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A debt was reported of $10,000 on the college, given as for 1875, with modifications for a few against which were unpaid pledges sufficient, known changes which had taken place, the reif paid in, to meet it.

ports from those States for 1876 not having The fifteenth annual session of the Seventh- been received. The report showed a gain day Adventist General Conference was held from 1875 of 27 ministers, 59 churches, 2,012 at Lansing, Mich., beginning September 19th. members, and $11,279.85 in contributions for A conference recently organized in Kentucky systematic benevolence. Companies of Serand Tennessee was recognized and adınitted enth-day Adventists were noticed as having to the General Conference. Elder James White been organized in Texas, Virginia, and Marywas chosen president. Resolutions were adopt- land. The treasurer of the Seventh-day Aded regretting the neglect of the health reform ventist Educational Society reported that his and the return to old, unhealthful habits of receipts and expenditures for the year beginning living as likely to work only evil to the peo- August 12, 1875, had been each $12,354.73. ple, and to displease God, and advising minis- The society had property, consisting of the colters “to practise the reform themselves and lege grounds and buildings, detached lots of teach it to the people on all suitable occa real estate, detached buildings, etc., valu at sions," urging young men and middle-aged $51,651.37, and was indebted $13,360.89, leavmen to engage in the work of the ministry; no- ing $38,290.48 as the amounts of its assets ticing an increased interest in camp-meetings after all debts were paid. The treasurer of and pledging greater efforts to improve them; the Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Assoexpressing interest in the spread of the doc- ciation reports that his receipts and expenditrines of the church in the Southern States, tures for the thirteen months ending Septemand pledging aid to the work "as fast and as ber 15, 1876, had been each $161,423.56. The far as our means and men will allow ; " rec association had property valued at $142,656.82, ommending special efforts to secure the inter- and was indebted $45,937.23, leaving as its est of persons and companies in different parts net assets $96,719.59. The treasurer of the of the world holding the Sabbath doctrines of Health Reform Institute reported that his rethis church, in its tract and missionary work; ceipts for the thirteen months ending Septemcommending the school of the General Confer- ber 14, 1876, had been $18,188.15, and his exence to the people of the church, and urging penditures $14,584.78. The institute had propcontributions to it “to place it upon a good erty valued at $39,490.18, and was indebted financial basis ;” noticing " with joy” the ap- $1,800, leaving $37,690.18 as the amount of pearance of a French paper issued in Europe its clear assets. The treasurer of the General under the direction of the General Confer- Conference reported that his receipts and exence Committee; reiterating the precept that penditures for thirteen months, ending Sepone-tenth of the income of members of the tember 15, 1876, had been each $6,194.09. church should be given to God; and recogniz- The meetings of the General Conference and ing with gratitude the continued and growing the several societies were held in connection feeling of fraternity between their own de- with a camp-meeting, at Lansing, Mich., which nomination and the Seventh-day Baptists. was estimated to be the largest ever held

The following is a summary of the statistics by one denomination. Sixteen hundred and of this denomination as they were present- twenty-two persons were permanently ened to the General Conference, September 19, camped on the ground, and the regular daily 1876:

attendance at the meetings numbered between two and three thousand.

AFGHANISTAN,* a country in Central Asia, bounded north by east by Turkistan, east by British India, south by Beloochistan,

and west by Persia; area 278,000 square miles, $ 794 50

population about 4,000,000. Present ruler,

Amir Shere Ali. The army of the Emir, acNew York and Pennsylvania

2,799 22 cording to late accounts, is said to consist of Michigan.

3,150 10,000 00 100,000 men, divided into fifty-seven regiments

90000 of infantry, thirty batteries of artillery, and 8.563 00

twenty regiments of cavalry. The pay of the 2.500 00 soldiers was, in 1876, raised by the Amir to

seven rupees a month.

The Governments of both Russia and British 5,925 43 India sent, in 1876, special embassies to Afghan

istan, an indication of the growing desire of

each of these powers to obtain a controlling 70 398 10,041 $43,998 47 influence upon this battle-field of their Central

Asian policy. The transactions of both em. Explanation was made that the report from Michigan was incomplete, and the reports from

* For an account of the regulation of the northern fron

tier, and of the population of the several provinces, 800 New England, New York, and Illinois, were ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1874.






