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the simultaneous rising of the Russians and the chemist, born September 30, 1802; died at the Poles against the authority of the Emperor. In close of March, 1876. He was successively consequence of this speech the Russian Gov- professor at the Royal College, at the School ernment succeeded in obtaining his expulsion of Pharmacy, and finally at the Faculty of from France. Having tied to Brussels, he Sciences, in Montpellier. The discovery of found himself in great danger in consequence bromine, in 1826, gained for him great reputaof a reward of 10,000 rubles offered for him tion. He was soon after called to Paris to take by the Russian Government. He returned to the place of Thénard as Professor of Chemistry Paris after the Revolution of February, 1848, in the Faculty of Sciences. In 1844 he was and in June of the same year took part in the elected a member of the Academy of Sciences. Slavic Congress at Prague, and the revolution- He was soon after appointed Master of Conferary movements succeeding it. He then went ences in the Normal School, and in 1861 sucto Berlin, but soon was ordered to leave the ceeded M. Pélouze as Professor of Chemistry Prussian dominions. In March, 1849, he went in the College of France. Besides his discovery to Dresden, where he became one of the or of bromine, he made other useful and interestganizers and leaders of the riots of that year. ing discoveries, as extracting the sulphate of After their suppression he was compelled to soda directly from the sea-water. He did not flee, and on May 10th was captured in Chem- write any books, but furnished a large number nitz, together with Heubner. He was brought of articles to the Annales de Physique et de to the fortress of Königstein, and in May, 1850, Chimie and to the Mémoires of the Academy was sentenced to death. His sentence was, of Sciences. He exhibited chemical products however, commuted to imprisonment for life, at the Universal Exhibition of London in 1851, and in June of the same year he was delivered and was one of the jurors in the Exhibition of to Austria. Here he was also sentenced to Paris in 1855, and at London in 1862. In 1868 death, which was again changed to imprison- he was appointed Inspector-General of Superior ment for life, and he was then handed over to Instrnction, and Honorary Professor in the Russia, there to be again tried for political of Faculty of Sciences in Paris. He was decorated fenses. After having spent several years in with the cross of the Legion of Honor in 1837, the fortress at St. Petersburg, he was trans was created an officer in 1855, and a commander ported to Eastern Siberia. Here he spent sev in 1863. eral years as a penal colonist, and then received BALDASSERONI, GIOVANNI, an Italian permission from the Governor-General Korsa- statesman, born in Leghorn in 1790; died Ockoff to settle in the Russian territory of the tober 19, 1876. After holding several offices Amoor. From there he succeeded in escaping in the customs service in the grand-duchy of to Japan on an American vessel, and thence Tuscany, he was appointed administrator of he went by way of California to London. He finances. In this position he gained the conimmediately resumed his political activity, in- fidence of the grand-duke to such a degree that citing the Russians and the Poles in numerous in 1845 he was appointed councilor of state, addresses and pamphlets to rise against the and was intrusted with the actual direction of Government and the nobility, and to form a the finances of the country, although he was large Slavic federal republic. He entered into not created director of the finances until 1847. communication with Alexander Herzen and In the ministerial crises of 1847 and 1848 ho Ogarev, and took part in the publication of retained his position under all the varying the journal Kolokol; but in the end even fell governments. After having been appointed out with his own party by the excess of his senator, he was compelled to retire with the radicalism. In 1863 he went to Stockholm, to ministry of Ridolfi by the republican demonaid the expeditions against the Baltic provinces, stration of July 30, 1848. For a time he did fitted out by Russians and Poles. After the not take part in public affairs, but on May 24, failure of this plan he went to Switzerland, 1849, Leopold II. appointed him president of where he for some time took part in the work the new conservative ministry, while at the of the “ International." His attempt to create same time he took charge of the ministry of in this union of working-men a secret society finance. In this position he remained until with the object of bringing about a general the overthrow of the grand-duke in 1859. He • anarchy brought him into conflict with the wrote a biography of the Grand-duke Leopold other leaders of the union, and in the Congress 11. (1871). of Hague, in 1872, he was with a large number BANDEL, JOSEPH Ernst von, a German of his friends formally expelled from the sculptor, born May 17, 1800; died September " International,” since which time he has been 25, 1876. He received his first instruction in bitterly attacked in the radical press. His in- art in Nuremberg, and subsequently attended fluence on the young men of Russia continued the Art Academy in Munich. As early as 1820 for some time, but was also gone at the time he began to furnish for the Art Academy of of his death. In 1873 a difficulty aroso be- Munich well-executed works, among which a tween him and Marx, and sin then he ceased statue of Charitas in marble attracted special entirely to labor for the “International,” and attention by its delicacy and artistic beauty. retired to private life.

