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LOUGH, JOAN GRAHAM, a British sculptor, proposed to do away with the Returning Board born about 1805 ; died April 9, 1876. In contrivance, and impose upon the Secretary of early life he was a plongh boy in Northumber- State the duty of consolidating the returns reland, where accidentally his artistic taste be- ceived from the clerks of the district courte came known to a neighboring gentleman, who and make an official report of the vote to the assisted him to obtain a suitable education. He Governor, who shouldproclaim the result. came up to London, made the Elgin Marbles This act passed the House, and a counter-move. in the British Museum his study, and became ment was made in the Senate, through another an exhibitor at the Royal Academy in 1826. election bill, making some changes in the law, In the following year he produced a statue but retaining the Returning Board feature, of Milo, which, together with a companion- three of the members of the Board to be statue, “Samson,” was purchased by the Duke elected by the Senate and two by the House of of Wellington. He afterward spent four years Representatives. Neither House would agree in Rome. In 1845 he executed the statue of to the bill passed by the other, and a conferPrince Albert, for Lloyd's. He was also com ence committee failed to devise any measure missioned in the first instance to execute the acceptable to both, so that no change was lions for the Nelson Monument in Trafalgar made in the existing law. Square,
LOUISIANA. The regular session of the Louisiana Legislature began on the 3d of January, and came to a close on the 2d of March. Lieutenant-Governor Antoine presided in the Senate, and Mr. Estilette was Speaker of the House. On the 11th of January a motion was made, in the House, to proceed to the election of a United States Senator. A protest was made by several Republican members, on the ground that P. B. S. Pinchback had been duly elected in 1873, and no vacancy existed. A vote was, nevertheless, taken, most of the Republicans refusing to take part in the election, ang J. B. Eustis received 61 votes out of the 63 cast. He was subsequently chosen Senator in joint convention of the two Houses, and a petition was sent to the Senate of the United States by three Republican members of the Legislature, praying that Mr. Eustis be admitted to a seat in that body, and setting forth Among the acts passed during the session their reasons for participating in the election. was one apportioning the representation in the Chief among these was that the seat had been Legislature among the various districts of the virtually refused to Mr. Pinchback, and a va- State, and one submitting several amendments cancy existed, which it was for the interest of to the constitution. The first amendment limits the State to have filled.
the expenses of the General Assembly to $175,The legislation of the session was not so im- 000 per year, and fixes the salary of the memportant for what was done as for what was bers of the Legislature at $5 a day, and their attempted by the House and defeated by the mileage at twenty cents a mile; the second Senate. Several important measures looking provides that all bills must be signed by tho to a reduction of expenses and a reform of Governor five days after their reception by abuses originated in the lower branch and failed him during the session, or become laws; and to pass the upper. The most important sub- that all bills not signed by him twenty days ject discussed was the regulation of elections. after the session shall become laws; the third A strong effort was made in the House to re abolishes the parish judges, and confers their place the old election law with a new one. A jurisdiction on the district judges; the fourth bill for the purpose was reported, with the fol- reduces the salary of the Governor from $8,000 lowing descriptive title:
to $6,000 a year; the fifth prohibits the taking An act to provide for the time, manner, and place of any fees by the Auditor of State, State of bolding elections in this State ; to provide for Treasurer, Attorney-General of the State, or the appointment of commissioners of election, and any district attorney. directing the mode of counting and of compiling the A joint resolution was adopted asking gov. votes, and making the returns of the election, and ernment aid for the Texas Pacific Railroad. directing the promulgating of the results of elections; to provide penalties for intimidation and vio
Judge Jacob Hawkins, of the Superior Dislence at the polls, and other attempts to prevent a
trict Court of the parish of Orleans, was refair, free, and peaceable election ; to provide pro- moved from office by an address of the two ceedings for contest for office, and to repeal all other Houses directing the Governor to make the relaws inconsistent with this act.
moval, for incompetency and arbitrary conIt was very stringent in its provisions, but duct. The committee reporting the address
VOL. XVI.—31 A
based their action on twenty-eight allegations, into the charges or taking any evidence, or even showing unfitness for the position.
