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Union reported that there had been during the operations should be enlarged; that the "Sabyear an increase of 8,000 scholars and 2,000 bath reform” work had been greatly extended teachers, and that about 2,000 conversions had during the year; and that the Sabbath-school taken place among the children.

work had everywhere becowe greatly strengthIII. SEVENTH-DAY BAPTISTS.-The Execu- ened. One hundred dollars, contributed for tive Board of the Seventh-day Baptist Educa- that purpose, had been received, and bestowed tion Society, in their thirty-first annual re- by the committee having the matter in charge port, for 1876, made the following statements upon young men preparing for the ministry at of the condition of the several literary insti- schools of the Church. The trustees of the tutions of the denomination-Alfred Univer- “Seventh-day Baptist Memorial Fund” resity, Alfred Centre, N. Y.: endowment fund, ported that they had just received the deed of $95,746.10; grounds, buildings, library, cab- à valuable property in Cattaraugus County, inets, and apparatus fund, income from 1836 N. Y., the gift of Mr. Delos C. Burdick aná to 1876, $145,076; teaching and incidental his wite, of Pardee, Kan., constituting the fund, income from 1836 to 1876, $211,574.38; largest gift yet made to the fund. The income revenue and expenditure account for the year of the fund had been considerably larger than ending July 5, 1876, $9,088.46; number of during any previous year, so that a balance of teachers, 19; whole number of students during $251.89 was left after paying all appropriations the year, 388. Wilton College, Wilton, Wis.: and expenses. The Executive Committee of value of lands and buildings $34,450; amount the Sabbath-School Department reported that of endowment fund and notes, $6,000; value there were under their care 58 schools, with of cabinets, apparatus, furniture, paintings, and 489 teachers and 4,519 pupils. One hundred libraries, $5,600; value of other articles, esti- and eighty-two baptisms bad taken place in mated, $300; total assets, $46,350; number of the Sunday-schools. A normnal institute had students during the year-in the college classes, been held at Westerly, R. I., in Novem67; in the academic classes, 175: total, 242; ber, 1875, with good results. The interwhole number of graduates from the begin- change of courtesies with the Seventh-day Adning, 131, 98 of whom were in the academic ventists was commended, and its continuance classes and 33 in the college. Albion Acade- advised, but a resolution was adopted in conmy: value of property, $50,000; indebtedness, nection with this subject to the effect that between $2,000 and $3,000; number of teach “ while the Seventh-day Adventists and Severs, 10; whole number of students during the enth-day Baptists cherish in common a sacred

regard for the Sabbath of the Lord, and will At the thirty-third session of the Seventh- still continue kindly Christian intercourse, day Baptist Tract Society, held at Walworth, nothing good to the cause of Christ would Wis., October 1st, the Executive Board were come of any measure looking to a consolidainstructed to pass over the work of the so tion of the two bodies, while holding such ciety to the General Conference as soon as diverse and opposing views on important Chrisit could be sately and legally done. The board tian doctrine." Varnum Hull was appointed to were advised, also, to take “early and efficient” prepare a paper or tract on “the difference now measures to procure the publication of tracts existing between the Seventh-day Baptists and in large quantities, “ bearing on every aspect of the Seventh-day Adventists," to be presented the Sabbath controversy, together with larger to the next session of the Conference for action works containing more elaborate and extensive upon it. treatises on the same general topics, and a good IV. BAPTISTS IN THE DOMINION OF CANADA. commentary on all the passages of Seripture – The first Baptist Conference of Ontario and bearing, or supposed to bear, on the Sabbath." Quebec was held at Toronto, Ont., October