Among the marble busts made by him, that BALARD, ANTOINE JÉRÔME, a French of King Maximilian of Bavaria was notice

STATES AND TERRI

TORIES.

Associ-
ations.

Ordained Total Churches.

Ministers. Mernbership.

74,606

Arkansas..
California.

50 86 6

677

919
102

13
111
15
10
29
248

619 510 50 13 182 11

9 29 146

1

Delaware
District of Columbia,.

427 959 8,551

14 78

20

43
80

1 949 662 62

4,262

877

265

11,892

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6,457 45.680

Massachusetts..

Nebraska
Nevada.

611 259

50 257 811

165 1,255 1,488 119

3 66 172

1 846 1,257 675

60 503 60

1 686 833

56 255 174 703 881 162

34 317 278

97 602 812 57

3 101 185

1 765 698 414

52 406

67 450 606 690

1 87 017

9 206 135

1

5

20

North Carolina,
Ohio..

113,414 49,469

46 50 85

5 21

8 26 46 45

Tennessee..
Texas..

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able. But the great work of his life was the colossal statue of Arminius, or Hermann, the Deliverer of Germany, on the Grotenburg, near

Alabama.

1,183 Detmold. It was begun as early as 1835, but

46,160 suspended in 1841, in consequence of the ex

4,212

Colorado. haustion of his funds. In spite of frequent Connecticut.

19,756 and bitter disappointment, Bandel never lost Dakota . the hope of completing a work which he looked on as the first national monument of the great Florida.

17,290 battle in the Teutoburg Forest. After sacrific- Georgia.

1,998 1,185

174,543 ing his entire private property in the prosecu- Illinois..

66,854 tion of his labors, he saw at length, in 1871,

Indiana.

88,974 his work nearly finished. Then the Imperial Iowa.

Indian Territory.

21,845 Government of Germany made an appropria- Kansas.

1,420

* 144,267 tion of 10,000 thalers for its entire completion, Kentucky.

61,518 and on August 17, 1875, the statue was un

19,490 · veiled in the presence of the German Emperor, Maryland. a number of German princes, and a vast con

Michigan...

21,726 course of people from all parts of the empire. Minnesota

6,917

98,523 Simultaneously with the unveiling of the statue Mississippi..

Missouri.

89,786 on the Grotenburg, enthusiastic meetings in

8,427 commemoration of the event which this statue

New Hampshire.

8,597 was to celebrate took place in all the large New Jersey..

29,650 cities of Germany. Even in foreign countries, New Mexico.

108,859 as in the United States, the German popula- New York, tion took part in the celebration by sending tel

2,185 egrams to the Emperor and Bandel, and by ap- Oregon

56,732 propriate addresses. The whole statue weighs Rhode Island.

10,081 76,570 kilogrammes (one kilogramme = 2.20 South Carolina.

95,243 lbs.), of which 10,588 kilogrammes are copper,

1,107

100,192 1,047

59,637 63,076 wrought-iron, and 2,906 cast-iron. Thé Utah height of the statue is 17.3 metres up to the top

Vermont.
Virginia

1,172

169,310 of the helmet, 19 metres to the end of the ex Washington. tended right hand, and 26 metres to the end of West Virginia..

23,633 The entire monument, Wyoming.

11,718 the uplifted sword. therefore, inclusive of the foundation, 31.4 metres high, will attain the extraordinary height of

21,255 13,117 1,815,800 57.4 metres, or 183 feet. (For a full account Statistics, 1874.