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1,275 00
2.300 00

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bassies are kept a profound secret, and the to Herat, but was refused permission to enter reports of the Indian and Russian newspapers the country, M. Schlagintweit continues as are too contradictory to be of any value. The follows: “The report that Russia had sent a Indian Government selected as its envoy a na- diplomatic agent to Cabool is not confirmed in tive Mohammedan of India. Special embassies the Indian papers. The cause for the report were also received by the Amir from the rulers seems to have been the defeat which Persia of Bokhara and Kelat, and all the reports some time ago suffered at the hands of the from Afghanistan concurrently point to the Turkomans in its recent expedition against growing excitement concerning the approach- Merv, and which may be made the basis of ing crisis in the complications of Central Asia. Perso-Russian demands upon Afghanistan. The Amir devoted special attention to his army. This will be looked upon very unfavorably in The number of troops and the pay of the India, but cannot be prevented. Merv, the oldsoldiers were increased; dependent chieftains est city of Central Asia, which was once celewere ordered to send their contingency of brated for the fertility of the country surtroops to Cabool; and even a gun-manufactory rounding it, gradually decayed after fanatical was established in the same city,

conquerors destroyed the dam which collected One of the mountain-tribes living along the the waters of the Murghal River to irrigate frontier between Afghanistan and British In- the fields. As the country became less cultidia, the Afridis, made repeated inroads into vated, the manners of the Turkomans living Indian territory. They were reported to num there decidedly deteriorated, and they became ber about 10,000 soldiers, and to have received the most daring robbers, carrying off slaves promises of aid from other tribes. The Indian and booty from the north of Persia. Persia, Government at first endeavored to pacify them as well as Russia, repeatedly sent out troops to by negotiations and promises of subsidy, but, punish the Turkomans, but the former power when this proved unavailing, determined to was always defeated. Thus in 1860, 22,000 put an end to their inroads by force of arms. Persians were repulsed by 5,000 Turkomans,

while, only a few months ago, five Persian BOKA NA

battalions and ten cavalry regiments with one battery were so completely defeated by an equally strong force of Turkomans, that the Shah of Persia was forced to discontinue the campaign. The Turkomans, emboldened by this success, now threaten Russian settlers on

the Atrek line, and even now Russian journals Calool

discuss the necessity of a regulation of the KÉOR AS A

border, by which the left shore of the Atrek would come to Russia. At present Russia employs skirmishing-parties to punish the robbers, thus smoothing the way for a revival of old treaties between Persia and Cabool, which are so distasteful to England. On January 23,

1853, the Shah and the ruler of Herat agreed Stuntaan

that, if it should ever become necessary for the

subjects of Herat to furnish auxiliaries to PerKelat

sia for the purpose of punishing the Turko

mans, they may send as many troops to Persia BELOOCHISTAN

as they desire, but only for a temporary stay or to pass through that country. On the other

hand, the Shah considers himself bound to aid As the absence of trustworthy information Herat if it is threatened by a foreign power, makes it impossible to give a connected account whether it be Afghanistan or some other. In of the progress of Afghan affairs, we give the the Treaty of Paris, of 1857, Persia bound herviews of men well known as authorities on all self to England never to interfere in the inquestions of the state of Central Asia on the ternal affairs of Afghanistan; but this treaty situation in Afghanistan.

leaves Persia free with regard to all its other Emil Schlagintweit, the well-known explorer neighbors. At present Afghanistan is as much of Central Asia, gives the following account interested in the punishinent of the Turkomans of the relations of Russia and Persia to Af as Russia and Persia. The occupation of Myghanistan (see Augsburg Gazette, No. 235, mana, the newest province of Afghanistan, 1876): “In Afghanistan, the state of affairs is effected only in March of the present year, by no means satisfactory, although Shere Ali would be seriously endangered, if the large seems to be slowly getting the upper hand of number of those dissatisfied with the change his rivals. Europeans are carefully excluded.” would effect a union with the Turkomans. After citing several cases in support of this The dethroned Amir was brought to Cabool, statement, among others the case of Colonel and is there held in close confinement, that he McGregor, who wished to make a scientific trip 'may not become the head of a conspiracy. A

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the year,

decisive blow can only be dealt the Turkomans, of the republic was completely routed. In if they are attacked at the same time from the consequence, a general desire for annexation direction of the Caspian Sea as well as from to Great Britain became manifest among the Merv. The cause for a joint step of the three population. The Transvaal Republic has been interested states exists. A joint action on an independent state since 1848. (See Transtheir part, however, does not appear probable, VAAL REPUBLIO.) even to an Asiatic; to him it seems rather The difficulties of the British Government that Russia will enter the campaign alone, and the Orange River Free State with regard Russia, however, fears to disturb its amicable to the South African diamond-fields were setrelations to Persia, as it would be impossible tled satisfactorily for both parties during the to prevent a violation of Persian territory in year. pursuing defeated bodies of Turkomans, and The project of a South African Confederation of Afghan territory in case of an attack on under the protectorate of Great Britain reMerv. The idea of an agreement with Persia, ceived a powerful impulse by the disastrous therefore, becomes plausible, while at the same war of the Transvaal Republic against the time the interests of Afghanistan would be Kaffres. It gained in popularity both among taken into consideration. Such agreements the inhabitants of the British colonies and the must arouse anew the suspicions of England, two republics of Orange River and the Transwho found it such a difficult matter to secure vaal, being opposed only by the extreme rein the Afghan frontier a line inaccessible to publicans of the latter. In the early part of Russian intuence."