allowing the Governor to appear in person or A report was made about the widdle of Feb- by counsel before the committee. The majorruary by the House committee appointed at ity report was adopted on the 28th by a vote the extra session of 1875, to examine into the of 61 to 45, and a committee was at once apaccounts of the Auditor and Treasurer. In this pointed to prepare articles of impeachment, and it was stated that at different times in 1874 to notify the Senate of the proceedings. Noand 1875 sums amounting in the aggregate to tice was given to the Senate the same evening, $198,417.31 had been drawn from the interest- and that body immediately resolved itself into fund without warrant. These were mostly a High Court of Impeachment, Chief-Justice advances for police expenses, and were re- Ludeling presiding. A resolution was adopted, stored to the fund, so that the State suffered by a vote of 23 to 9, notifying the House that no loss. The committee declared that Antoine the Senate was ready to proceed with the trial, Dubuclet, the Treasurer, was less guilty in the and would allow until 7 P. M., it being then violations of law that had been committed than after six, for the preparation and presentation " William Pitt Kellogg, the originator of the of charges. None being made before that hour, whole scheme—than Jacob Hawkins, the Judge an order was adopted, by a vote of 25 to 9, of the Superior District Court of Orleans, who dismissing the impeachment, and declaring that used his influence to encourage the nefarious such action amounted to an acquittal. The deed—than Henry O. Dibble, the then acting reasons given were: “Because the committee Attorney-General, who advised the unlawful appointed to investigate Governor Kellogg react, when he should have guarded the interests fused to give him the right of appearing at of the State-less guilty than J. H. Oglesby, their deliberations; that they furnished no list the Fiscal Agent of the Metropolitan Board of of witnesses; that the impeachment was Police, and president of the bank, the deposi- prompted by revolutionary and partisan purtary of the State funds, who lent his official poses; that it was in violation of the Wheeler aid to a diversion of funds, of which he was compromise; that it is known to the Senate the keeper under the law, and, as it will ap- that Governor Kellogg's official acts were not pear, received a pecuniary compensation of unlawful; that the House had adjourned be$6,696.67, for interest and commission on a fore a notification could be given that the Senloan made out of State funds by the State ate was ready to proceed to trial, and that Treasurer.” The report closed with a recom such adjournment was for the purpose of obmendation that Governor Kellogg and Treas- structing the trial, and preventing the Senate urer Dubuclet be impeached, that Assistant from proceeding with it; and, finally, that the Attorney-General H. C. Dibble be“ addressed impeachment articles contained no specific out of office," and that criminal proceedings charges.” be instituted against Alfred Shaw and J. H. The following protest was made by several Oglesby.
Senators, but the Senate, by a vote of 21 to 13, On the 25th of February a resolution was refused to allow it to be read or entered upon adopted in the House, providing for the ap- the minutes: pointment of a committee of seven, to ex That not an hour was given to the House of Repreamine and ascertain charges against W. P. sentatives to prepare specified articles of impeachKellogg, and, if there are any, to so report, ment.. That the managers of the House of Reprewith a view to impeachment.” The committee sentatives were not recognized by the court. That
every motion to close the doors and deliberate upon was immediately appointed. A majority re
the important questions submitted was voted down. ported on the 27th that Governor Kellogg had That the order of acquittal has been declared withbeen “guilty of many and divers high crimes out giving the prosecution an opportunity to be and misdemeanors in office against the laws, heard, without any evidence adduced, without any the constitution, and the people of the State of deliberation or discussion, and is calculated to en
courage the commission of high crimes and misdeLouisiana,” subsequent to the 14th of April, meanors by public officials, and by this unauthorized 1875, at which time it had been agreed by the impunity from trial offers a premium to publio of: “Wheeler compromise" that he should not be fenders. disturbed for any previous official misconduct. The Chief Justice then formally declared The principal offense charged was procuring a Kellogg acquitted, and the court adjourned withdrawal from the Treasury of money set sine die. Notwithstanding this action, the apart for the payment of interest, and using committee of the House prepared fourteen it for other purposes. The report concluded articles of impeachment, and submitted them with a resolution impeaching William P. Kel- on the 1st of March, when they were adopted logg, "acting Governor of the State of Louis- by the House. On the 2d of March, the last iana,” for high crimes and misdemeanors, and day of the session, the committee made a redirecting the appointment of a committee of port, reciting the facts and circumstances of five to prepare articles of impeaclıment. . A the case, and submitting the following resominority of the committee of seven, consisting lutions, which, with the report itself, were of two members, submitted a report protesting adopted by a vote of 54 to 37: against the action of the majority in reporting Resolved by the House of Representatives, That the resolutions of impeachment, without examining Senate, by its partisan and arbitrary conduct, has
deprived the people of the State of an opportunity of the records of the State, even hy going behind of bringing to trial the Chief Magistrate of the State, the barrier of the Wheeler adjustment. charged with high crimes and misdemeanors, and Only one other accusation has been made against with criminal neglect and violation of his official me, namely, that in a time of revolution, of great duty.