The sixty-second session of the Seventh-day 15th. Papers were read on subjects pertaining Baptist General Conference was held at Wal- to the interests of Baptist Churches in the worth, Wis., beginning September 27th. Letters Provinces. The twenty-fifth annual meeting were read from thirty-nine churches, repre- of the Baptist Missionary Convention of Onsenting the Eastern, Central, Western, and tario was held in Toronto, Ont., October Northwestern Associations. D. E. Maxson 16th. The report of the secretary showed that was chosen president. Report was made by the income for the year had been $6,100. the Executive Board that, in accordance with Forty-six missionaries had labored in the misinstructions received at the previous session, a sion-fields, who had conducted services at 103 charter had been procured for the General stations, and administered baptism to 584 conConference, bearing date July 4, 1876. The verts. Ten associations, of which the convenvarious societies were invited to become con tion is composed, reported an increase in memstituent members of the General Conference, bership of the churches of 2,391 by baptism. without loss of their legal rights or preroga The Baptist Convention of Nora Scotia, Nero tives as societies. The report on the state of Brunsuick, and Prince Edward Island, met at the Church represented that the educational Sackville, N. B., August 26th. Avard Longwork of the Church was in a prosperous con- ley, Esq., of Paradise, N. S., was chosen presidition at every point; that the missionary work dent for the year. The convention has charge was in good condition, but that its field of of Acadia College and the foreign mission in

year, 263,

terests of the Baptist churches of the three nually raised by Baptists for denominational Provinces. The most important business of the purposes. present meeting was the consideration of a The anniversary of the Baptist Missionary proposition to incorporate Acadia College in Society was held April 27th. It was reported the scheme of the university at Halifax, which that the entire receipts for the year had been had been established by the Government of £44,762 18. 10d.; but there had been a falling Nova Scotia as an examining university. Most off of more than £2,000 in the contributions, of the other denominational institutions of and an increase of £2,081 138. 4d. in expendithe Province had associated themselves with tures: there was, therefore, a balance due to this university, and the Government had ap- the treasurer of £4,354 128. Five new mispointed five gentlemen to represent the Bap- sionaries had been engaged in the service of tist denomination in its senate. The conven- the society; six missionaries had returned tion unanimously decided that Acadia College home for their health, and three had died. should not comply with the enactments of the About 99,000 copies of parts of the Scripture bill establishing the University of Halifax. It had been published from the mission press in also resolved that, in order to enable the col. Calcutta, in the Bengali, Hindi, and Geno lege to maintain an independent position under languages. Selections from the Scriptures had the circumstances, an appeal should be made to also been prepared for popular use, in attracthe members of the churches to give it a new en tive fornis, with engravings. In Rome the dowment of $100,000. A resolution was passed work of the missionaries had been prosecuted expressing confidence in the fidelity of the Bap- with vigor and success. Many thousand copies tist brethren who had been appointed on the of the New Testament and of religious tracts senate of the university, but declaring that had been circulated. while no infringement was intended on their The thirty-sixth annual meeting of the Bible individual rights, it must be distinctly under Translation Society was held April 24th. The stood that their acceptance of office “must not income for the year had been £3,165. The be interpreted to indicate affiliation, direct or work of translating, printing, and distributing indirect, of Acadia College with the Üniversity the Bible was actively carried on in the various of Halifax."

mission-fields. A report was adopted protesting against the The autumnal meetings of the English Bapdesecration of the Christian Sabbath by the tist Union were held at Birmingham, beginrunning of railway-trains and the consequent ning October 2d. About 950 ministers and employment of men in connection therewith, delegates from all parts of the kingdom atand calling the attention of the Government tended its deliberations. A resolution was to the subject.

adopted condemning the Elementary EducaV. BAPTISTS IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. tion act of 1876 as unjust to nonconformThe anniversaries of the British Baptist So- ists, and prejudicial to the interests of nacieties began in London, on the 20th of April

