the writer to become the editor of the son to be appointed by the Indian Government. Globe, a Democratic journal about to be estabEmil Schlagintweit speaks as follows of the lished in Washington. The journal was comresults of Major Sandeman's mission (Augsburg menced in November, 1830, and became the Gazette, No. 284): “After a stay of five montlis organ of the successive Democratic administraat the most important point of the Bolan tions, Mr. Blair retaining the control of it till Pass, the English expedition, consisting of five 1845, when President Polk thought it necessary companies of infantry, 350 cavalry, and two for the harmony of the party that the organ mountain-cannon, returned from Kelat, whith- should be placed in other hands, offering Mr. er it had been sent by the Indian Government, Blair the position of minister to Spain, which under the command of Major Sandeman, in was declined. He then retired to his estate of order to give the necessary force to the propo- Silver Springs, Montgomery County, Md. In sitions of this officer. Without firing a shot 1848 he withdrew from the regular DemoSandeman succeeded in reconciling the dif- cratic party, and supported Mr. Van Buren for ferent tribes which had been at war with each the presidency. After the repeal of the Misother for several years, and to bring them souri Compromise he took an active part in the back under the sovereignty of the Khan of organization of the Republican party. He was Kelat. This military promenade forms a turn- the father of Montgomery and of the late Gening-point in the British policy. For years the eral Francis P. Blair, Jr. officers on the border had recominended this BOSIO, ASTYANAX SCEVOLA, a French sculpstep, but it had been considered impossible for tor, born about 1798; died July 5, 1876. He armed men to cross the border without being was a son of Jean Bosio, a well-known hisattacked, and being involved in a new war torical painter, and a pupil of the celebrated with tribes of Beloochistan and Afghanistan, sculptor Baron Bosio, his uncle. His first which could only end with the further exten- works were exhibited in 1831, and at once sion of British rule over an unfertile country, gained for him considerable celebrity. Among with a population decidedly reduced in wealth his best-known works are a bust of Admiral and intellectual qualities. Instead of these Bougainville (1831), a young huntress nursing consequences ensuing, the troops were wel- her wounded dog (1835), à statue of Flora comed everywhere as peace-makers. With- (1840), and a large number of busts and bassout any great exertion England has gained reliefs. He obtained a second medal in 1838, considerable renown among these border and the decoration of the Legion of Honor in tribes."