public exigency, I sanctioned a temporary diversion Resolved, That the members of the Senate, having of the State funds, which could not and did not reformed and expressed their opinion that the said sult in the loss of a dollar to the State, and took this accused is entirely innocent, are disqualified from course solely in the public interest, and to protect now sitting in judgment on the trial of the impeach- the property of the city. ment, and that this House can proceed no further If the Senate had not already acquitted me of high in the premises, and are powerless to resent this fla- crimes and inisdemeanors, the accusations passed at grant outrage upon right, justice, and decency, and this late hour would bave formed in themselves a can only refer the matter to the people of the State complete assertion of my official rectitude. Added for their consideration.
to this, I refer to the notoriously and often-repeated
propositions made by Democratic members of the The same day Governor Kellogg sent a mes- Legislature, and others authorized to speak for them, sage to the House, replying to the several that if I would secure the passage by the Senate of charges contained in the fourteen articles of the House election bill
, and certain other laws to impeachment, and concluding as follows:
further the partisan ends of my accusers, no effort
would be made to impeach me. In these fourteen frivolous accusations are concen I submit that these facts of themselves fully justrated all charges of wrong-doing which a majority tify me in asserting that my accusers did not and do of the House of Representatives, actuated by the
not believe me to have been guilty of high crimes strongest feelings of partisan enmity, have been able and misdemeanors against the State. to concoct against me after fifty-nine days' session, innumerable investigations, and the utmost scrutiny The delegates of the Democratic party of
the State to the National Convention at St. but all the means in their power will be employed to Louis were appointed at the convention held defeat the further rule of the vicious and ignorant in in New Orleans, on the 5th of January. (For cating these demands, and this committee, as their
this State. Happily, the people are united in advothe platform and other proceedings, see ANNUAL organ, promises an earnest canvass to secure their CYCLOPÆDIA, 1875.) The State Central Com- rights. What remains to be done, is the perfection mittee, which was chosen at the same time, of the Democratic Conservative organization in all had a meeting on the 10th of February, and parishes of the State where action has not been
taken. issued an address to the people. The following extract illustrates the spirit with which the The following resolution was also adopted canvass was opened:
by the committee: The time for decisive action has arrived. The Whereas, It is apparent that the radical party in issues are few in number, and simple in their char- the State of Louisiana, despairing of success by fair acter. The course is plain and straightforward. means, have resolved to pursue the same policy by There must be an honest government in Louisiana- which in the past they have been enabled, against a State the fairest among all her sisters-or Louisi- the wishes and voice of a majority of the people, to ana, burdened with debt, exhausted by taxation, and secure possession of the government of the State, suffering from the supremacy of ignorance over in- and by the aid of Federal bayonets to retain the telligence, will become a colony for convicts and the possession thus fraudulently and violently obtained; home of depravity. The people, for whom this andcommittee speaks, are resolved, in this centennial of Whereas, It is evident that they have determined their liberties, to test the relative strength of intelli- at every cost to perpetuate the Returning Board, gence and ignorance. They will use no violence, which has heretofore done so much to render futile
our victories at the ballot-box, and to destroy the enactment of such additional laws, and the enforceliberties of the people: therefore, be it
ment of such a policy, as shall secure to every citizen Resolved, That the Central Executive Committee of the United States, in fact as well as in name, the of the Democratic Conservative party of the State inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of of Louisiana earnestly urges upon the Democratic happiness, irrespective of his political views, and and Conservative members of the Legislature to ex- irrespective of race, color, or previous condition of haust every means in their power to prevent such an servitude. outrage upon the people of the State as the passage of an election bill containing any provision estab
The Republican Convention for the nominalishing a Returning Board with unliinited power, or
tion of candidates for State offices began at with any power which will enable them to defeat New Orleans on Tuesday, June 27th. There the will of the people as expressed at the ballot were two prominent factions, and a permanent box.
organization was not effected until the followThe Republican Convention for the nomina- ing Saturday, when P. B. S. Pinchback was tion of delegates to the National Convention chosen president. On the same day a platat Cincinnati was held at New Orleans on the form was adopted, consisting of the following 30th and 31st of May. W. P. Kellogg, P. B. statements, and a reaffirmation of the princiS. Pinchback, S. B. Packard, and W. G. Brown, ples declared at the previous convention: were the delegates at large. The platform, 1. The Republican party of Louisiana, in convenafter alluding to the achievements of the Re- tion assembled, reaffirm the tenets and principles publican party, and pledging coöperation in of the national Republican party as declared from support of its principles, submitted the follow- time to time, and especially as enunciated in the
platform adopted at the National Convention held ing measures of national policy:
at Cincinnati, June 14, 1876. We particularly com1. The nomination of a candidate for the presi- mend and indorse the declaration that the United dency whose personal character will afford a guaran States of America is a nation and not a league, and tee of an honest, able, economical, and effective that upon the nation devolves the duty of protectadministration of the national Government upon ing the citizens of the United States in all their Republican principles.
