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AUERSPERG, ANTON ALEXANDER, Count with the exception of one session. In all vox, also well known by his nom de plume, questions of legislation he voted with the LibAnastasius Grün, an Austrian statesman and erals, while in the constitutional debates he poet, born April 11, 1806; died September 12, was with those who advocated centralization 1876. He received his first education at home, and afterward dualism, rejecting the federal was sent to the Theresianum in Vienna, in idea decidedly. The address of January, 1870, 1813, from there he went to the Engineering was an able argument for the preservation of Academy. Upon the death of his father he the constitution, and against the impending was placed in a private institution to prepare federalistic experiments of the minority; that himself for the university. After having of November, 1870, culminated in a most destudied law and philosophy in the Universities cisive vote against the vacillating policy of the of Vienna and Gratz, he traveled through Italy, ministry, and was adopted even in the HerrenFrance, England, and Germany; took charge of haus by an almost unanimous vote. He spoke his estates in 1831, and in 1839 married the repeatedly for a peaceful and constitutional Countess Maria von Attems, living after that settlement of the difficulties with Hungary, partly on his estates and partly in Gratz and and for a closer connection of Austria and Vienna. Every office in the service of the Germany. In the Diet of Carniola, from Government or of the court he decidedly 1861 to 1867, and afterward in that of Styria, refused, being bitterly opposed to the policy of he was an active supporter of German ideas Prince Metternich. He began early to gain a and of the Liberals. In 1868 he was unanireputation as a poet. Even while a student in mously elected president of the delegation of Vienna he had contributed numerous small the Austrian crown-lands. But, with the expoems to the Philomele and the Theaterzeitung, ception of his seat in the Herrenhaus, he and in 1830 published a small volume under the resigned all his positions. In this body he title of “Blätter der Liebe, von Anastasius continued to take an active interest up to his Grün." Under the same nom de plume he pub- death. Among his speeches those delivered lished, during the same year, “Der letzte Rit- during the confessional debates of 1868 and ter” (eighth edition, 1860), a romance, in which 1874 bave gained particular celebrity. His he intended to show to the effeminate admin- last poetical work of any importance was a istration of that period the manly picture of German version of "Robin Hood” (1864). the last knight, Maximilian, in the form of AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. The Theuerdank. This was followed by "Spazier- area and population of Australia and Polynesia gänge eines Wiener Poeten” (1831; sixth edi- were, according to the latest accounts, as foltion, 1861), which appeared anonymously in lows: 1831 in Hamburg. This volume, a collection of
Sq. Miles Sq. Miles Popul'tion Populathirty patriotic poems, produced great excitement throughout Germany. The authorities employed every means to discover the author, New South Wales. and when they finally found that the “Vien- Victoria . nese poet,” Anastasius Grün, and Count Auers- South Australia. perg, were one and the same person, the latter Western Australia.. was fined fifty ducats. In 1835 he published Northern Territory. 529,531
50,000 another collection of patriotic poems, under the
CONTINENT OF AUSTRAtitle of “Schutt"(twelfth edition, 1869), which
2,945,227 1,841,700 is generally considered as his best production. Tasmania... He then collected his smaller poems, sketches, Other islands.:
1,260 etc., into one volume, “Gedichte” (1837; four- ISLANDS SOUTH OF THE teenth edition, 1868). In 1848 he was elected a TROPIC OF CAPRICORN
492,800 member of the German “ Vorparlament," and afterward of the National Assembly in Frank- New Caledonia. fort. In this body he always voted with the Feejee Islands. Left Centre, but left it in September, 1848, be
83,000 cause the murders of Lychnowski and Auers- Tahiti..
13,847 wald had utterly disgusted him. For some years
804,500 he lived in entire seclusion on his estates, pub, ISLANDS BETWEEN THE lishing in 1852 the poetical works of his friend EQUATOR AND Nikolaus Lenau. After the change of affairs
7,613 in Austria in 1859, he again took an active part Caroline Islands.. in public life. In that year he was appointed Pelew Islands.
10,000 by the Government a member of a commission
16,200 to draw up a communal law for Carniola. In Islands Nortu OF THE 1860 he was called by the Emperor to the EQUATOR..
140,900 “Verstärkter Reichsrath” for Carniola, and
3,435,102. 4,682,400 in 1861 was created a life-member of the Austrian Herrenhaus. Here he was the regular According to the enumerations of the years reporter and author of addresses to the throne, 1869–71, there were 1,300,452 Protestants,
of Sub of of Sub tion of divisions, Divisions. divisions. Divisions.
89,451 380,602 669,259 975,924
576 8,097 12,514
443,442 Catholics, 8,243 Hebrews, 15,521 of
4,313 22,178 8,652 Protestants, 40,371 Catholics, 1,215 Hebrews,
4,925 26,500 12.2.22
South Australia. 4,764 pagans, 4,367 of other denominations, Queensland.