21,510 13,354 1,761,171 of the statue, and the ceremony of unveiling it, see Annual CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875, page 355.) The annual meeting of the American BapAmong the other works of Bandel, the follow- tist Publication Society was held at Buffalo, ing are particularly noteworthy: “Amor and N. Y., May 25th. The report stated that the Psyche, “Venus," and the monument on the total receipts of the society for the year endgrave of Herr von Langer, the Director of the ing March 1, 1876, had been $564,064.05. Royal Art Academy in Munich. Bandel was Of this, $73,699.42 were received in the peculiarly noted for his works in marble, in the Benevolent Department, leaving $490,364.63 artistic finish of which he is ranked by critics as the amount received in the Business Deamong the best sculptors of modern times. In partment. Of the latter sum, $180,203.57 1846 he published, with Massmann, “Der Ex- had been given specifically for the publication sterstein in Westfalen."

building, leaving the actual ordinary business BAPTISTS. I. REGULAR BAPTISTS IN THE receipts of the year, $310,161.06. The new UNITED States.- In the following table is giv- building for the publication-house in Philaen a summary of the statistics of the Bap- delphia had been finished, at a total cost for tist churches in the United States for 1875, ground, building, and furniture, of $258,586.68, as they appeared in the American Baptist all of which was either paid or provided for, Year-Book for 1876 (published in January, and was formally opened February 29, 1876. 1876). The decrease from the previous year Eighteen new publications had been added to which is apparent in some of the items is the list of the society, of which 57,300 copies explained by the fact that the anti-mission had been printed. The total number of publiBaptists, included in the tables of the pre- cations on the catalogue of the society, March vious years, were omitted in the present 1, 1876, was 1,174. The Missionary Departone.

They number 41,454 members. Had ment of the society had continued the Bible they been included, the table would ave and Sunday-school work at Rome, Italy, and shown an increase of 95,583 members. The had sustained a general Sunday-school secrenumber of additions by baptism during the tary and State Sunday-school missionaries and year was 32,515:

colporteurs in different States and Territories.

224

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ASIATIC MISSIONS.

MISSIONS

Mission

aries.

Native
Preachers.

Churches. Members.

75

488

404

The anniversary of the American Baptist of $22,850.55 applicable to the deficiency of Home Mission Society was held in Buffalo, the previous year, reducing it to $30,136.17. N. Y., May 26th. The Hon. Samuel A. In addition to the receipts reported above, gifts Orozer presided. The report showed that the have been made to the Union to be founded, receipts of the society for the year ending and gifts in the nature of annuities, sufficient April 1st for missions and educational pur- to swell the total of recipts to $258,678.03. poses had been $175,534.38, or about $25,000 Fourteen new missionaries had been sent out less than the receipts of the previous year. under the auspices of the Union and the two Report was made of the seven freedmen Woman's Baptist Missionary Societies. The schools: Wayland Seminary, Washington, Rev. San-Pan Kau-too, a Karen, educated in D. O., 92 pupils; Richmond Institute, Rich- this country, had been sent back to labor for mond, Va., 79 pupils; Shaw University, Ra- his people. One other missionary was under leigh, N. C., 236 pupils; Benedict Institute, appointment of the Woman's Society for BurColuinbia, s. C., 115 pupils; Augusta Insti- mah. Six missionaries, now in the United tute, Augusta, Ga., 95 pupils; Nashville In- States, were expecting to return to their posts stitute, Nashville, Tenn., 112 pupils ; Leland within the year, and several missionaries had University, New Orleans, La., 119 pupils. A retired from their posts for a vacation. report was presented on Indian missions, A correspondence was recommended with showing that among the tribes of the Indian the Baptist Missionary Board of the South, Territory there were three Baptist associa- and with the Colored Baptist Conventions of tions, 84 churches, and nearly 5,000 members. the United States, for the purpose of agreeing A delegate was present from the Consolidated upon some policy of agency in which all the American Baptist Missionary Convention (col- Baptists of the United States may unite in the ored), who presented resolutions which had support of missions to Africa. A delegation been adopted by that convention in acknowl was received from the Southern Baptist Conedgment of the value of the work of the so vention. ciety among the colored people, and express The following is a summary of the statistical ing readiness to cooperate with it. In return reports of the mission-fields : a resolution was adopted, “That this society extend to the American Baptist Consolidated Convention our expression of fraternal fellowship, and desire to coöperate as far as practicable in their most laudable attempt to conduct Burmah (nine stations).