rights, at home and abroad; thus maintaining fully 2. A system of Federal finance which will insure the Constitution of the United States and the amendthe collection of the revenues, punish all official or ments thereto. other frauds upon the Treasury, and bring about a 2. We hail the nomination of Governor Rutherford steady, speedy, and permanent return to the pay- B. Hayes with pleasure and pride, believing that in ment of specie into and out of the Treasury in ail his elevation to the presidency the country will Federal transactions.
secure an Administration which will inaintain the 3. A system of revenue, taxation, and assessment rights of all classes of citizens of the republic, and which, while it shall provide ample means to meet which will administer the government economically the public expenditures and obligations, shall assume and execute the laws faithfully. We are not less the protection of certain national interests against gratified at the nomination for Vice-President of the destructive competition of foreign productions, William A. Wheeler, whose reputation as a Repubcspecially insisting that the capital and labor em lican and character as a statesman are national. In ployed in the production of the national staples of our ticket we see a guarantee of success. We insugar and rice should be included among any articles dorse and ratify it. entitled to such protection.
3. The Republican party of Louisiana are in full 4. The just apportionment of Federal appropria- accord with the national Republican party upon all tions for national works of internal improvement. financial questions as declared in the Cincinnati Taking into account the immense advances received platform; and we believe that during the Adminisby our more fortunate sister States during the period tration of President Hayes a resumption of specie when Democratic domination denied to the Southern payment can be effected through a return to general States their just share of the common fund, such a commercial and productive prosperity throughout measure of equalization would justify national aid the Union. to a Southwestern Pacific Railroad and branches, to the protection by levees of the capital and labor
Two more days were occupied in making employed in the culture of cotton, sugar, and rice, nominations and agreeing upon a State Central and to the effectual navigation of the Mississippi Committee. The ticket for State officers finalRiver, its principal tributaries, and its outlet.
ly accepted was: For Governor, S. B. Packard; Resolutions were also adopted declaring that for Lieutenant-Governor, C. C. Antoine; for the delegates to the National Convention Secretary of State, Emile Honoré; for Auditor, should be left untrammeled in their action, ex- George B. Johnson; for Attorney-General, W. pressing approval of the Administration of H. Hunt; for Superintendent of Education, President Grant, and declaring the Hon. O.P. W, G. Brown. The candidates for presidenMorton was “entitled to the warm gratitude tial electors were: J. H. Burch, William P. of the Republicans of all the Southern States, Kellogg, at large; and L. A. Sheldon, Peter and especially of Louisiana.” Opposition was Joseph, Morris Marks, A. B. Levissée, o. H. declared to the Hawaiian treaty, and the fol- Brewster, and Oscar Joffrion, from the dislowing was also among the resolutions adopted: tricts. P. B. S. Pinchback was made chairman
Resolved, That the assassination of many hundreds of the State Central Committee. of prominent Union men in the South on account of
The Democratic nominating convention was their political principles, the massacre of thousands held at Baton Rouge, beginning on the 24th of inoffensive colored citizens, the relegation of of July, and continuing four days. The report nearly all the Southern States to the control of the of the Committee on Credentials was not made disloyal elements whose treason hrought about the until the third day, and then organization was composed of ex-leaders of the Confederate army, promptly effected, and the following platform indiente grave national dangers, which demand the adopted:
We, the representatives of the Democratic Con- Orleans; for Attorney-General, H. N. Ogden, servative party of the State of Louisiana, in convention assembled, do hereby declare administrative
of Orleans; for Secretary of State, William A. and political reform to be the paramount issue in the Strong, of Winn; for Auditor, Allen Jumel, coming general election, and we earnestly appeal to of Iberville; for Superintendent of Public Edour fellow-citizens, of every former political associa- ucation, Robert M. Lusher, of Orleans. The tion of white and colored, to zealously coöperate candidates for electors were: John McEnery with us in our pronounced effort to effect such reforin.