6,883 2,794 and 7,715 whose religion' was unknown. Or the inhabitants of Australia in 1871, 1,817,187 New Zealand
4,161 were born on British territory ; of these,
Total 993,362 were born in Australia, and 807,786
15,940 79,874 33,139 in Great Britain, There were also 35,506 persons born in Germany, 5,475 in the United The following table shows the rate of taxStates, 3,016 in France, 31,036 in China, and ation per head of population, the revenue, the 23,525 were born in other countries.
imports and the exports for 1874, and the pubThe movement of population in 1874 was as lic debt on December 31, 1874, for each of the follows:
Australian colonies :
Boys. Girls. Total.
N. Soutb Wales (1573) 651 9,602,000 5,469,300 217 92,744
Victoria (1873).. 800 14,475,085 6,787,323 210 113,135 New South Wales... 1,503 2,334 57,917 52,370 110,257
South Australia (1875) 344 4,234,531 2,774,003 Victoria..
1,048 2,416 73,526 62,186 185,962 South Australia (1874)
West Australia (1574)
3.000 Tasmania (1874).... 147
42 33,506 239
Queensland (1873)... 135 2,459,434 1,648,332 Queensland (1871). 208 690 12,890 16,112
New Zealand (1573).. 533 7,915,985 5,269,195 . 29,002
52,351 New Zealand (1874)*!
1,272 21,774 19,233 41,027 The railroad statistics for 1874 were as fol- New Zealand was estimated as follows on May
The population of the four principal cities of lows:
1, 1876: Dunedin, 19,657 ; Auckland, 13,186 ; Miles in
Wellington, 11,298; Christchurch, 10,772. COLONIES.
Operation. Building. The agricultural statistics of New Zealand New South Wales...
show Canterbury, standing at the head of all
401.5 236 Victoria....
provinces, with 550,759 acres in cultivation; South Australia.
142 Otago coming next, with 451,669; Wellington West Australia.
third, with 432,802; and Auckland fourth, with Queensland.
106 356,988 acres; the total for the whole colony New Zealand..
being 2,230,988 acres, showing an increase of Total..
1,680.5 1,376 442,221 over 1875. Canterbury has the largest
area in every kind of crop, with the single exThe length of telegraph-lines at the close of ception of oats, in which the Scottish province the year 1874, the length of wires at the close of Otago takes first place. The area sown of 1875, and the number of stations in 1875, with wheat shows a decrease for the whole were as follows:
colony of 14,868 acres as compared with the
A census of South Australia, taken on New South Wales..
7,149 7.904 187 March 26, 1876, gave a population of 213,721, Victoria...
3,393 4,613 163
of whom 110,941 were males, and 102,780 South Australia.
105 West Australia..
703 1,600 20
females. Adelaide had 31,573 inhabitants, of Tasmania
whom 15,104 were males and 16,469 females. Queensland..
3,616 3.617 New Zealand..
2,632 5,231 111
The next largest cities were Norwood and
Kensington with 6,576, Hindmarsh with 4,120, Total. 22,039 27,469 653
Port Adelaide with 2,885, and Glenely with * Inclusive of grammar-schools and colleges.
Gold-mining continued to be carried on suc which is from 23 to 24 miles long, and in its cessfully in the various colonies. New mines widest part seven miles wide, did not exist were discovered early in the year at the head twenty-four years ago. In 1852 the deepest part of the Palmer River, in the colony of Queens- of the lake was covered by a morass, while all land, and large numbers flocked thither. The the rest was rich alluvial ground. The depth crops were generally poor. In New South of the present lake is only 25 to 30 feet, which, Wales a heavy drought was reported, while in considering its great extent, is a strong arguVictoria the crops were seriously damaged by ment in favor of the supposition that the successive heavy rainfalls.
lake has existed at some previous time, and The plan to unite all the Australian colonies was at least just as extensive as at present. into one confederacy continued to be strongly This supposition is strengthened by the old urged during the year. A considerable im- alluvial terraces of the creeks, which lie 10 or pulse was given to it by the Intercolonial Ex- 12 feet above the present level of the lake. hibition held at Melbourne in the early part But this could not be the case one or even of the year.
several centuries ago, as the present lake is The laying of the submarine cable between surrounded by a wide belt of forest-trees, Sydney and New Zealand was successfully which must have grown at a period which completed in the beginning of the year, and dates farther back than a century from the it was opened in February.
The exploration of the interior of the Australian Continent continued to be carried on with unabated energy. News was received in August from Mr. Wilshire, in the Northern Territory, announcing the discovery of good land on the Victoria and Daly Rivers, with grassy plains and soil fit for all tropical productions.