19,671 missionary and educational work under their Teloogoos, India (six

8,837 own management and support.” A resolution Assam (five stations)..

China (four stations)... was also adopted, " That we cordially and ur

Japan (two stations).... gently invite our brethren of the entire South, and particularly the ministers and members of

25,082 Southern Baptist churches, to cooperate with our teachers and our board, even more earnestly than ever before, in the building up and strengthening of these schools for educating colored preachers and teachers."

The anniversary of the American Baptist Germany Educational Commission was held in Buffalo,

Spain.. N. Y., May 24th. The report discussed the Greece relations of the Baptist denomination to edu

Total.... cation.

6

81,247 The fortieth annual meeting of the Ameri- Total for all the missions

56,329 can and Foreign Bible Society was held in New York City, May 16th. The treasurer re The missions in Sweden, France, and Gerported that there was a balance in the treasu- many are carried on entirely by native agencies. ry May 1, 1875, of $4,506.33 ; that the recipts The fifth annual meeting of the Woman's during the year had been $8,725.77, and the Baptist Missionary Society of the East was espenditures had been $10,466.16, leaving a held in Boston, Mass., April 18th and 19th. balance of $2,765.94.

The treasurer reported that the total receipts The anniversary of the American Baptist of the society for the year had been $35,801.Missionary Union was held in Buffalo, N. Y., 91, and the total expenditures, $34,157.62. May 23d. The Rev. Barnas Sears, D.D., LL.D., Five new missionaries had been appointed, presided. According to the financial statement two of whom had gone to Burmah, two to in the report, the total receipts of the Union Japan, and one was under appointment to for the fiscal year ending March 31st, appli Maulmain. More than 800 auxiliary circles, cable to the work in hand, were $245,997.23. 90 children's bands and young ladies' societies, The total of liabilities for the missionary year and 90 associational secretaries were reported in the foreign field, ending September 30, as connected with the society. In the foreign 1876, were $223,176.68. This left a balance work the society supported 18 missionaries,

19 16 18 6

53 23 88 1

5 11 8 1

670 889 15

Total.

184

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429

EUROPEAN MISSIONS.

MISSIONS.

Mission-
aries.

Native
Preachers,

Churches. Members.

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besides a Karen assistant at Rangoon and a ordained native pastors, 2; native assistants, Eurasian at Nellore. These missionaries were 15; out-stations, 6; churches, 5; baptisms, laboring among the Burmans, the Karens, the 37; memberships, 350. The missions were at Eurasians, and in Japan. Twenty schools were Fung-Chow, Shanghai, and Canton, that at aided or supported, of which four had been Chefoo having been closed. At Canton an begun during the year. In them were 51 na average attendance of 91 pupils was reported tive teachers and 1,420 pupils.

for all the schools, and a highest attendance The fifth annual meeting of the Woman's of 121. Baptist Missionary Society of the West was Italian Missions.—Stations at Rome, La held in Chicago, Ill., April 11th and 12th. Tour, Milan, Modena, San Capri, and PorsidoThe treasurer reported that the total receipts nio, Lodi, Cività Vecchia, and Bari, with the for the year had been $13,744.02. The sum Rev. G. B. Taylor as American missionary suof $11,816.93 had been spent in the foreign perintendent, and seven Italian ministers. The work, and $1,467.43 had been applied to the Vatican adult school, under the care of the “ home expenses

" of the society. The joint Rev. Mr. Van Meter, of 75 or 100 pupils, was annual meeting of the two societies was held addressed weekly by the Italian minister in in Buffalo, N. Y., May 24th.

Rome. Twenty-one thousand dollars had been The annual meeting of the American Baptist secured toward the projected fund of $40,000 Historical Society was held in Philadelphia, for the church in Rome. The Northern BapMay 28th. The Rev. Dr. Malcolm, who had tists had undertaken to raise $20,000 of this long served the society as president, having sum, but had as yet failed to do so. The conretired in consequence of age and infirmity, vention decided that the publication of the was chosen honorary president for life. The Foreign Mission Journal should be resumed as Rev. Dr. Cathcart was chosen president. The soon as practicable, and that the Home Mission report stated that the society had now in its Board should enjoy equal privileges and recollection 4,264 bound volumes, besides a large sponsibilities. The treasurer of the Home body of valuable pamphlets and manuscripts. Mission Board reported that the board was in

Social unions have been organized in many debt to the amount of $6,483.44. On account of the Baptist churches of the United States, of this incumbrance, it had not enlarged its as voluntary societies for social and literary in- work. Its work among the Indian tribes was tercourse. A general convention of these 80 of a very interesting and profitable nature. It cial unions was held in Philadelphia, May 29th. gave much attention to the colored people of Mr. J. P. Townsend, of New York, presided. the South, with results of great promise.