, tional education, "inasmuch as it shows great when the fifty-first ual meeting of the favor to denominational schools, which are Baptist Building Fund was held. The reports almost wholly in the hands and under the showed that the annual contributions bad in- control of the clergy of the Established creased, and several legacies had been left the Church; tends to demoralize parents by enfund, the contributions of the year amounting couraging them to seek pecuniary help, even to £1,700. The annual meeting of the Bap- at the sacrifice of their conscientious convictist Union was held April 24th. The report tions, for the education of their children; gives stated that during the year 20 new churches had the management of schools, with power to been formed, 30 new chapels had been built, compel attendance, to the guardians of the 8,371 new members and 20,318 new Sunday- poor and others not elected with reference to scholars had been received. The sum of £58,804 such duties, and not properly responsible for had been spent in building chapels. Ninety, the discharge of them; prepares the way for three brethren had entered the ministry, and the dissolution of existing school boards; and, 55 ministers had died. The following amounts generally, is calculated to retard instead of adhad been received for benevolent schemes: vancing the establishment of a sound system of For the Home Mission Fund, £15,435; for the national elementary education. . . . For these angmentation of ministers' incomes, £2,670 ; reasons,” the resolutions continue, “the asfor ministers' widows and children, £15,161. sembly cannot accept the act of 1876 as a For foreign missions, the Particular Baptists satisfactory settlement of the principles on had raised £52,871, and the General Baptists, which the elementary education of this coun£9,471: altogether, £62,342; for the nine try shall be permanently based ; and, having colleges, £15,655. Adding to these contribu- little confidence in the effectual working of tions the amounts raised for ministerial sup- any conscience clause, anticipates the continual port (estimated at £170,000), the offertories recurrence of cases of oppression toward the at the communion (estimated at £20,000), the nonconformists, and recommends the immecontributions for Sunday-schools, Dorcas so diate formation of vigilance committees in concieties, and incidental objects, it was thought nection with every county association.” that between £600,000 and £700,000 were an The annual meetings of the Baptist Union and

Home or Highland Mission of Scotland were Denmark, and one from Russia. Seven new held at Edinburgh, beginning October 25th. churches were received into the Union-five Three new churches, at Berwick, Dumbarton, from Germany and two from Russia. and St. Fergus, Aberdeenshire, were received BARILI, ANTONIO, an Italian composer and into the Union. The statistics for the year Professor of Music, born in Rome in 1824; showed that there were connected with the died in Naples, July 12, 1876. From six years Union 73 churches, 64 ministers (an increase of age till thirteen, when he received the in the year of fourteen ministers), 34 Bible- diploma of professor at the Congregation of classes with 1,470 students, 62 Sunday-schools St. Cecilia, being then the youngest member with 5,390 scholars and 690 teachers, 210 of that body, he was a pupil of his father. preaching-stations, and 7,361 members. Eight About this period his father died, when he hundred and thirty-seven persons had been entered upon the study of composition with added to the communion during the year, Giuseppe Baini. At eighteen he left Italy for

The Baptist Home Missionary Society for a short time, and, joining his mother in Spain, Scotland, chiefly for the Highlands and Islands, continued his studies under Carniser. Returnaccording to its report for 1875, employed ing to Milan, he studied for a time under Mannearly thirty agents, who occupied about danici, and afterward graduated as Maestro 150 stations in the Shetland and Orkney Isl- Composer in the Philharmonic Academy of ands, the islands of the west coast, the north- that city at the age of twenty-one. The year ern and western Highlands, and one or two following he was leader and director of the Lowland counties.

Italian Opera in Algiers, and the same year The annual meeting of the Nero Connection was serving in the same capacity in New York of General Baptists was held in Derby, be- City. In 1850 he held a like position in the ginning June 19th. The Rev. Dr. Buckley, of city of Mexico; and in 1854, returning to New Orissa, India, was chosen president. The re- York, organized the Sontag opera-troupe, with port of the secretary showed the following facts which he returned to Mexico. He remained respecting the condition of the connection: in that city until 1861, and during that time Number of members in the home churches, composed bis Spanish opera,“ Un Pasio á 23,408; total number of members at home and Santa Anita." In 1856, under the patronage in Orissa, 24, 262; number of baptisms during of President Comonfort of Mexico, he organthe year by the home churches, 1,535; num ized and established a conservatory, which is ber of baptisms by the mission churches, 63. now a flourishing national institution. After Six new churches were applying for admission, this he returned to New York and lived there and when these were received, there would be eleven years, devoting himself to the duties of 170 independent churches in the association. his art, and giving to the stage a number of The condition of the denomination was repre- artists. From the end of that time until 1874 sented as sound in doctrine and practice. A he resided and labored in Baltimore and Washresolution was adopted against Lord Sanders's ington. In August, 1874, he went to Naples, educational bill, which gave as reasons for op- where he opened an Academy of pure Italian posing that measure, that it gives undue advan- singing,” especially for foreign ladies finishing tage to national schools (so called); that it tends their studies in Italy. Thirty years of unreto perpetuate denominational education; and mitting toil had much impaired his health, that any measure which fails to provide for which he hoped to recover in the salubrious the universal establishment of board schools, climate of that city. But in this he was diswhile enforcing compulsory attendance either appointed. Barili came from an eminent direct or indirect, indicts an injustice upon all musical family. His father was a composer of nonconformists.