The last surviving native of Tasmania died during the year. It was the Queen, Lidgiwidgi Tancaninni, called Lalla Rookh by the white population. Tasmania, or the island of Van Dieinen, which became in 1803 an English colony, had in 1815 a native population of 5,000; in 1847 there were only 45 left, and now the last of the race is dead. Lalla Rookh had been married five times, and each time to a king. She lived at Hobart Town, in the house of the Government inspector, and received a small pension from the British Government. She was seventy-three years old, and died of paralysis.
A sanguinary affair took place among the natives of Feejee in the early part of the year. A number of tribes not yet converted to Chris- date of the present inundation. The chief tianity made an attack upon the colony. They reason for the present growth of the lake, were aided by a number of natives who, once Abbay thinks, may be found in the destruction converted, had reverted to their heathen state of the forests in the cavity, the southern end in consequence of the measles, which had of which is at present occupied by the lake. raged so terribly in the colony in 1875. They The consequence of the disappearance of the destroyed entire villages, and celebrated their forests was a more rapid drainage of the envictory by eating eighteen women and chil- tire basin, the water could flow off quickly and dren. In consequence of these atrocities the accumulate in the deepest part of the basin, Governor, Sir Arthur Gordon, marched against while the loss by evaporizing was greatly dithem, and succeeded in completely defeat- minished, as the water now reaches the lake ing them. Thirty-five of the leaders were in a few hours, even from the most distant tried and sentenced to death, but only fourteen part of the basin. Lake Bathurst, a few miles were executed.
distant, also shows a considerable increase in During the middle of the year the vessel its volume of water. Dancing Wave was captured by the natives During the month of March meetings were of the Solomon Islands, who devoured the en- held in Sydney to discuss a new journey of tire crew. Only one escaped and reported exploration of D'Albertis in New Guinea. the affair. The man-of-war Sanafly was sent D'Albertis proposed to travel up the Fly River out to punish the murderers.
to the centre of the island, where he expected Mr. R. Abbay, in an article on the periodic to find its source, and then to return overland city of fresh-water lakes of Australia, in No. to Yule Island or Port Morley. He expected 342 of Nature, makes the following interesting to perform the journey in from six to eight statements : Lake George, in New South Wales, months. This plan was very favorably re
ceived by the colonial authorities. The Gov- Affairs and of the Imperial House (appointed ernment placed the steamer Neva at the dis- 1871); Baron Leopold Friedrich von Hofmann, position of D’Albertis, and a subscription was Minister of the Finances of the Empire (apopened to secure the necessary expenses. pointed 1876); and Count Arthur Bylandt
The annual report of the sub-Protector of Rheidt, Minister of War (appointed 1876). Aborigines in South Australia for 1875 con The ministry of cis-Leithan Austria was in tains some interesting statements showing how 1876 composed of Prince Adolf von Auersperg, rapidly the native Australians are disappear- President (appointed November, 1871); J. Lasing even in that colony, where more is done ser Baron von Bollheims, Interior (November, for their protection than in any other. As an 1871); C. von Stremayr, Public Works and Inexample may be cited the Narringerie tribe, struction (November, 1871); Glaser, Justice which in 1842 numbered 3,200 persons, against (November, 1871); J. Ritter von Chlumeccky, 511 in 1875. This diminution cannot be ac- Commerce and Political Economy (appointed
in November, 1871, Minister of Agriculture; transferred to the Ministry of Commerce in May, 1875); Baron von Pretis-Cagnois, Finances (January, 1872); Colonel Horst, Defense of the Country (appointed pro tem. November, 1871, definitely March, 1871); Count Mannsfeld, Agriculture (May, 1875); J. Unger (November, 1871) and Florian Ziemialkowski (April, 1873), ministers without portfolio.
Area of the monarchy, 240,348 square miles; population, according to the census of 1860, 35,901,435. The area of cis-Leithan Austria (the land represented in the Reichsrath) is 115,908 square miles; population, at the end of
1874, officially estimated at 21,169,341. The counted for by wars with other tribes, or with ber 31, 1869, by adding the average percentage
estimate is based upon the census of Decemthe whites, for the Narringerie have been of increase.' It was distributed among the difaffected more by civilization than any other
ferent crown-lands as follows:
1,164,512 mined that the largest ratio of deaths and the smallest of births are to be found among
468,065 those blacks who have definitely settled. In
212,349 the entire native population of South Austra
787,494 lia, as far as could be determined, 140 deaths
103,841 and 52 births were counted in 1875, making an excess of deaths of 88. The measles and the
544,459 small-pox, which they have received from the
5,827,798 whites, constitute a great danger to them.