and R. C. Wickliffe, at large, and Louis St. We arraign the radical party of Louisiana for Martin, Felix P. Poché, Alcibiade De Blanc, marked and frequent violations of the letter and W. A. Seay, R. G. Cobb, and K. A. Cross, froin spirit of the Constitution; for the assumption of il- the districts. licit powers for the benefit of party, and to the great injury and almost total ruin of the State; for fomento considerable excitement, was generally free
The political canvass, though attended with ing dissensions between the races and deliberately exciting strite and turinoil, thereby cruelly sucrificing from disorder and exhibitions of violence. the lives of colored and white citizens, with the in. There had been some political trouble early in tent of procuring unwarranted and uuconstitutional the year in the parishes of East Baton Rouge interference in our State affairs. We denounce the usurpative and bad government
and East Feliciana, but it was of a purely local which Louisiana has suffered for the last four years, character, pertaining to alleged misconduct in a usurpation under which officers elected by the parish offices. In East Feliciana a mass-meetpeople have been displaced, the government arbitra- ing was held in January, in which both white rily overthrown by Federal power, the Legislature and colored citizens took part, and resolutions invaded and dispersed by bayonets in time of profound peace; and such violent and unlawful inter
were adopted declaring that great good had ference adds but another to the long list of crimes been done in "ridding the parish of malicious, for which the Republican party should be held to ignorant, and corrupt officers," and pledging account in November next. We hereby proclaim that it is our desire and fixed in the maintenance of peace, law, and good
support to all “fair-minded, competent officers purpose under any and every provocation to have a fair and peaceable election; but we demand and will
order.” The “malicious, ignorant, and corinsist that there shall be no violence or intimidation rupt officers ” alluded to appear to have been exercised toward such of our colored fellow-citizens driven out of the parish by organizations called as may wish to coöperate with us for the redemption "regulators.” In East Baton Rouge, in March, of the State from misrule. We fully recognize the binding effect of the three
the sheriff, the parish judge, and tax-collector, recent articles of amendment to the Constitution of
were called upon to resign, and a petition was the United States, and accept the same as a final set
addressed to Governor Kellogg asking him to tlement of the controversies that engendered civil accept their resignations. The proceedings war, and we pledge ourselves to protect every citizen were taken in a public meeting, in which colin the exercise of the rights acquired and guaranteed ored citizens took part. Governor Kellogg by said amendments, whatever be his race, color, or previous condition.
wrote to the District Attorney, under date of We hereby pledge our party to the satisfaction of March 28th, calling his attention to combinaall the legal obligations issued by the State of Louisi- tions of lawless persons to displace the civil ana; to the most strenuous efforts in the direction authorities of the parish, and requesting him of reform and an economical administration of the toinstitute proceedings against those concerned government, and especially to the abolition of all unnecessary public officers; to the reduction of the fees
in the “recent unlawful disturbances in the and salaries of offices; to the standard of a fair re- city of Baton Rouge.” The District Attorney muneration and the consequent reduction of taxation replied that he knew of no combination of to the lowest possible limit commensurate with the lawless persons; that the action of citizens had necessary expenses of the government and the pres- been taken in public meeting, and was charervation of the public faith, and to the curtailment of the dangerously-large patronage of the chief Ex- acterized by calmness and deprecation of vioecutive of the State.
lence; and that the officials had been induced We declare ourselves in favor of the passage of to resign peaceably and without the violation the Texas Pacific Railroad bill, now pending before of any law. Congress, and recommend our members of Congress to advocate its passage at an early date.
Early in May two men were shot by a masked We advocate the fostering of the public schools assassin at Coushatta, and on the 17th of June for the benefit of all the educatable children of the there was a riot at Port Hudson, which State, and that equal advantage be given to all chil- shots were fired, but these occurrences appear dren, colored as well as white.
We cordially approve of and indorse the platform to have had no political significance. There of the national Democratic party, recently assembled
was a slight outbreak of race antagonism at in convention at St. Louis, and feel inspired with the Monroe, and through the surrounding country, hope of a better government in the future; but the about the last of August. There was a gathergreat question of reform is brought before the people ing of armed negroes and threats of burning of the whole country by a great national party, and the town, but finally the negroes were induced we pledge ourselves to use our utmost efforts to secure the success of those great exponents of national re
to disperse, and there was no serious disorder. form, Samuel J. Tilden and Thomas A. Hendricks. Generally throughout the political canvass the
Conservatives pursued the policy of endeavorOn the fourth day the nominations were ing to prevent any compromise of their claims made, the State ticket being as follows: For through violence and disorder, and of securing Governor, Francis T. Nicholls, of Assumption; the coöperation, so far as possible, of colored for Lieutenant-Governor, Louis A. Wiltz, of citizens. Negro voters were in many places