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Bearing no
TITLE OF DEBT. Bearing Interest.

Total.
OFFICERS.

In Peace, In War.
Interest.
Admiral,

1

1 1. Consolidated

Vice-admirals

1

2 debt, old... 089,552 726,698 1,816,280 Rear-admirals.

5

6 Consolidated

of ships-of-the-line

16

18 debt, new.. 2,546,658,975 131,920,515 2,678.649,490

Captains of frigates

17

19 2. Floating debt. 29,137,981 751,592 29,919,573

of corvettes

18

20 8. Rentes for da

Lieutenants.

120 135 mages.. 12,556,803 12,556,803 Ensigns.

150 170 4. Rentes to Ba

Cadets

110 185 varia... 1,750,000

1,750,000 Tt'l, Jan. 1,1876. 2,590,693,341 133,498,805 2,724,192,146 " Jan. 1, 1875. 2,599,107,504

The number of sailors was to be 5,836 in 186,600,841 2,735,708,645

peace, and 11,532 in war.

The total commerce, exclusive of precious The army in August, 1876, was composed as metals, within the imperial line of customs, for follows:

1873 and 1874, was as follows:

PEACE-FOOTING.
WAR-FOOTING.

IMPORTS.

EXPORTS, ARMY. Officers. Men, Horses, Officers. Men. Horses,

COUNTRIES.

1878. 1874. 1878. 1874. Regular army. 14,666 257,091 46,135 23,504 753,992 148,236 Imp'rial Land

German Cuswehr 572 1,999 24 2,916 118,626 6,070

toms Union.. 427,800,000 395,400,000 262,600.000 265,800,000 Royal Hunga

Switzerland... 2,200,000 2,200.000 1.400.000 1,400,000 rian Land

Italy

20,500,000 19,700,000 23,300,000 24,100,000 wehr

461 7,318 1,350 3,028 127,234 16,742 Turkey 84,000,000 37,400,000 46,100,000 52,600,000 Others 148 13,903

118
13,903
Russis

17,000,000 27,600,000 27,000,000 34,100,000

Total by land 501,500,000 492,300,000 860,400,000 378,000,000 Total..... 15,847 280,311 47,539 29,596 1,013,755 171,048

Total by sea. 81,600,000 86,400,000, 63,200,000 71,800,000 The navy in August, 1876, was

583,100,000 568,700,000 423,600,000 449,800,000 lows:

The commerce of Trieste in 1874 and 1875 VESSELS.

Toni. Horse-Power. Guns, was as follows:

Total........

as fol

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ENTERED.

CLEARED

VESSELS.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

99

VESSELS.

No.

Tons.

Or

73
25

21.428,000

ernment upward of £1,500,000, so that, had the Austro-Hungarian army been fitted out

with Krupp guns instead, more than three times 5.703 | laden.

823,569 269,830 4,992

as much money would have been required. Sailing-vessels

in ballast.. 913 94,107 1,668 46,872 The two Houses of the Reichsrath resumed Steamers

laden 1,295 606,551 1,442 695,246 their labors in January. The Herrenhaus on in ballast.. 241 33,426

48,628

January 14th took up the discussion of the moTotal... 8,152 1,003,914 8,201 1,009,385 nastic association bill, which bad been brought

in by the Government in 1874.* Cardinal The commercial navy on January 1, 1876, Schwarzenberg and all the bishops and abbots was as follows:

had taken their seats on this occasion. It was bitterly attacked by the cardinal and other

Catholic speakers. The former stated that 8e3-going vessels.

577 280,502 whoever attacked the convents attacked ChrisCoasting-vessels

1,974 33,407

tianity. The convents were the bulwarks of the Fishing-barks and lighters

4,889 18,311

Church, and were the first points to be attacked long voyage (16,450 horse-power) 64,880 Steamers

by those who opposed the Catholic Church. short voyage (767 horse-power)..

1,891 Sailing-vessels...