460,827 But their greatest scourge is consumption, to which more than one-half of their deaths
21,169,311 must be attributed. On the other hand, fevers are entirely unknown to them; although, in the enumeration of April 17, 1875, was 1,001,
The civil population of Vienna, according to contact with the whites, they are often ex
999 persons. posed to scarlet fever, no such case has ever
Dr. A. Ficker estimates the distribution of been reported among them. Over the whole the different nationalities for 1876 as follows: territory of the colony numerous depots have been established, which furnish the sick na
Hungary. tives medicine and other assistance. The med
7,800,000 1,800,000 9,600,000 icine, however, helps them but little, for they Czechs, Moravians, and Sloeither refuse to take it, or after its use they do
5,000,000 2,000,000 7,000,000 not observe the necessary care.
2,600,000 600,000 3,200,000 Poles.
2,500,000 AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY, an Croats and Servians.
580,000 2,570,000 8,150,000 empire in Central Europe. Emperor, Francis Slovens...
1,190,000 60,000 1,250,000 Magyars..
5,680,000 5,700,000 Joseph I., born August 18, 1830; succeeded Roumanians..
200,000 2,800,000 3,000,000 his unclo, the Emperor Ferdinand I., on De- Italians.. cember 2, 1848. Heir-apparent to the throne, Gypsies..
160,000 Archduke Rudolphus, born August 21, 1858. Bulgarians.
80,000 The ministry for the common affairs of the Armenians. empire consisted, toward the close of the year Greeks.
8,300 1876, of Count Andrassy, Minister of Foreign Others...
15,000 7,100 22,100
Inhabitants in 1874.
3,000 590.000 159,000 80,000 5,000 2,100 1.000
Croats, 354 Italians, 129 Roumanians, 396 Magyars, and 111 spoke other languages.
The periodical press of Austria, in 1874, was
344 Journals for political econ
108 omy.. 81 In Polish.
47 Agricultural journals. 53 In Ruthenian.
8 Industrial and technical In Slovenian
18 journals 47 In Servo-Croatian..
3 Military and nautical In Italian...
10 In German and Czechic.. 6 Journals for medicine and In Italian and Servo-Cro
the natural sciences... 28 atian.
2 Theological and religious In Greek..
26 In Hebrew (or with HeJournals for pedagogy,
11 stenography, and for 63 Total.......
810 Historical and literary journals
8. ACCORDING TO THE MODE Journals for theatre, mu
OF PUBLICATION. sic, art, fashion, sport, Dailies.. etc.. 87 Four times a week..
2 Journals of fiction and Tri-weeklies.
20 humor.. 59 Semi-weeklies...
55 Non-political local papers. 62 Weeklies.....
267 Cominercial and other ad Tri-monthlies.
81 vertising papers..... 88 Semi-monthlies.
810 Four to ten times per annum...
6 Technical institutions.
7 Agricultural and mining highschools.
4 Commercial academies.
4 At high-schools
1 Theological schools.
45 Superior schools......
67 Gymnasia, sub-gymnasia, real
gymnasia, real-schools, and subreal-schools..
229 Training - schools for male..
42 teachers.... female... 28 Secondary schools...
299 Schools of midwifery.
14 Nautical schools..
4 Commercial schools. Industrial schools.
186 Schools of art and music..
171 Schools of agriculture and forestry 69 Mining schools...
6 Philological schools..
69 Schools for gymnastics.
20 Female work-schools..
169 Other special schools..
885 Special schools....
1,089 Burgher and people's schools
(Bürger- und Volksschulen).... 15,166
209 587 881 614 918 1,885 8,810
Czernovitz Cracow Gratz,.. Innspruck Lemberg
According to the common budget of the Prague
whole empire for the year 1877, the amount Vienna
required for the ordinary branches of adminisTotal.
8,904 tration was 117,091,389 florins. The receipts
for the same branches were estimated at 5,779,Of the total number of students, 7,620 were 730 forins, the receipts from customs at 11,ordinary and 1,281 extraordinary ; 7,432 were 000,000 florins, leaving 100,311,659 florins to Austrians, and 1,469 foreigners. Of the latter, be distributed among Austria and Hungary. 1,055 were from Hungary, 144 from Germany, Of this amount, 2,006,233 florins were to come 35 from Switzerland, 53 from Italy, 2 from from the Treasury of Hungary, as a part of the Belgium, 1 from the Netherlands, 8 from Great Military Frontier had been placed under civili Britain, 66 from Russia, 12 from Turkey, 16 government during the year; and of the balfrom Servia, 8 from Greece, 54 from Rouma ance Austria contributed seventy per cent. and nia, 3 from Asia, 13 from America, and 1 from Hungary thirty per cent. The common debt Australia. According to the language, 4,162 of the empire on January 1, 1876, amounted were Germans, 1,540 Czechs, 1,338 Poles, 454 to 411,999,941 florins. The budget of Austria Ruthenians, 194 Slovenians, 223 Servians and proper, for 1876, was as follows (in florins):