distinction; his mother, Madame Barili Patti, VI. BAPTISTS IN GERMANY AND ADJACENT a fainous prima-donna, who once gained reCOUNTRIES.— The Triennial Conference of the nown in the United States. His sister, CloGerman Baptist Union was held at Hamburg, tilda, was equally successful on the operatic beginning July 13th. The statistical reports boards; his brother, Nicolai, achieved popushowed that the Union numbered 110 churches, larity as a basso; his second brother, Ettore, with 22,504 members, and 1,296 preaching- was an excellent barytone; his half-sisters, stations. The churches had raised during 1875, Adelina, Carlotta, and Amelia Patti, have for religious purposes, the sum of 188,891 made a world-wide reputation; and his halfmarks. During the three years since the last brother, Carlo Patti, gained many laurels as a meeting of the Union, 4,874 believers had been violinist and orchestral director. baptized. It was decided to give increased at BAUER, Clara, a German authoress, well tention to home missions, particularly in the known under the nom de plume of Karl Detlef, Russian department. The Russian (Slavonic) born June 23, 1836; died June 29, 1876. At Baptists employed seven of their number as an early age she lost her father, and being thus missionaries among the people, and the Gov- forced to provide for herself, she devoted her ernment no longer persecuted them. The meet- whole energy to develop her musical talents. ing was attended by 151 deputies, of whom 57 She went to St. Petersburg, where she was a were from the northwest, 53 from Prussia, one frequent visitor at the house of the Prussian from Poland, 34 from the south, five from embassador, Herr von Bismarck, wbo ever





Males. Femal's Males. Femal's


9,710 9.317 6.189 5.678 4,302 16,306 15,556 10,514 9,731 7.693 11,771 11,005 7,566 7.396 4,571 14,101 18,695 15,221 14.575 9,135 8.107 7,762 10,569 10,251 8,250 8,044 2,214 1,972 1,447 2.976 2.914 1,594 1,931 1,456


after took a great interest in her success.


The movement of population was as follows impressions received on a journey through the in 1874: Russian steppercaused her to devote herself to a literary career. Upon her return to Germany she settled in Dresden, and here, in 1869, published her first novel. Her last novel, “ Ein Document,” was not finished, one volume only Antwerp. having appeared at the time of her death. Her Flanders, East.. novels are chiefly descriptions of Russian life.

9,392 8,951 5.149


7,086 6.362 5,149 a German jurist and scholar, born September Limburg. 21, 1792; died June 13, 1876. After studying Namur..


4,721 4,303 2,706 2,598 2,849 law at the Universities of Salzburg, Landshut, and Göttingen, he became in 1816 Privatdocent

89,225 84,753 56,939 52,656 40,328 in the law faculty of the University of Lands

From these tables we derive the following hat; in 1819 he was appointed extraordinary

facts: The number of boys born for 100 girls and in 1820 ordinary professor. After the re

was 105.3, the number of inhabitants for one moval of the University of Landshut to Munich, birth 30.2, the number of births per 100 deaths he five times occupied the position of rector. 158.7, and the number of inhabitants for one In 1853 he was appointed a life-member of

death 47.9. the Upper Chamber of the Bavarian Diet. He still-born amounted to 7,750, 4,451 males and

In the same year the number of is the author of a number of highly valuable 3,299 females, and the number of divorces to works on law, among which are : "Vorträge

120. über den deutschen gemeinen ordentlichen and 12,096 illegitimate, and of the still-born

Of the births, 161,882 were legitimate Civilprocess” (tenth edition, 1869); “ Theorie 6,974 were legitimate and 776 illegitimate, der summarischen Processe” (seventh edition, making in all 168,856 legitimate and 12,872 1859); “ Theorie des Concursprocesses nach

illegitimate births. gemeinem Rechte” (fourth edition, 1868).