7,812 272,949

Minister Stremayr, speaking for the Govern

ment, stated that no hostile act against these Total ...

7,440 829,220

corporations was intended by the law. It could The railroads in operation in Austria proper the inner relations of the Church. On the 17th

never be the object of the state to meddle with on January 1, 1876, comprised 10,397 kilome- the entire law was finally passed to a second tres (1 kilometre = 0.62 mile). The work of the Post-Office in Austria proper regulating the legal status of the Old Catholics

and third reading. On the other hand, the law in 1875 was as follows:

was rejected.f The monastic association law Letters on which postage was due.... 169,276,000

was passed in the Chamber of Deputies in FebPostal-cards Free letters.

26,255,000
ruary, after cons

erable debate. DyemSamples.

5,578,000 ber, Minister Stremayr informed the confesPrinted matter

19,794,000

sional committee of the House of Deputies The number of post-offices was 4,126. that the Emperor had refused to sign the law

The telegraph lines and wires in operation as framed by the two Houses of the Reichsrath, in 1875 were as follows:

but that he had authorized the ministry to

bring in a new law. On February 9th the Lines...

82,853.4 Chamber of Deputies adopted the new marWires

84,534

riage law, according to the majority report of The number of telegraph-stations was 2,212. the committee. The discussion turned chiefly The number of dispatches sent and received on the question in what manner the impediwas 4,547,830.

ment to inarriage was to be removed in the The new armament of the Austrian artillery case of clerics. The majority report as adopted with the Uchatius gun was completed during by the House made a distinction between those the year. The Uchatius gun like the Krupp, who had received the higher and the lower is a breech-loader, and has given, in comparison orders, and proposed that, in the case of the with the Prussian weapon, the most satisfac- former, the impediment to marriage should tory results. The alloy of which it is made is only be removed by a change of religion, while a simple mixture of copper and tin, but the pe- the latter would merely be required to leave culiar plan adopted for suddenly cooling the the clergy. The minority was opposed to this mass after casting is maintained a close secret. distinction, and proposed that the vow of Analysis of the metal gives no clew to the na- celibacy should no longer be valid after the ture of this operation, the result of which is cleric had renounced his profession, no matter to secure an even and crystalline alloy free from whether he had received higher or lower orders, "honey-comb” and “tin-pitting," which are and without leaving the religious community the usual defects met with in bronze-work. which regarded the vow of celibacy as an imAfter casting the cannon, and suddenly cool- pediment to marriage. A third proposition, ing it, General von Uchatius dilates the bore by Freiherr von Händel, which was sanctioned by introducing a steel wedge, which increases by the Minister of Justice, also wished to see the calibre considerably, and places the weapon no distinction made between the higher and in a state of tension that is said to add much the lower clergy, but demanded that a change to its capacity to withstand the effects of of religion should in all cases precede the legalcontinued firing. The expense of the bronze ization of marriage. The other propositions weapon is far less than that of the steel can of the committee regarding mixed marriages, non of Krupp, for while a field-piece of the and the remarriage of persons who had left latter construction costs no less than £114, if the Catholic Church, were adopted without fashioned of crucible steel, the value of the change. The Reichsrath adjourned on March Uchatius gun is not more than £35. As it is,

* Seo ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1974, p. 56. the new weapons are to cost the Austrian Gov.

+ See ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1875, p. 59.

Kilometres.