President Brand, of the Orange River Captain Burton, another high authority on Free State, went to England to settle the disthe questions relating to Central Asia, speaks puted boundary question, and was received in the following manner of the relations of with great distinction, both in the Cape ColoIndia to the Amir of Cabool: “Afghanistan, ny and in England. President Burgers, of the this restless state of robber chieftains, has, Transvaal Republic, who visited the Cape thanks to our intervention, considerably in- Colony in March, was also received with great creased in area and population. But, never- honors, and everything was done to impress theless, Shere Ali complains because Lord the two Presidents with the desirability of the Lawrence recognized his elder brother, Afzul proposed confederation. In March, Mr. Froude, Khan, who was friendly to us, because Lori the bistorian, sent a report to Lord Carnarvon, Mayo did not fulfill all of his wishes, and be- the Colonial Secretary, on the advantages to cause Lord Northbrook did not pay his subsi- be derived from the confederation scheme. The dies (I should rather say his tribute) as regularly report was very favorably received throughout as he desired. For that reason he refused to the South African colonies. On August 3d receive the English mission to Kashgaria in Lord Carnarvon opened a conference on South Cabool, under the pretext that he was not African affairs. The members attending the able to protect its members in his country, conference were, Sir Garnet Wolseley, as vicesaying, “Their blood be on their own heads if president, President Brand of the Orange River they come to Cabool!' For that reason, also, Free State, Sir Theophilus Shenstone, Secrehe will not permit an English resident at his tary of the Interior, of Natal, Messrs. Akercourt, and the native representative of the In- man and Robinson, members of the Legislature dian Government, Wakil-i-Sarkar-i, is barely of Natal, and Mr. J. A. Froude, who reprepermitted to address the Amir in the durbar. sented West Griqua-Land. Lord Carnarvon, It is a fact that this miserable chief believes, in his opening address, stated that the conbecause we have taught him to believe it, that ference was to be of a deliberative character he holds the road to British India in his only, that the communications of the different hands. He is convinced that he need only members were to be of a confidential character, offer his assistance to Russia, to drive us from and the object was to deliberate on the interIndia. That he hates us, we know; during ests of South Africa, which was constantly the mutiny of the Sepoys, he urged his wise growing in importance, and possibly on the father, Dost Mohammed, although in vain, to constitution of a South-African Confederation. invade the Punjaub; that he despises us, we President Brand stated that in accordance with must see, and we must feel that our policy has a resolution of the national Legislature he was given him a right to do so."

not empowered to take part in the deliberAFRICA. The area of Africa, according ations on the confederation scheme, but that to the latest calculations, amounted to 10,901,- he would take part in the discussion of other 100 square miles, with a population of about questions. The following sessions of the con206,000,000.*

ference were held with closed doors, and its The further existence of the Transvaal Re- results are as yet (November, 1876) unknown. public, an independent state of Southeastern The war of the British on the West Coast Africa, was seriously endangered by a disas- with the Ashantees was succeeded during the trous war vith the Kaffres, in which the army past year by one with Dahomey. An outrage

on a British merchant at Whydah, the princi* For the area and population of each of the geographical pal port of Dahomey, led a British officer after and political divisions of Africa, see ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for

an investigation to impose a fine of palm-oil,


amounting to about £6,000, upon the King, to provide for Tunis a system of railroads to to be paid by June 1st. The King refused connect with the railroads of Algeria. (See to pay the fine, inviting the British to visit Tunis.) Abomey, bis capital, where he promised to The war in Liberia between the Government pay the demand in powder and bullets. The and the native tribes was brought to a successBritish in consequence blockaded the ports ful close in April by the intervention of the of Dahomey, thus preventing any supplies United States. The war was followed by from reaching the natives. The King in re financial ditticulties, which embarrassed the taliation blockaded the paths into the interior, Government considerably. and imprisoned a number of whites residing The British dominion in Africa was again at Whydah.