In 1874 there were four communes with over BELGIUM, a kingdom of Europe. Leopold 100,000 inhabitants, twelve communes with II., King of the Belgians, was born April 9, from 25,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, thirty-eight 1835, son of King Leopold I., former Duke of Saxe-Coburg; ascended the throne at the death eight communes with from 5,000 to 10,000,

communes with from 10,000 to 25,000, ninetyof his father, December 10, 1865; was married 1,207 with from 1,000 to 5,000, and 1,213 with August 22, 1853, to Marie Henriette, daughter less than 1,000 inhabitants. of the late Archduke Joseph of Austria, born

Instruction is well cared for in all grades. August 23, 1836. Offspring of this union are În 1872 there were 5,678 primary schools with three daughters. Heir-apparent to the throne is the brother of the King, Philip, Count of Flan- 618,937 pupils. Schools for adults have been

established in most communes. Their number ders, born March 24, 1827, lieutenant-general in 1872 was 2,351, with 199,957 pupils. The in the service of Belgium, married April 26, number of normal schools for primary teachers 1867, to Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sig: was, in 1874, 37, with 2,336 students, of which maringen, born November 17, 1815; offspring of 22 schools, with 1,132 'students, were for fethe union is a son, Baldwin, born July 3, 1869.

males. The area of the kingdom is 11,373 square 1874-175 was 168, with 17,763 pupils. Superior

The number of secondary schools in miles; population, according to the last cen

instruction is imparted in the two state Unisus, taken in 1866. 4,737,833; according to an

versities of Ghent and Liége, and the two free official calculation of December, 1874, 5,336,• Universities of Brussels and Louvain. The 634. Of this population, 54 per cent. belong number of students in each of these in 1874 to the Flemish and 44 to the Walloon-French

was as follows: nationality. The following table exhibits the population of each province of the kingdom on December 31, 1874, as well as the number of arrondissements and communes into which each province is divided :



The Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Antwerp bad, in 1874, 1,601 students. There

were, besides the Antwerp Academy, 80 other Antwerp

academies of design and drawing-schools, with Flanders, East.

10,191 pupils; a Conservatory of Music at

Brussels with 594, another at Liége with 609 Liége

pupils, and 46 other conservatories of music, Limburg

with 32 pupils. The expenses for primary Luxemburg

instruction in 1873 amounted to 18,076,635 Namur..

francs, and the expenses of the two govern5,336,634

ment universities in 1874 were 949,990 francs.



221 541 555 955

Number of


Number of Population in
Comingnes. Dec. 31, 1874.







208 339

835 206 205 851

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En Solde. Sans Solde.





9,174 13,908



Nearly the entire population of Belgium is pleted his nineteenth year is liable. Substinominally connected with the Roman Catholic tution is allowed. The legal term of service Church, at the head of which are the Archbish- is eight years, but two-thirds of this time are op of Malines, and five bishops. The other ec- generally spent on furlough. The strength of clesiastical benefices consisted, December 31, the army is to be 100,000 men on the war foot1874, of 184 deaneries, 230 cures (parishes of ing, and 40,000 in times of peace. In 1874 the the first class), 2,779 succursales (parishes of army was composed as follows: the second class), 180 chapels, 1,839 vicariates, 114 coadjutors, 26 annexes, 695 oratories and chapels of hospitals, colleges, etc. The num


44,391 66.335 ber of religious communities of men, in 1866, Cavalry was 178, with 2,991 inmates; that of religious Artillery.