4th. It met again on October 4th. The Gov- Russia, and Bosnia and the Herzegovina by ernment sent in the budget, and several plans Austria-in order to secure in this manner for an intended revenue reform were submitted proper guarantees for the reforms to be proto the House. The Czechic deputies early in posed. The Emperor of Austria, in his anthe session repeated their old tactics of having swer to this letter, which also remained a sean address read refusing to take part in the cret, is supposed to have stated that every proceedings. The President, Dr. Rechbauer, step taken in this matter must be characterized thereupon declared their seats vacant.

by the same unity which had marked the preThe Eastern question kept the Austrian di- vious steps of the great powers, and that it plomatists very busy during the year, Austria therefore depended upon the consent of all being, by its position and the composition of the powers whether the Porte should be proits population, one of the nations of Europe ceeded against in such a manner, and to whom most interested in the struggle. Even during the execution of this plan should be comthe rebellion in the Herzegovina, the Slavic mitted. In October the Czar sent another population of the Austrian Empire very plainly letter to the Emperor, which was believed to expressed their sympathies for their struggling renew his former propositions. A strong brethren in Turkey. After Servia and Mon- party, led by the Archduke Albert, was worktenegro had taken up arms in the movement ing for the same end in Austria. Immediately for a union of all the Slavic tribes, the situ- after the assembling of the Reichstag in Octoation became critical for Austria, as her Slavic ber two interpellations were addressed to the population appeared to be eager to join in the Government, one from the Germans and one war. On the other hand, the Government en- from the Slavi. On October 27th Prince Auersdeavored to preserve the strictest neutrality, perg, the president of the ministry, replied to

both. In answer to the Germans, he stated that, although the Constitution contained no clause regarding the interference of the cisLeithan Government with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, still such interference was warranted by the reaction of the foreign policy upon home affairs. The Government had always fulfilled its duties in this respect, and received most willing information from the Minister of Foreign Affairs on every phase of the political situation. A more direct interference had not been warranted, as the ministerial programme, repeatedly approved by the cisLeithan Government and the delegations, had been strictly carried out. The cis-Leithan Government would also state in the present phase of the Oriental question that the Minister of Foreign Affairs had, by a firm peace policy, done much to preserve the peace of the empire and of Europe in general. The policy of the empire was, above all, the preservation of peace, which in itself excluded the idea of annexation of new territory. No one could appreciate the blessings of peace more than the Government. The entire foreign policy of Austria was a proof of the con

sistency of this desire. The Government, completely blockading the Turkish border. In therefore, was in a position to declare that the the negotiations which ensued between the Minister of Foreign Affairs, in full accord Turkish Government and the great powers of with the Government, would also, under the Europe, Austria took a prominent part. In circumstances mentioned in the interpellation, the middle of September it declared its con- strive in the first place to secure peace, and currence in the Anglo-Russian peace proposals would use every means to preserve it for the to be submitted to Turkey. At the close of empire. At the same time no doubt need be September the Czar Alexander of Russia ad- entertained but that these attempts would dressed a long autograph letter to the Emperor, find their natural limit in the duty to guard after having previously in June) had a confer- the safety and the interests of the empire ence with him at Prague. Both the contents at all times and under all circumstances. A of the letter and the proceedings of the con- programme which would demand peace withference remained a secret, although it was out this natural limitation would expose the generally surmised that in his letter the Czar interests of the monarchy in advance, and proposed the joint occupation of the Christian would be least adapted to secure peace. This provinces by the two powers—Bulgaria by was the idea on which the foreign policy of

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BOHEMIAN PEASANTS.