enlarged during the year, by the purchase of In May, the Sultan of Zanzibar entered into the island of Socotra, in the Indian Ocean, a treaty with Great Britain to suppress the from its native prince, adding 1,382 square slave-trade in his dominions. He rigidly en- miles, with 3,100 inhabitants, to the British forced this treaty, and in consequence was territory in Africa. (See Socotra). troubled with a rebellion among the tribes in During the months of July and August, the interior, which he, however, succeeded in Commodore Hewett undertook an expedition quelling with the aid of the British.

against the negroes living on the shores of the The difficulty between Zanzibar and Egypt, Niger. These negroes, who had formerly done on account of the occupation by the latter a profitable business in bringing the native power of five ports on the Indian Ocean be- products down to the coast in their canoes, longing to Zanzibar, was settled by the with- and who had lost this carrying-trade entirely drawal of the Egyptian troops in February. through steamers which were sent up the This act of McKillop Pasha, the Egyptian gen- river, made several attempts to stop the Engeral, was disavowed by the Khedive.

lish trade. A large number of vessels were The advances of Egypt into the interior of attacked by them, among them the King of Africa received a decided check. Fighting con- Masata, which was almost completely detinued during the year, and the Abyssinians stroyed. In order to put a stop to these depreappeared to be successful, King John of Abys- dations, Commodore İlewett, on July 29th, set sinia was also troubled during the year by re out on an expedition against the negroes, havvolts of native chiefs, incited by the Egyptians, ing with him about one hundred sailors and which greatly impeded his operations against marines. Ile met with the first resistance on the latter. (See ABYSSINIA.)

July 31st. Effecting a landing under the cover The attempts to restore the disordered of his gunboats, he succeeded in completely finances of Egypt to a sound basis did not defeating the negroes, losing one dead and meet with the expected result. The relations fourteen wounded in the affair.

On August of the Egyptian Government to its subjects in 2d he again defeated the negroes, and pressing the Soudan continued to be of the most friend on reached Omitoha, 170 miles from the mouth ly character. The native tribes, not subject of the river, on August 5th. Here the comto the jurisdiction of Egypt, also sought the modore had a long interview with the chief, friendship of the latter power. M'tesa, the and as no further disturbances were to be exchief ruling on the north shore of the Victoria pected the expedition returned, destroying on Nyanza, and the ruler of the Somauli country, its way a village, the inhabitants of which had sent embassadors to Cairo. (See Egypt.) blocked up the river.

An insurrection broke out, in the early part During the month of Augnst disturbances of the year, arnong the pative tribes of Al

arose among the native tribes on the Gaboon. geria, which, however, was suppressed in a The French authorities immediately blockaded very short time. (See AlgeRIA.)

the mouth of the river, and dispatched troops The Empire of Morocco was disturbed dur- to restore quiet. ing July by an insurrection among the Ghitan AGOULT, Marie CATIIERIXE SOPHIE DE tribe, who refused to furnish their usual mili- FLAVIGNY, Countess d', a French authoress, tary contingent. An extraordinary mission better known under the nom de plume of Daniel was sent by the Emperor to France and Italy Stern, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in 1805; during the year, in order to negotiate commer died March 5, 1876. She was the daughter of cial treaties. (See Morocco.)

the Vicomte de Flavigny, a French nobleman, Quite a tumult was caused among the Jews who, during the emigration of the French of Tunis by the murder of one of their number princes, married Marie Bethmann, the daughter by a Mohammedan. Order was restored by of one of the richest bankers in Frankfort. the immediate execution of the offender, and She received her first education in the conthrough the personal efforts of the consuls, to vent of the Sacred Heart, married the Count whom the Bey had given satisfactory guaran- d'Agoult in 1827, and after that passed several tees. During the month of March an attack years in traveling through Switzerland, Italy, was also made upon the consular judge of and Germany. Her first literary productions Italy, which for a time caused considerable were a series of pleasing novels, “Hervé," excitement. During the year the Government “Julien," Valentia," and “ Nélida,” which commissioned M. Krantz, a French engineer, appeared from 1841' to 1845 in the Presse.