The Southern Baptist Convention met at Twenty-six missionaries had labored under its Richmond, Va., May 11th. The Rev. J. P. direction during the year, who reported 284 Boyce, D.D., of Kentucky, was chosen presi- baptisms. The board was requested by the dent. The treasurer of the Foreign Mission convention to employ to the fullest extent Board reported that his receipts had been practicable any voluntary agents to collect about $45,000. This sum was stated to be money, and, as soon as it may be done without about $13,000 above the average collections, violation of present contracts, to dispense with exclusive of the Rome chapel-fund-of the paid agents, except in States where it shall be three past years; and some $23,000, or 100 found impracticable to do without them. per cent., above the average of the six years The report on the missions among the Inprevious. The women of Georgia and Vir- dian tribes spoke of the importance of this ginia had contributed $2,491.60 for the Moon work, and declared that it had reached a crisis. house (so called after the Misses Moon, mis- Special efforts were recommended to provide sionaries), in Fung-Chow, China, and the wom the Indians with educational facilities. The en of South Carolina $1,343.41 for the mis- Creek nation had made provision to give land sionary-house at Canton. Women in other for schools and for farms connected with them, States had also helped these objects. The to- $70 per capita for scholars, to those who tal amount of $8,726.27 had been raised for would go and establish schools among them. the house at Canton, and the expenditure for The Delawares and Shawnees were calling for this purpose was limited to $10,000. Reports religious and educational advantages. The were made of missionary operations, of which convention resolved that the agency of the the following is a summary:

Home Mission Board is an imperative necessity African Mission8.-Foreign missionaries, 2; to meet the pressing wants of our own peopl1 native assistants, 3; churches, 3; baptized, and of the Indian tribes." 26; total membership, 58. The Rev. 'W. J. The president, Dr. Boyce, who is also presiDavid had visited the Vey people, north of dent of that institution, reported of the SouthLiberia, and had been impressed with the fa ern Baptist Theological Seminary that during vorable opening for missionary effort. He the next year the contribution of the Baptists afterward decided to establish himself at Ton- of Kentucky of $300,000 to its endowment chea. The convention recommended that ap- would be completed. The $200,000 which proved colored ministers be advised to go to were to be raised in the other States must be this field.

secured within the next two years, else the China Missions.-Foreign missionaries, 15; funds for the support of the professors would

YEARLY MEETINGS.

No. of Quarter-
ly Mertinge.

No of
Churches.

No. of

Preachers.

No of Com-
municants.

8.809

be exhausted, and the seminary would have to preceding year of four quarterly meetings, 118 be closed. A resolution was passed, express- ministers, 2,523 members, and 65 churches. ing the interest of the convention in the semi- The Register accompanies its statistical reports nary, and recommending efforts among the with the statement that “there are a number people to complete the endowment before the of associations of Baptists in America which, end of 1876. Eight visitors were appointed to in doctrine and polity, are in general agreeattend the Northern Baptist anniversaries to ment with the Free Will Baptists. No specific be held in Buffalo, N. Y. New Orleans was reports have been received from these assoappointed the place for the next meeting of ciations, but, from the best information rethe convention.

ceived, the inference is that they number in The twenty-seventh anniversary of the the aggregate not less than 25,000.” At the American Bible Union was held in Brooklyn, Free-Will Baptist Printing Establishment, DoN. Y., November 16th. The report showed ver, N. H., are published the Morning Star, that the expenditures for the year had been the weekly newspaper organ of the denomina$3,084.69, this sum including donations amount- tion; the Little Star and the Myrtle, semiing to $3,232.17. The whole amount had been monthly Sunday-school papers; Lessons for met by receipts during the same period. The Sunday-schools, and a variety of denominafollowing books of the Old Testament were tional books. Among the Benevolent Institurevised and ready for the press, awaiting the tions of the Free-Will Baptists, the Register means to publish them: the books of Joshua, names the Foreign Mission Society, the Home Judges, Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, and Isaiah. Mission Society, the Education Society, the Sab