the empire had been and still was based, and The Minister of Finance, Baron von Holzgewhich the Government approved. In conclu- than, died June 20th, and was replaced by Barsion, be (Prince Auersperg) wished to add that on von Hofmann, who had occupied the posithe Minister of Foreign Affairs was deter- tion of chief of a section in the Ministry of mined not to let himself be deterred from the Foreign Affairs. course once taken by any warlike demonstra The seventeen provincial Diets of cis-Leithan tions, or any manifestations which might in Austria met on March 1st. In none of them was jure the authority of the empire. In answer any business of importance transacted, with to the Slavic interpellation, he stated that it the exception of the Tyrol. This Diet, in which was not the business of the Minister of For- the Catholics have à decided majority, proeign Affairs to consider the interests of differ- tested against the encroachment upon the reent races, but to keep in view the interests of ligion of the province on the part of the Govthe whole monarchy, particularly as the inter- ernment, by authorizing the organization of ests of the whole were also the interests of Protestant congregations. This demonstraeach member of the monarchy. From the tion was immediately answered by the Govbeginning of the Oriental difficulties the Min- ernment by the closing of the Diet. The istry of Foreign Affairs had had, in full ac- Liberal members of the Diet also drew up a cord with the Government, two objects con document protesting against the clerical demstantly in view: the preservation of European onstration. At the elections for the Diet in peace, and the improvement of the condition Galicia, held in October, the Ruthenians, formof the Christian population of Turkey. This ing the Constitutional party in that province, policy, which sought to give to the Christians were completely defeated by the Poles. of the East peace and civilization, was in the interest of the entire monarchy. The Government had heretofore pursued this policy, and would continue it in future. This speech created great excitement in the House, as many of the deputies thought that the Government also considered the interpellation of the deputies as one of those manifestations by which it would not let its policy be influenced. Prince Auersperg in consequence made the declaration, on October 30th, that he had only referred to demonstrations like those of the students of Hungary (see HUNGARY). A spirited debate followed from November 4th to November 7th in the House, in which the policy of the Government was defended by two speakers only, the deputy Plener, of the Constitutional party, and the most bitter opponent of the entire Constitution, Count Hohenwart, formerly president of the ministry. The opposition had a host of speakers, most of whom, however, dif During the month of February the provinces fered in the policy they wished to see pursued. of Upper Austria and Moravia were visited by Some proposed to join Russia against Turkey, most disastrous floods, in which a large numsome wished to aid Turkey against Russia, and ber of houses were destroyed. A severe shock others advocated peace at any cost. M. Fan- of earthquake was felt on January 17th, through derlik, the leader of the Slavi, demanded of a large part of the empire, affecting the Danube the Government that it should take the part of basin from Passau in Bavaria to Presburg in the oppressed Slavi in Turkey, and even went Hungary. The shock was felt at Wittingau so far as to say that the Austrian Slavi would in Bohemia, Scheletau in Moravia, Bndweis, never fight against Russia. Count Hohenwart Trebitsch, Tischnowitz, and Prerau, and elsein his speech declared himself satisfied with where to the north, while the southern limits the declaration of the Government that it were marked by Odenburg, Kindberg, and the would protect the interests and honor of Aus- Noric Alps. Rents were visible in many houses tria with the entire force of the Government in Vienna. Several chimneys had fallen. The if necessary, and laid particular stress upon river Danube receded from the right bank the fact that the Government must consider and passed in a great wave to the other side. the interests of the entire monarchy only, and The negotiations with Hungary continued not of any particular race.

during the year. On Jannary 24th the House In June the Minister of War, Baron von resolved to request the Government “to proKoller, resigned his office. The Emperor, in tect with firmness and decision the interests of accepting his resignation, conferred upon him Austria proper in the negotiations;" while the the grand cross of St. Stephen in recognition Herrenbaus, on two different occasions during of his eminent services. The Emperor ap- the same month, resolved “not to sanction pointed in his place Count Bylandt-Rheidt. any further loosening of the union of the two

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BREGENZ.

parts of the monarchy, nor anything that would The delegations of the two parts of the emcause a further taxation of cis-Leithania, or an pire met on May 15th, in Pesth. The Governinjury to the credit system.

ment introduced the budget for the entire A new cominercial treaty with Roumania monarchy for 1877. On the 18th the Emwas passed on February 27th.