She then published her experiences in Germany in the Southern States, followed by Texas, in a number of articles in the Rerue des Deux Alabama, and Georgia. Mondes and in the Rerue indépendante (1847), The extension of this culture westward conand after the Revolution of 1848 appeared as a tinues to be rapid. This year the Missouri political writer. Among her works of this class Valley, together with the western half of the best known are “ Lettres républicaines ” (1848), Upper Mississippi, yields two-thirds as much as in which she severely criticises the state of the area from that river eastward to Pennsylaffairs under the government of Louis Philippe, vania, including the States on both sides of the and the “Histoire de la Révolution de 1848" Ohio. In quality the crop is superior to its (3 vols., 1851–53; third edition, 1869), which predecessor. shows the people and the events of that time There has been an increase of area in all secin a most favorable light. A different kind of tions, aggregating about two million acres, the work is her “Esquisses morales et politiques" advance very slight in the Gulf States from (1849; third edition, 1859), which is a sort of Alabama to Louisiana, and scarcely perceptible ethical hand-book in the form of maxims and in the Middle States. It is largest west of the aphorisms in the style of the “Maximes” of Missouri. Wisconsin shows the heaviest inRochefoucauld, and gives short and good ad crease in the Northwest, and Texas and Georgia vice on the different affairs of life, on the con in the South. flict of morality with the passions, and the Cotton.- The returns of November indicatquestions of the age, and which is certainly to ed an extremely favorable season for gatherbe regarded as her best work. She also pub- ing cotton, except in some portions of North lished “Trois Journées de la Vie de Marie Carolina. The following is a synopsis: “Frost Stuart” (1856), “ Florence et Turin” (1862), has injured the top crop in the northern belt, and “Dante et Goethe" (1866). Her daughter notably in Arkansas. The fibre is cleaner than Cosima, the fruit of a connection with Franz usual and of superior quality in the southern . Liszt, was married first to Hans von Bülow, belt. Drought in the Gulf States, rain-storms and subsequently to Richard Wagner. Her in the Carolinas, the boll-worm in the Southbiography was wri en by Pommerin (1868). west, and the caterpillar ertain locations

AGRICULTURE. The following statements near the Gulf coast, are chief causes of injury respecting the crops of the United States for to the crop. The harvest will be completed 1876 embody the latest reports of the Depart- at a much earlier date than usual. The crop ment of Agriculture:

must be smaller than that of last year, however Corn. The returns of November make the favorable and long the remaining season for corn-crop only 2 per cent. short of the great gathering. In comparison with the last crop, crop of last year, and fully 50 per cent. greater the percentages of the Atlantic coast States than the crop of 1874. The aggregate is 1,295,- are relatively larger by reason of the poor re000,000 bushels. Less than 1 per cent. of the turns of 1875, and sinaller in the Southwest crop is raised in New England, scarcely 6 in from comparison with the remarkable yield of the Middle States, 20 in the Southern, 44 in that region. They are as follows: North Carothe Ohio basin, and 29 west of the Mississippi. lina, 92; South Carolina, 99; Georgia, 110;

The product of the South is 10,000,000 bushels Florida, 100; Alabama, 77; Mississippi, _78; greater than last year; that of New England is Louisiana, 83; Texas, 100; Arkansas, 74; Ten300,000 greater, and there is less in the Middle nessee, 101. The average is between 88 and 89.” and Western States.

Potatoes.--As returns for condition, during The States of the Ohio basin, seven in num the latter part of the season, have foreshadowed, ber, including Michigan and Wisconsin, in- the potato-crop, in production, falls not only creased their proportion from 39 per cent. in far below the extraordinary crop of 1875, but 1850 to 41 in 1860, and since that date con- considerably below an average crop. Among tinue to advance their proportions, the percent- the causes of diminished yield, drought was age being 44 in 1870 and at the present time, the most widespread and effective. During notwithstanding the more rapid progress of the season for the formation and growth of corn-growing in the States of the Missouri Val- the tubers, excessively dry weather prevailed, ley. These States Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, with a few local exceptions, throughout the Kansas, and Nebraska-produced only 7 per entire section north of the thirty-sixth parallel cent. in 1850, advancing to 15 in 1860, to 21 in and east of the Rocky Mountains, the section 1870, and 28 in 1876. The increase in Kansas in which the potato-crop is mainly grown. has been most rapid of late, nearly equaling in The drought was the most severe and proamount in this year the crop of the much more tracted in the Middle and Eastern States, expopulous State of Missouri. Iowa, as yet, grows cept a northern belt including the greater part more than four-tenths of the crop of this section. of Maine. Within this designated area, also, the

Illinois is credited with about 250,000,000 beetles east of the Mississippi, and the grassbushels, and Iowa with 155,000,000. Next in hoppers west, effected some reduction in localirank are Ohio, Indiana, Missouri, and Kansas, ties, though not to a serious extent. Another These six States produce six-tenths of the total cause of diminished production is an unusual product. Tennessee, which once held the decrease in acreage, especially in States which highest rank in the country, now stands first grow this crop extensively, amounting to 15

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