BOSWORTH, JOSEPH, an English scholar, from 1845 to 1851 he was Master of the born about 1790; died in June, 1876. He was Household to the Queen. Upon retiring from educated at Repton Grammar-School, received this office he was appointed Lieutenant of the the degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of Tower of London, and was created a K.C. B. Laws at Aberdeen, and the honorary degree and a G. C. B. in 1873. of Doctor of Philosophy from the University BOYD, Sir Harley Hugh, fifth baronet of of Leyden in 1831. He subsequently studied Ballycastle, county of Antrim, born November at Cambridge, where he received the degree of 2, 1853; died in July, 1876, on board the mailDoctor of Divinity in 1839. He was ordained steamer Trenton, off St. Helena. He was the deacon in 1814, and after holding several liv- only son of Sir John Augustus Hugh Boyd, ings in England he was British chaplain in Bart., R. N., by his wife Honora Mary, third Rotterdam and Amsterdam between 1829 and daughter of the late Charles Biggs Calmady, 1841, where he translated the Common Prayer. Esq., of Longdon Hall, Devon. He succeeded Book into Dutch. In 1857 he was elected a to the title on the death of his father, August member of Christchurch College, and was 7, 1857. Dying unmarried, the title reverted soon after appointed Professor of Anglo-Saxon to his uncle, the Rev. Frederick Boyd, M. A., in Oxford. In this position, and by his writings rector of Holwell, Bedfordshire. on the Anglo-Saxon language and kindred sub BRAGG, BRAXTON, an American general in jects, he gained great renown, being consid- the Confederate service, born in Warren ered a high authority on this subject. He County, N. C., about 1815; died in Galveston, wrote: “The Elements of Anglo-Saxon Gram- Texas, September 27, 1876. He graduated at mar” (1823); "A Compendious Grammar of West Point in 1837, was appointed lieutenant the Primitive English or Anglo-Saxon; ” “A of artillery, and served mainly in Florida till Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language 1843, during the war with the Seminoles; from (1838); “ The Origin of the Danish Language; 1843 to 1845 he was stationed at Fort Moultrie, “ Abstract of Scandinavian Literature; ” “Ori- in Charleston harbor, and, just before the gin of the English, Germanic, and Scandina- breaking out of the war with Mexico, was vian Languages and Nations ;and “A Com- ordered to Texas. In May, 1846, he was made pendious Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1848). captain by brevet for gallant conduct in the He published “King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon defense of Fort Brown, Texas, and in June was Version of the Historian Orosius" (1855), and made captain of artillery. He was present at " The Description of Europe and the Voyages the battle of Monterey, September 21st-23d, of Ohthere and Wulfstan,” by the same author, and was brevetted as major for gallant conduct both with English translations. Ile also pub- there; and in 1847 he was brevetted as lieutenlished " The Gospels in Gothic of 360, and in ant-colonel for gallant conduct in the battle of Anglo-Saxon of 995, in Parallel Columns with Buena Vista. From 1848 to 1855 he was enWycliffe's Version of 1389 and Tyndale's of gaged in frontier service at Jefferson Bar1526” (1865; second edition, 1873). He was a racks, Mo., Fort Gibson, and Wasbita. In member of the Royal Institute of the Nether- March, 1855, he was appointed major of cavlands, and fellow of numerous foreign literary alry, but declined, and received leave of absence. societies.

In January, 1856, he resigned his commission BOWLES, Sir George, a British general, in the army, and retired to his plantation at born in 1787; died in May, 1876. IIe received Thibodeaux, La. In 1859-'61 he was Commishis commission as ensign in 1804, and served sioner of the Board of Public Works of the with Lord Cathcart in the north of Germany State of Louisiana. When the civil war broke in 1805–6. He took part in the capture of out he joined the Confederate side, was apCopenhagen in 1807; served in the Peninsula pointed brigadier-general, and placed in comfrom 1809 to 1814; was present at the passage mand at Pensacola. In February, 1862, he was of the Douro; at the battles of Salamanca, made major-general, and ordered to join the Talavera, and Vittoria; at the sieges of Ciu- Army of the Mississippi. He took part in the dad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Burgos, and San Sebas- battle of Shiloh, April 6th and 7th; was raised tian; at the capture of Madrid; at the passages to the full rank of general in place of General of the Bidassoa, Nivelles, Nive, and Adour, and A. S. Johnston, killed at Shiloh; and after the the investment of Bayonne. Ile was also evacuation of Corinth succeeded General Beaupresent at the battles of Quatre - Bras and regard in command of the department. In AuWaterloo, and at the capture of Paris. Ile gust he left Tennessee at the head of a strong was created a lieutenant and captain in 1810, force, and entered Kentucky, but, after the major in 1815, lieutenant-colonel in 1821, battle of Perryville, October 8th, was forced to colonel in 1837, major-general in 1846, liea- retreat, carrying with him a vast amount of tenant-general in 1854, and general in 1862. supplies and many recruits from Kentucky. He He was military secretary to the Duke of was removed from his command and placed Richmond in Canada from 1818 to 1820; was under arrest, but was soon restored, and redepaty adjutant eneral in the West Indies sumed command of the force opposed to the from 1820 to 1825, and was stationed in Can- Federal army under Rosecrans. ada from 1837 to 1843, having command of checked by Rosecrans in the protracted contest Lower Canada during the rebellion of 1838. of Stone River or Murfreesboro, December 26,

Ile was

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