peror received the delegations in Pesth, and In the beginning of October the Emperor in his answer to the addresses of the two created the following new life-members of the presidents stated that the events in the East Herrenhaus: The former Minister of War, had shown him clearly the necessity of strengthBaron von Koller; ex-Governor Mamula, ofening the bonds of union between the two parts Dalmatia; M. Moser, the Governor of 'the of the empire. He also expressed the hope ** Boden-Credit-Anstalt;" the Prelate Charles, that the efforts of the Northern powers for of the Stift Mölk; two chiefs of sections, peace would be crowned with success. The Wehli, of the Ministry of the Interior, and Government had proposed an additional item Vesque von Püttlingen, of the Foreign Office; of 7,000,000 forins in the budget of the MinStählin, the President of the Court of Admin- istry of War. This latter proposition met with istration ; Napadievitch, the Ruthenian Presi- considerable opposition, but the entire budget dent of the Senate of the Supreme Court; and as proposed by the Government was finally Apfaltern, Count Thun, and the Italian Pace, passed. The delegations adjourned on the to represent the large real-estate owners. 2d of June.

B

BAER, Karl Ernst von, a Russian natu- wickelungsgeschichte der Thiere, Beobachralist, born in Esthonia, February 17 (29), tungen und Reflexionen" (2 vols., 1828–37: 1792, died November 29, 1876. His father this work remained unfinished ; Baer rewished him to prepare himself for a mili- ceived for it, in 1831, the golden medal of the tary career, but in 1810 he went to the Uni- Academy of Sciences in Paris); “ Historische versity of Dorpat, where he studied medi. Fragen mit Hülfe der Naturwissenschaften cine, and graduated in 1814. He soon after beantwortet” (1874); and “Studien auf dem set out on a scientific journey through Ger- Gebiet der Naturwissenschaften” (1874). He many, and in Würzburg devoted himself to the also contributed a large number of articles to study of zoötomy. In 1819 he was appointed Pander's Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Burdach's Extraordinary and in 1822 Ordinary Professor Physiologie, Meckel and Müller's Archiv für of Zootomy in Königsberg, where he also Physiologie, and to the publications of the formed the Zoological Museum. In 1829 he Academy of St. Petersburg. The “Kaspische went to St. Petersburg as member of the Im- Studien,” which appeared in the latter, were perial Academy and Professor of Zootomy, but published separately, and are particularly rereturned to Königsberg in 1830, where he re markable as the best description of the Caspian mained until 1834, when he again went to St. Sea. He published, together with Helmersen, Petersburg. In 1837 he was commissioned by “Beiträge zur Kunde des Russischen Reichs” the Imperial Academy to make a voyage of (vols. i.-xvi., 1839–73). See his “ Autobiograexploration to Lapland and Nova Zembla. phy” (1866). From this journey he brought home a large BAKUNIN, MICHAEL, a Russian politician number of plants, but owing to various causes and agitator, born in 1814; died July 1, 1876. he was unable to execute his original project He was educated in the School for Cadets in of visiting the icebergs on the northern coast St. Petersburg, and, having passed his examiof Nova Zembla. The results of this journey nation, received an appointment as ensign in he described in the Bulletin Scientifique of the artillery. He soon resigned this position, the Imperial Academy. In 1851–56 he was in order to devote himself to philosophical commissioned by the Government to examine studies. In 1841 he went to Berlin, where he the fisheries in Peipus Lake, in the Baltic and became a pupil of Hegel. The following year in the Caspian Sea, on which examination he he went to Dresden, where he continued his published a work of four volumes. In 1861 studies under Arnold Ruge, and contributed a he and Rudolf Wagner called a meeting of philosophical essay under the nom de plume anthropologists in Göttingen. In 1862 he re of Jules Elisard to the Deutsche Jahrbücher. signed as a member of the Academy, but was In 1843 he went to Paris, where he kept up inimmediately elected an honorary member. He timate relations with the Polish refugees. He was the author of a large number of works, then passed to Switzerland, where he came into of which the following are the most im- connection with the communist and socialist portant: “De ovi mammalium et hominis societies. This caused the Russian Government genesi” (1827); “Untersuchungen über die to order him to return home, but he declined to Gefässverbindung zwischen Mutter und Frucht obey. In 1847 he delivered in the Polish banin den Säugethieren" (1828); “Ueber die Ent- quet in Paris a speech, in which he proposed

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