II. FREE-WILL BAPTIST CHURCH.—The fol- bath-School Union, the Temperance Society, lowing is a summary of the statistics of the the Central Association, the Kansas Free-Will Free-Will Baptist Church, as they are given in Baptist Home Mission Society, the Free BapThe Free - Will Baptist Register for 1877 : tist Woman's Mission Society, and the New

Hampshire Charitable Society.—The Register gives the following list of Free-Will Baptist literary institutions: Bates College, Lewiston, Me., Rev. Oren B. Cheney, D. D., president,

and ten professors; Nicholas Latin School, New Hampshire....

Lewiston, Me., four teachers; Hillsdale Col4.650 lege, Hillsdale, Mich., Rev. D. W. C. Durgin, 9.314 D. D., president, and eighteen professors and

3.017 instructors; New Hampton Institution, New Massachusetts and Rhode Island..

5.851 Hampton, N. H., eight teachers; Austin Acad.

1.408 emy, Centre Stratford, N. H.; Lapham InstiSusquehanna.

1,37 tute, North Scituate, R. I., four teachers; New York and Pennsylvania..

Whitestown Seminary, Whitestown, N. Y., Union.

670 nine teachers; Pike Seminary, Pike, Wyoming Central New York.

2,018

County, N. Y., eight teachers; Atwood InstiPennsylvania. Ohio and Pennsylvania..

1,626 tute, Albany, Athens County, Ohio ; West

1,466 Virginia College, Flemington, West Va., Rev. Ohio Rirer.

3,572

W. Colegrove, A. M., president, and four

267 teachers in the literary department; RidgeNorthern Indiana..

ville College, Ridgeville Ind. ; Rochester Sem

10 St. Joseph's Valley..

881 inary, Rochester, Wis.; Wilton Collegiate In

1,490 stitute, Wilton, Iowa, four teachers; Stover Central Mlinois..

723 College, Harper's Ferry, West Va., normal Wisconsin.

2,195 and academic departments in operation, seven Ninnesota

teachers; Maine Central Institute, Pittsfield, Minnesota, Southern.

1,304 Me., six teachers; Parsonsfield Seminary, North Iowa, Northern

1,252 Parsonsfield, Me.; Green Mountain Seminary, Kansas.. Virginia F. B. Association..

Waterbury Centre, Vt.; Randall Academy,

Berlin Cross - Roads, Ohio; Evansville SemiOntario, P.Q.. Bengal and Orissa..

nary, Evansville, Wis. ; Lyndon Literary and Liberty Association.,

1,256 Biblical Institution, Lyndon Centre, Vt.; Wal

sey College, Peach Grove, Tenn. American Association. Union Association..

The anniversaries of the Free-Will Baptist Quarterly meetings not connect

Benevolent Societies were held in Saco, Me., ed with a yearly meeting..

1,603 Churches not connected with a

beginning October 9th. A plan was adopted Yearly meeting

284 for retrenchment of the expenses of collecting Other churches (in Missouri)..

555 the funds for the several societies. It provided Total 58 yearly meetings... 168 1,464 1,295 74,651 that the Home Missionary, Foreign Missionary,

and Educational Societies should employ one The number of licensed preachers is given at and the same agent for collecting funds. The 126. The tables show an increase from the corresponding secretary of the Sunday-School

VOL. XVI.-5 A

Maine, Western.
Maine, Central
Penobscot..
Vermont.

115

67 101 112 62 46 83

181
62
90
87
49
51
42
25
22
22
17
12

Holland Purchase..
Genesee.

1,1156

623

St. Lawrence.

12
14

449

Central Ohio..
Ohio..

590

11 80 18 12 89

8 16 $1 17 85

Indiana..

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701 8,453

Michigan.

Illinois
Southern Illinois.

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Iowa.

80

22 48 19 18 28 85

9 16 13

234

Louisiana.

40
10
10
21
16

5
16
14
21
15

599
626
411

Shelby Association..

7 10

9 24 14

578 994 743

10

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