2,164 communities of women, 1,144, with 15,205 in- Engineers . mates. The number of mutual-aid societies rec


34,216 67,365 91,581 ognized by the state was, in 1873, 117; their aggregate revenue, 207,918 francs ; expendi The civic militia or National Guard numbers tures, 194,923 francs; capital, December 31, 125,000 men without and 400,000 with the re1873, 612,882 francs; number of mutual-aid so serve. Its duty is to preserve liberty and order cieties not recognized by the state, 89; receipts, in times of peace, and the independence of the 447,309 francs; expenses, 403,785 francs; capi- country in times of war. A royal decree, dated tal on December 31, 1873, 480,110 francs. The October 20, 1874, divided the kingdom into number of saving-societies for buying winter two military circumscriptions, one embracing provisions recognized by the state was four; the provinces of Antwerp and West and East expenditures, 28,806 francs; capital on De- Flanders, and the second the others. cember 31, 1873, 13,879 francs. The number The imports in 1873 amounted to 1,422,of saving-societies not recognized by the state 700,000 and the exports to 1,158,600,000 francs. was eight; expenditures, 86,019 francs; capital (For a detailed statement of the commerce on December 31, 1873, 3,340 francs.

with each country, see Annual CYCLOPEDIA The receipts and expenditures for 1873 were for 1875.) The commercial navy in 1873 was as follows:

composed of 69 sailing-vessels with 46,439

tons, and 28 steamers with 30,005 tons. I. Ordinary Receipts :

The aggregate length of the railroads in op142,73 395

eration on December 31, 1874, was 3,370 kilo3. Stocks and Rentes...

71.715, 1:13 metres (1 kilometre = 0.62 mile), of which 4. Reimbursements...


664 were state railroads, and 2,706 belonged 5. Extraordinary resources applied to the general needs of the state.

973,203 to private companies. The aggregate length II. Special Receipts.....

113,084,446 of the lines of electric telegraph was, in 1872, Total receipts.....


4,430 miles; that of wires, 15,802; the number of telegraph-offices was, in 1871, 478; the

number of telegrams sent in 1874 was 2,750,I. Ordinary Erpenditures :


223, of which 1,849,973 were inland, 693,506 2. Dotations...

foreign, and 206,744 transit telegrams. 8. Justice..


On March 22d the House passed the bill of 4. Foreign Affairs

1,605, 133 5. Interior..


the Minister of Finance, by which the 12,000,6. Public Works.

75,175,853 000 francs which the state owed the Railroad 7. War..

89,566,076 8. Finances.


Building Association were to be paid immedi9. Outstanding debts and reimburse

ately instead of the time agreed upon. The

1.296,622 II. Extraordinary Erpenditures... 139, 141,616

purpose of the bill was to assist the Bank of

Belgium, which had lost heavily by the defalTotal expenditures....


cation of its cashier, the bank being a creditor 9,809,556

of the association. The public debt at the close of 1874 was as On April 8th the new law respecting acafollows:

demic degrees was passed by a vote of 78 to 26, Frince.

all the Catholics and 19 Liberals voting for it, Two and one-half per cents..

219,959,632 while 26 Liberals voted against it, and two did Four and one-half per cents :

65,364,192 1st series, conversion of 1844.

not vote. This law provides that in future 2d series, emission of 1844.

67,439.000 the universities shall confer the degrees upon 8d series (1833)..


their own judgment, while the state will only 4th series (1557 and 1860).

65,816,400 5th series (1865)

59,5-1,000 guarantee their legality after an examination 6th series (1567, 1869, 1870, 1871)

77,579,200 by a special commission. The state, however, Four per cents (1971)...

50,608,500 Three per cents (1878).


reserves the right to subject to a special exFloating debt....

314,555,000 amination all persons who desire to obtain a Total............

government office. The winter session of the 994,541,114

Chambers began on November 14th. In the The standing army is formed by conscription, Chamber of Deputies M. Bara brought up the to which every able-bodied man who has com election riots, which had occurred in several

1. Taxes 2. Tolls



1. Public debt..





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